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ANNALS ,,,^ - 



New York Academy of Sciences, 



LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



VOLUME VII. 



1892-1894. 



NEW YORK : 
PUBLISHED BY THE ACADEMY. 



5^^.7 3 

.N 



ANNALS 



NEW YOKE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 






CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII, 



BY THOS. L. CASEY. 

PAGE. 

Art.J^III. — Coleopterological Notices V 281 

BY GAEL H. EIGENMAN:^^. 

Art..V. — Notes on some South American Fishes 625 

BY CAEL H. EIGENMANN AND WILLIAM L. BEAY. 

Art. IV. — A Eevision of the American Cichlidse 607 

BY J. F. KEMP AND AETHUE HOLLICK. 

Art. VI. — The Granite at Mounts Adam and Eve, Warwick, Orange 

County, N. Y., and its Contact Phenomena 638 

BY THOMAS MOEONG AND N. L. BEITTON. 

Art. II. — An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Thomas 

Morong in Paraguay, 1888-1890 45 

BY C. H. TYLEE TOWNSEND. 

Art I. — Catalogue of the described South American species of Calyptrate 

Muscidse . 1 



Note. — For descriptive references to the three plates which accompany the 
present volume, see page 605, and Art. VI., page 638. 



OFFICEES OF THE ACADEMY. 
1893. 



PRESIDENT. 
H. CARRINGTON BOLTON. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
J. A. ALLEN, HENRY F. OSBORN. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 
THOS. L. CASEY. 



RECORDING SECRETARY. 
N. L. BRITTON. 



TREASURER. 
CHAS. F. COX. 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 
J. A. ALLEN, N. L. BRITTON, 

HAROLD JACOBY, H. F. OSBORN, 

THOS. L. CASEY, Editor of Annals. 



ANNALS 



OF THE 



NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 

VOLUME VII. 



I. — Catalogue of the described South American Species of 
Calyptrate Muscidse, 

BY C. H. TYLER TOWNSEND. 
Eead June 6, 1892. 

The present catalogue is offered in the hope that it will materially 
facilitate the study, in this countr}^, of the South American Calyp- 
trate Muscidse. Though it doubtless contains much synonymy, 
which it is impossible to clear up at the present time, it will never- 
theless serve as a valuable basis for future study of the group. 
Much time has been spent in its preparation, and the references 
have been carefully compared. Most of the synonymy advanced by 
various authors has been included, so far as met with. With the 
quite extensive literature which has been at the writer's command, 
it is hoped that the catalogue will be found almost complete up to 
the present time. For obvious reasons, most of the new genera of 
Brauer and von Bergenstamm, belonging to South America, are in- 
cluded and made to embrace the species referred to them, since these 
authors have critically examined many of the older types and their 
decisions will have much value in the final placing of the species. 
So far as possible, a certain natural (?) order has been observed in 
the sequence of the genera. It is possible, however, that in some 
cases even the family position of a genus may be misconceived, 
owing to a more or less incomplete understanding of many of the 
recent genera. 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dec. 1892.— 1 



2 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 

At the end will be found a list of the titles in full which the 
writer has personally examined in the preparation of the catalogue, 
and from which all the specific references herein contained have been 
gathered. 



«3 

Fam. OESTRIDAE. 

Gen. OESTRUS. 
Linn., Faun. Suec. 1730. (1761). 

ovis L., Fab., Latr., Oliv., et al. Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 151, pi. 3, f. 1, pi. 6, 
f. 1, pi. 7, f. 10.— Brazil, Chili (Br.). 

Gen. COL AX. 
Wied., Anal. Ent. 17. Aus. Zw. ii, ^60. (1824). 

macula Wd., Analect. Ent. 18, f. 8. Aus. Zw. ii, 261, pi. 9, f. 11. Mcq., Hist. 
]^at. ii, 52.— Brazil (Wd. Mcq.). 

Gen. CTENOSTYLUM. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 167. (1850). 

rufum Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 168, pi. 25, f. 1. Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 52. — 
Amazon River (Br. Mcq.). 

Gen. CEPHENOMYIA. 

Latreille, Fam. Natur. (1825). 

grandis Guer., Icon. An. 547. Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 213. — Patagonia (Br.). 

Gen. CUTEREBRA. 
Clark, Essay on Bots. (1815). 

analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 22, pi. 2, f. 5. J0I7, Rech. Oestr. 278, f. Brauer, 

Mon. Oestr. 237, pl. 4, f. 1, pi. 6, f. 8. v. d. Wulp, Biol. C.-A. Dipt. 

ii, 2, — Brazil (Br. Mcq.); Mexico (Br.); Costa Rica, Panama (v. d. W.). 
cayennensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 23. Joly, Rech. Oestr. 289. Brauer, Mon. 

Oestr. 240.— Cayenne (Br. Mcq.). 
ephippium Latr., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxiii, 271. Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 48. 

Joly, Rech. Oestr. 278. Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 235. — Cayenne (Mcq.). 
megastoma Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 247, pl. 4, f. 5, pl. 6, f. 12. — So. Amer. 
patagona Guer., Icon, An. 547. Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 246. — Patagonia (Br.), 
rufiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 21, pl. 2, f. 4. Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 245.— 

Para (Br. Mcq.). 

Gen. DERMATOBIA. 

Brauer, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien. x. (1860). 

cyaneiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 23 (Cuterebra). Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 266. 
Sch. Novara. 338. Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 91.— So. Amer. (Sch.) ; 
Brazil (Br. Mcq.). 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidde. 3 

noxialis Goud., Ann. Sc. Nat. 3 ser. iii, 229 (Cuterehra). Brauer, Mon. Oestr. 
266, pi. 4, f. 7, pi. 6, f. 13, pi. 10, f. 1.— Colombia (Goud. Br.) ; Baliia 
(Br.); Centr. Am. 

Gen. ROGENHOFERA. 

Brauer, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien. xiii. (1863). 

trigonophora Brauer, Zool. Bot. Ges. xiii. Mon. Oestr. 217, pi. 4, f. 8, pi. 6, 
f. 14, pi. 10, f. 5. Br. Bgst., Mus. Sch. i, 91.— Baliia (Br.). 

Fam. PHASIIDAE. 

Gen. TRICHOPODA. 

Latr. in Cuvier, Regne Anim. v, 512. (1829). 

apicalis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 271. — Brazil. 

arcuata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1876, 397.— Chili. 

bicolor Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1876, 395. — Buenos Ayres. 

ciliata Fab., Syst. Ant. 315 {Ocyptera). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 273. Mcq., Dipt. 

Ex. ii, 3, 77, pi. 9, f. 1.— So. Amer. (Fab. Wd.) ; Carolina (Mcq.). 
Note.— This is supposed to be the 9 of T. pennipes. 
decisa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 259. — Amazon River. 
gradata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 275. — Brazil. 
inccnstans Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 270. — Brazil, 
lateralis Wlk., List, 697.— Brazil. 
luteipennis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 279. — Brazil, 
melanopus Rob. Desv., Myod. 284. — Brazil. 
nigripennis Big., An. Soc. Ent. F. 1876, 396. — Buenos Ayres. 
obscura Big., An. Soc, Ent. F. 1876, 399. — Buenos Ayres. 
pennipes Fab,, Ent. Syst. iv, 348 {Musca). Syst. Ant. 327 {Dictya). Wd., 

Aus. Zw. ii, 274. Br. Bgst,, Mus. Sch. i, 79. R. D., Myod. 288. v. d. 

W., Amer, Dipt, iii, 15. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 3.— Brazil (B. B., Willist. 

in litt. ) ; Argentine Rep., Mexico (v. d. W.) ; U. S. 
Syn. Phasia jugatoria Say, Jour. Ac. Phil., vi, 172. Compl. Wr. ii, 364, 
pictipennis Big,, An. Soc. Ent. F. 1876, 398. — So. Amer. 
pilipes Fab., Syst. Ant. 220 ( Thereva). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 272. Perty. Delect. 

an. Brasil. 186, pi. 37, f. 5.— So. Amer. (Fab. Wd.) ; Bahia (Pty.). 
pyrrhogaster Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 272, v. Roder., Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1885, 344. 

V. d. Wulp., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 3,—? So. Amer. (Wd.) ; Porto Rico (v. 

Riid.) ; Guatemala (v. d. W.); Cuba; Texas (H. Lw.). 
Note. — T. haiiensis R. D. is supposed to be a synonym of this species. 
subcilipes Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 77, pi. 9, f. 2.— Guiana. 
umbra Wlk., List, 698. — Venezuela. 

Gen. BIBIOMIMA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 80. (1889). 

handlirschl Br. Bgst., Mus. Sch. i, 80, 103.— Brazil, 



4 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidae. 

Gen. HYALOMYIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myodaires, 298. (1830). 

chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 216, pi. 20, f. 4.— Chili. 
freyreisii Wd., A us. Zw. ii, 263 {Phasia). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 78, pi. 9, 
f. 4.— Brazil. 

Gen. ALOPHORA. 
Rob. Desv., Myodaires, 293. (1830). 

micans v. d. Wulp., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 14. — Argentine Rep. 

Fam. OCYPTERIDAE. 

Gen. ICELIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 224. (1830). 

brasiliensis R. D., Myod. 224.— Brazil, 
flavescens R. D., Myod. 224. — Brazil. 

Gen. OCYPTERA. 

Latr. Hist. Nat. Ins. et Crust, xiv, 378. (1804). 

apicalis Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1878, 45.— Chili. 
dorsalis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 264. — Brazil, 
nigrina v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 15. — Argentine Rep. 
obscura Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1878, 44. — Brazil. 
similis R. D., Myod. 230. — Brazil. 

Gen. HERMYA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 226. (1830). 

afra R. D., Myod. 227.— Brazil. 

Gen. GLOSSIDIONOPHORA, 

Bigot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 11 Mch. (1885). 

nigra Big., Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 11 Mch. — Buenos Ayres. 

Fam. PHANIIDAE. 

Gen. PHANIA. 
Meigen, Syst. Beschr. iv, 218. (1824). 

simillima Fab., Syst. Ant. 313 {Ocyptera). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 267. — So. Amer. 
(Fab. Wd.). 



South American Species of Calyptrate Mascidm. 5 

Fam. TACHINIDAE. 

Gen. DEJEANIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myodaires, 33. (1830). 

argyropus Scli., Novara, 337. — So. Amer. 

armata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 287 (Tachina). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sap. iv, 168, pi. 15, 

f. 7. Sch., Novara, 337. Br. Bgst., Mas. Sch. i, 64, f. 233. v. d. W., 

Amer. Dipt, iii, 17. — Brazil (Sch. Mcq.); Montevideo (v. d. W.); Caba 

(Wd.). 
canescens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 143, pi. 12, f. 1. — Colombia. 
corpulenta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 280 {Tachina). v. d. Wulp., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 

16. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 9, pi. 1, f. 4.— Bogota (v. d. W.); Mexico (Wd. 

Mcq.); Colo. (0. S.); New Mex., Arizona, Costa Rica, Panama (v. d. W.). 
Syn. D. rujipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 35, pi. 3, f. 1. 
Syn. D. venatrix 0. S., West. Dipt. 348. 
honesta Rdi., Dipt. Am. iEq. Osculati (Nu. An. Sc. Nat. Bolog. 1850), 6.~Rio 

Napo. 
pallida R. D., Dipt. env. Paris, i, 653. Sch., Novara, 337.— So. Amer. (Sch.). 
pallipes Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 34, pi. 2, f. 9, Sup. i, 143. Sch., Novara, 337. 

V. d. Wulp., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 16. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 8, pi. 1, ff. 1, la, 

lb. — So. Amer. (Sch.); Bogota (Mcq., v. d. W.); Costa Rica; Panama 

(v. d.W.). 
plumitarsis v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 16. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 10, pi. 1, ff. 

5a, 5b. — -So. Amer. (Sch.); Bogota (Mcq.); Mexico; Gruatemala ; Costa 

Rica (v. d.W.). 
Syn. D. corpulenta Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 35. Sap. i, 143, pi. 12, f. 2. Sch., 

Novara, 337. Echinomyia corpulenta Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 77. 
podiceria Rdi., Dipt. Exot. 17, f. 14. — Equatorial America. 

Gen. CRYPTOPALPUS. 

Rondani, Esap. ditt. (sep.) 7. Anuali di Bologna. (1850). 

histrix Rdi., Dipt. Exot. 18. — Bogota. 

ornatus Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 47, pi. 4, f. 6 {Micr opal pus). Sch., Nov. 333 
{Saundersia). Rdi., Esap. Ditt. 9, No. 6 (sep.). Br. Bgst., Mus. Sch. i, 64, 
f. 237.— Colombia (Sch., Mcq.); Venezuela (Rdi., B. B.); Mexico (Mcq.). 

palliceps Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 94.— Colombia. 

Gen. LASIOPALPUS. 

Mcq., Dipt. Exot. Sup. ii, 63. (1847). 

flavitarsis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Supl. ii, 64, pi. iii, f. 1. Sch., Novara, 337. B. B., 
Mus. Sch. i, 63, f., 228.— So. Amer. (Sch.). 

Gen. BOMBYLIOMYIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 63. (1889). 

flavipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 147, pi. 12, f. 10 {Hystrkia). Sch., Novara, 
332 (Hystrkia). Rdi., Dipt. Exot. 17 (Hystrkia) , Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. 
i, 63.— Brazil (Sch. Mcq); So. Amer. (Rdi.). 



6 South American Species of Caly pirate Muscidae. 

flavitarsis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 148, pi. 13, f. 9 {Hystricia). Soli., Novara, 
332 (c/o.). Rdi., Dipt. Am.^q. Osculati, 8(t/o.). Br. Bgst., Muse. Sell, 
ii, 105. — So. Amer. (Sch.); Colombia (Meq.); Rio Napo (Rdi.). 

testacea Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 148, pi. 13, f. 2 {Hystricia), B. B., Mus. Sell, 
ii, 105. — Colombia (Mcq.). 

Gen. TROPIDOPSIS. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Seliiz. i, 64. (1889). 

pyrrhaspis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 301 (Tachina). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 43 (Hystri- 
cia). Sell., Nov. 332 (t/o.). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 18 (rfo.). Br. 
Bgst., Muse. Sell, i, 64.— Brazil (Wd.); So. Amer. (Sell.); Mexico ; Gua- 
temala (v. d. W.). 

Gen. HYSTRICIA. 
Macq., Dipt. Exot. ii, 3, 43. (1843). 

ambigua Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 172. v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 13, pi. 1, 

f. 7. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105. — Colo.; Orizaba ; Guatemala ; Costa Rica 

(v. d. W.); So. Amer. (B. B.). 
Note. — It may be that the locality of So. Amer. given by Br. and Bgst. is 

a typographical as well as a topographical error ! 
copulata Wd., pt. Aus. Zw. ii, 295 {Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105.— 

Brazil (Wd.). 
etythrina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 79.— Bahia. 
immaculata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 148, pi. 12, f. 9. — Colombia. 
nigroscutata Rdi., Dipt. Exot. 18. — Colombia. 
obesa Sch., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 105. — Venezuela. 

Note. — Is this species described ? 
palpina Rdi., Dipt. Am. iEq. Oscul. 8. — Rio Napo. 
tarsata Sch., Novara, 333.— So. America. 

Gen. JURINELLA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 64. (1889). 

cceruleonigra Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 146, pi. 12, f. 8 (Jurinia). B. B., Mus. 
Sch. i, 64, f. 235.— New Granada (Mcq., B. B.). 

Gen. SAUNDERSIA. 

Schiner, Novara Dipt. 333. (1868). 

affinis Sell., Novara, 336. — So. Amer. 

albolineatus Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 99 (Micropalpus). — Colombia. 

Note. — Meq. says that the absence of the antennse and palpi makes his 

generic determination doubtful. The bare eyes and other points in the 

description suggest the genus Saundersia. 
dorsopunctata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 47, pi. 4, f. 5 (Micropalpus), Schiner, 

Novara, 334.— So. Amer. (Sch.); Bogota (Mcq.). 
flavicans Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 151, pi. 13, f. 4 (Micropalpus). — Colombia. 
Note. — As the eyes are bare, and the third antennal joint not elongate, 

this should doubtless be referred to Saundersia, 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. T 

flavitarsis Guerin, Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 47, pi. 5, f. 1. Sup. i, 152, pi. 13, 

f. 7. Sup. iii, 45 (Micropalpus). Schiner, Novara, 334. — So. Amer. 

(Sch.); Venezuela (Rdi.); Quito, Peru; Colombia; Mexico (Mcq.). 
Syii. Epalpus pallitarsis Rdi. Esap. Bitt. 8, No. 5. 
lieros Sch., B. B. Mus. Scli. ii, 105.— Colombia (B. B.). 

Note. — Is this species described ? 
hystrix Sch., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 105.— Colombia (B. B.). 

Note. — Is this described ? 
inornata Sch., Novara, 335. — So. Amer. 
macula Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 46, pi. 5, f. 2 {Micropalpus). Sch., Nov. 334. 

V. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 21, pi. 1, f. 16.— So. Amer. (Mcq., Sch.); 

Costa Rica (v. d.W.). 
nigriventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 44, pi. 4, f. 3 {Hystricia). L. c. Sup. i, 150 

{Micropalpus). Sch., Novara, 334. v. Roder, Dipt. ges. S. A. Al. Sttibel, 

10 (sep.). — So. Amer. (Sch.); Colombia (Mcq., v. Rod.). 
nitidus Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 174, pi. 15, f. 14 {Micropalpus). — So. Amer. 

Note. — Probably belongs in Saundersia. 
peruviana Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iii, 45, pi. 5, f. 2 {Micropalpus). v. Roder, 

Dipt. ges. S. A. Al. Stiibel, 10 (sep.) — Ecuador (Mcq., v. Rod.); Peru 

(Mcq.). 
picta Sell., Novara, 335. — So. Amer. 
pictipennis Mcq., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 105. — Colombia. 

Note. — Is this described ? 
pulverulenta Sch., Novara, 335. — So. Amer. 
rubripes Sch., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 105. — Colombia. 

Note. — Is this described ? 
rufa Sch., Novara, 335.— -So. Amer. 
rufipes Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 172, pi. 15, f. 11 {Hystricia). v. d. W., Biol. 

C.-A. Dipt, ii, 27.— Brazil (Mcq.). 
rufiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 151, pi. 13, f. 3 {Micropalpus). — Colombia. 
Note. — This is probably a Saundersia, as the eyes are bare and the third 

antennal joint short. 
semiatrata Sch., Novara, 334. — So. Amer. 
tarsalis Sch., Novara, 334. — So. Amer. 
varia Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 268 (TacAma). v. Rod., Dipt. ges. S. A. Al. Stiibel, 

10 (sep.).— Colombia (Wlk.); Ecuador (v. Rod.). ' 

Gen. EPALPUS. 
Rdi., Esap. ditt. (sep.) 6. Annali di Bologna (1850). 

erythrostoma Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 95.— Chili. 

lineolatus Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 94.— Chili. 

ochricornis Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 95.— Chili. 

rostratus, Rdi., Dipt. Am. merid. Strobel (Ann. Soc. Nat. Mod., iii) 2. (sep.) 

pi. 4, ff. 1, 2. — Mendoza. 
rubripilus Rdi., Esapodi Ditteri, 7, No. 4 (sep.). — Venezuela. 



8 South American Species of Galyptr-ate Muscidae. 

rufipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 152, pi. 13, f. 5 (Micropalpus). Sch., Novara, 
334 (Saundersia). Br. Bgst., Mus. Sch. i, 64. — So. Amer. (Sch.); Colom- 
bia (B. B., Mcq.). 

Gen. JURINIA. 
Rob., Desv. Myod. 34. (1830). 

amethystina Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 42, pi. 3, f. 7. Sup. i, 147. — Colombia ; 

Venezuela ; Minas Greraes, Brazil ; Georgia. 
analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 39, pi. 3, f. 8.— Brazil ; Mexico. 
aurifacies R. Desv., Myod. 38. — Brazil. 
bicolor Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 2S2 (Tachina), Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 39, pi. 3. f. 7.— 

Brazil (Wd., R. D., Mcq.); ? Montevideo (Big.). 
Syn. Jurinia fuliginipennis Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 79. 
? J^. hrasiliensis R. D., Myod. 35. 
Echinomyia fuliginipennis Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 77. 
chrysiceps R. D., Myod. 37. — Brazil, 
flavifacies Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 171. — Brazil. 
fulviventris R. D., Myod. 37. — Rio Grande, Brazil, 
gagatea R. D., Myod. 36. — Brazil, 
hyalipennis Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 80. — Brazil. 
laticornis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 146. — Colombia. 

nigricalyptrata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 145, pi. 12, f. 6. — Minas-Geraes, Brazil. 
nigriventris v. d. Wulp., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 81. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 17. — 

Chili ; Argentine Rep. 
notata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 267 {Tachina). v. Roder., Dipt, gesamm. S. A. Al. 

Stiibel, 10 (sep.). —Colombia (Wlk.); Ecuador (v. Rod.). 
obesa Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 282 ( Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 64, f. 234.— Brazil 

(Wd.). 
plagiata Sch., Novara, 332 (Hystricia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105. — So. Amer. 

(Sch.). 
rufipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 40. — Guiana. 

rufiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 41, pi. 3, f. 9. Sup. 1, 147.— Bogota. 
scutellaris R. D., Myod. 36. — Guaratuba, Brazil, 
scutellata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 41. — Chili ; Bogota. 
smaragdina Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 39, pi. 3, f. 6.—? Brazil, 
surinamensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 40, pi. 4, f. 1. — Surinam. 
testacea R. D., Myod. 38. — Rio Grande, Brazil. 
translucens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. 1, 145, pi. 12, f. 7. — Minas-Geraes, Brazil. 

Gen. FABRICIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 42. (1830). 

andicola Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 86.— Chili. 

daemon Sch., (non Wd.) Novara, 331. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 104.— Brazil (Sch.). 
Note. — Schiner wrongly identified his species with Wiedemann's, accord- 
ing to B. B. 

leucophrys Wd., pt. Aus. Zw. ii, 308 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 104.— 
Brazil (Wd.). 



South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidae. 9 

Gen. BLEPHARIPEZA. 

Macq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 54. (1843). 

albifacies Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 92.— Brazil. 

andina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 90.— Chili. 

aurocaudata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 90. — Montevideo. 

bicolor Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 158, pi. 20, f. 7. Scli., Nov. 336.— So. Amer. 

(Sch.); Galveston, Texas (Mcq.). 
breviventris Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 297 (TacMna). Wlk., List, 712 (do.). B. B., 

Muse. Sch. ii, 98.— Brazil (Wd.); Jamaica (Wlk.). 
cyaneiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 157, pi. 13, f. 11. — Minas-Geraes, Brazil. 
leucophrys Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 308 {Tachina). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 

30, pi. 2, ff. 9, 9a (Belvosia). Sch., Novara, 336. Br. Bgst., Mus. Sch. 

i, 28, f. 53. Willist., Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. xiii, 304.— Brazil (Wd., Sch., 

V. d. W.); Colombia (Sch., v. d. W.); Rio Napo (Rdi.); Argentine Rep. ; 

Costa Rica (v. d. W.); San Domingo (Willist.); Guiana ; Mexico (Mcq.); 

Cuba (Big.); N. Amer. 
Syn. Blepharipeza rujipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 55, pi. 6, f. 1. Sup. i, 158. 

Rdi., Dipt. Am. ^q. Osc. 8 (sep.). Big. Sagra, 815. 
Syn. Belvosia rujipalpis v. d. W., Amerik, Dipt, iii, 25, pi. 1, f. 15. 

Gen. BELVOSIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 103. (1830). 

analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 160, pi. 14, f. 4.—? Brazil. 

bifasciataFab., Syst. Ent. 777. Ent. Syst. iv, 325. Mant. Ins. ii, 345. Syst. 
Ant. 299 (Mwsca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 305 (TacKna). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 
104 (Nemor ma). Big. Sagra. 813 (do.) Latr. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxiv, 
195 (Ocyptera). R. Desv., Myod. 104 (Latreillia). B. B., Muse. Sch. i, 29, 
f. 62; ii, 99 (do.). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 57, pi. 6, f. 2. Sup. iii, 45. 
V. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 23, pi. 1, ff. 13, 14. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 30, 
pi. 2, ff. 8, 8a.— So. Amer. (Wd. Big.); Is. Am. (Fab.); Brazil (Mcq., 
R. D., v. d. W.); Colombia; Guatemala (v. d. W.); Cuba (Big.); No. 
Amer. 

leucopyga v. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 84. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 27. — Brazil. 

Gen. WILLISTONIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 29. (1889). 

bicincta R. Desv., Myod. 103 (Belvosia). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 112 (Senometopia) . 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 56, 57. Sup. ii, Q^ (Belvosia). Br. Bgst., Muse. 

Sch. ii, 99.— Brazil (Mcq.); Antilles; Carolina (R. D.); N. Am. 
copulata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 295 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 99.— Brazil 

(Wd.). 
esuriens Fab., Syst. Ant. 301 (Tachina). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 309 (do.). Mcq., 

Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 57 (Belvosia). B. B., Muse. Sch. i, 29.— So. Amer. (Fab.); 

Brazil (Wd.). 



10 South American Species of GaJyptrate Mascidse. 

potens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 312 (Tachina). Big. Sagra, 810 (do.). Mcq., Dipt. 

Ex. ii, 3, 58 {Eur yg aster). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 99.— Rio Janeiro (Wd.) I 

Cuba (Big.). 
^veyenberghiana v. d, W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 26, pi. 1, flf. 16, 17, 1'&iBelvosia). 

B. B., Muse. Sch. ii, 99.— Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.); Brazil (B. B.). 

Gen. CHiETOPROCTA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 37. (1891). 

tarsalis Sch., Novara, 336 (Blepharipeza). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 38. — So. Amer. 
(Sch.); Venezuela (B. B.). 

Gen. AT ACT A. 

Schin., Novara, Dipt. 328. (1868). 

brasiliensis Sch., Novara, 328. B. B., Muse. Sch. i, 28, f. 57.— Brazil (Sch.). 

Gen. BLEPHAROPODA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 28. (1889). 

pilitarsis Rdi., Dipt. Am. JEq. Oscul. 9 (sep.). — Rio Napo. 

Gen. THYSANOMYIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Sch. ii, 36. (1891). 

iimbriata v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 97 {Br achy coma). B. B., Muse. Sch. ii, 
36.— So. Amer. (B. B.); Mexico (v. d. W.). 

Gen. CTBNOPHOROCERA. 

Br. Bgst., Mase. Sch. ii, 38. (1891). 

biserialis Sch., Novara, 326 (Phorocera). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 38.— Brazil 

(Sch.). 
? blepharipus B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 38. — Cape of Good Hope, or Brazil. 

Gen. ECHINOMYIA. 

Dumeril, Expos, meth. nat. cl. ins. (1798). 

analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 144, pi. 12, f. 3. — Colombia. 

brasiliensis R. D., Mjod. 33 (Dejeania). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 77. — Brazil (R. 

D., Mcq.). 
filipalpis Rdi., Dipt. Exot. 15 (sep). — Chili. 
furiosa Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soe. Lond. n. ser. iv, 194. — Rio Grande. 
ignobilis Rdi., Dipt. Ex. 15 (sep.). — Chili. 
nigripennis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 286 (Tachina). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 75.^-Brazil 

(Wd., Mcq.) 
pilifrons Sch., Novara, 331. — Chili. 
piliventris v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 22. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 34, pi. 2, 

f. 13a. — Argentine Rep. ; Mexico. 
pumila Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 170, pi. 15, f. 9. — Minas Geraes, Brazil. 



South America?! Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 1 1 

pygmaea Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 170, pi. 15, f. 10.— Chili. 

rubida R. Desv., Mjod. 39 (Dumerillia). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 79.— Brazil (R. 

D., Mcq.). 
vittata V. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 21. — Argentine Rep. 

Gen. PEIiETERIA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 39. (1830). 

lalandii R. D., Myod. 40.— Brazil. 
leschenaldi R. D., Myod. 40. — Surinam. 

robusta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 290 (Tachina). v. d. Wulp., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 19. 
Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 32, pi. 2, f. 10a (Echinomyia). B. B., Mus. Sell, ii, 
104. — Montevideo (Wd.); Argentine Rep.; Chili; Colombia; Mexico; 
Costa Rica (v. d. W.); No. Amer. 
Syn. Echin. analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 144, pi. 12, f. 3. 
E.filipalpis Rdi., Arch. Zool. iii (sep.), p. 15. 

E. hcemorrhoa, v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. x, 145, pi. 4, ff. 13, 14, 15, 16. 
Willist., Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. xiii, 301. 

Gen. TACHINODES. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 65. (1889). 

analis Fab., Syst. Ant. 311 (Tachina). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 288 (do.). Sch., 
Novara, 331 (Echinomyia) . Rdi., Esameditt. Brasil. 1848 (sep.) 15 (do.). 
V. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 33, pi. 2. f. 12a (do.). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 
105. — Brazil (Wd.); So. Am. (Fab., Sch.); Mexico; Nicaragua; Costa 
Rica (v. d. W.). 

d«mon Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 292 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105.— Brazil 
(Wd.). 

diaphana Fab., Syst. Ant. 308 (Tachina). ? Mant. Ins. ii, 349 (Musca). Wd., 
Aus. Zw. ii, 281 (Tachina). Rdi., Esameditt. Brasil. (sep.) 15. (Echi- 
nomyia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd.); Brazil (Rdi.). 

hystrix Fab., Syst. Ent. 777. Ent. Syst. iv, 325 (Musca). Syst. Ant. 310 
(Tachina). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 283 (do.). B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 65.— Brazil 
(B. B.). 

immaculata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 169, pi. 15, f. 8 (Echinomyia). v. d. W., 
Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 83. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 19 (do.). B. B., Mus. Sch. 
ii, 105. — Minas Geraes, Brazil (Mcq.); Arizona (v. d. W.) 

robusta Sch., litt. B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 105. — Brazil. 
Note. — Is this described ? 

seminigra Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 296 (Tachina). Sch., Novara, 331 (Echinomyia). 
B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105.— Brazil (Wd.); Chili ; Colombia (Sch.). 

Gen. TALAROCERA. 

Williston, Ent. Amer. iii, 152. (1887). 

smithii Will., Ent. Amer. iii, 153. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 79. — Chapada, Brazil 
(Will.). 



12 South American Species of Calyptrate Mascidse. 

Gen. ARCH YT AS. 
Jsennicke, Neue Exot. Dipt. 392. (1867). 

bicolor Jsen., Neue Exot. Dipt. 392, pi. 44, f. 8. — Venezuela. 

Gen. CUPHOCERA. 

Macq., An. soc. ent. Fr. ser. 2, iii, 267. (1845). 
callipiga Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1857. Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 16.— Chili 

(Big.); Valdivia (Rdi.). 
decorata Rdi., Dipt. Am. ^q. Oscul. (sep.) 7. — Rio Napo. 
pruinosa Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 16. — Chili. 

Gen. ELACHIPALPUS. 

Rdi., Esap. ditt. (sep.) 7. Annali di Bologna. (1850). 

macrocera Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 290 (Tachina). t3ch., Novara, 330 (Cuphocera). 

V. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 22 (do.). B. B., Mns. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil 

(Wd., Sch.); Bahia(v. d.W.). 
nitens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 294 (Tachina). Sch., Nov. 330 (Cuphocera). B. B., 

Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil (Wd.); So. Am. (Sch.); Venezuela (B. B.). 

Gen. CHiETOPROSOPA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 196. (1850). 

cyanea Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 196, pi. 17, f. 17. — Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Gen. SISYROPA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 95. (1889). 

leptotrichopa B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 43. — Brazil. 

?Syn. Hemimasicera quadra Wd. 
prosopina B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 43. — Brazil. 
rufiventris B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 42.— Brazil. 
vorax Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 315 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 43.~Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. BOLOMYIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 43. (1891). 

violacea v. d.W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 53 (Mystacella). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 
44. — Brazil (B. B.); Mexico ; Yucatan ; Guatemala (v. d. W.). 

Gen. CH^TOLYGA. 
Rdi., Pr. Dipt. Ital. i. (1856). 

pyrrhopyga Wd., Zool. Mag. iii, 53. Aus. Zw. ii, 319 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. 
Sch. ii, 98.— Bahia, Brazil (Wd.). 



South American Species of Galyptrate Museidae, 13 

Gen. GONIA. 

Meigen, Illig. Mag. ii, 280. (18.03). 

crassicornis Fab., Ent. Syst. iv, 328. Syst. Ant. 301 {Musca), Wd., Aus. 

Zw. ii, 345.— So. Amer. (Wd.); Is. Am. (Fab.). 
erythrocera Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 86.— Chili. 
genei Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 14. — Venezuela. 
Syn. Gonia capitata Rdi., Ann. Bolog, 1850. 
incerta Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 179. — Corrientes, Brazil, 
lineata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 178. — Patagonia. 

pallens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 346. Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 50. Sch., Novara, 329. 
Lynch- Arribalz. An. Soc. Cien. Arg. 1880. v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 
23. Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 39.— Brazil (Wd., Mcq.); Chili (Mcq., Sch., 
Blanch.); Patagonia; Argentine Rep.; Mexico; Jamaica (v. d. W.); 
Cuba (Mcq.). 
Var. G. chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 50, pi. 5, f. 4. Big. Sagra, 809. 

Blanch, in Gay. Hist. Chili, vii, 422. 
Syn. G. angusta Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 56, pi. 5, f. 5. 
G. lineata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 178. 
trifaria Zeller, Rdi. Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 9. — Venezuela (Rdi.). 
Syn. G. capitata Meig., Rdi. 1. c. 

Note. — This synonymy is on authority of Rdi. I.e. Is Gonia capitata Degeer 
meant ? According to Schiner (Catalogus Dipterorum Europje, 98) G. 
capitata Mg. is a synonym of G. trifaria ZUr. It is a question whether 
the species referred to is found in So. America. 
virescens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 50. — Brazil or Chili. 

Gen. SPALLANZANIA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 78. (1830). 

americana Sch., Novara, 327 (Cnephalia). B. B., Mas. Sch. ii, 100.— Chili 
(Sch.). 

Gen. GONYSTYLUM. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 180. (1850). 

ruficorne Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 180, pi. 16, f. 2. — Corrientes, Brazil. 

Gen. DEMOTICUS. 
Mcq., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, ii, 443. (1854). 

ratzeburgii Jsen., Neue Exot. Dipt. 386. — Chili. 

Gen. CH-ffiTODEMOTICUS. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 81. (1891). 
chilensis Sch., Novara, 324 (Demoticus). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 81.— Chili (Sch.). 



14 South American Species of Galy pirate Muscidse. 

Gen. ARTHROCHiETA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 66. (1889). 

demoticoides B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 66, 101. — Colombia ; Venezuela. 

Gen. RHAMPHININA. 

Bigot, Bull. soc. ent. Fr. 1885, 14 janv. (1885). 

argentina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 265. — Buenos Ayres. 

Gen. TACHINA. 
Meigen, Illiger's Magazine, ii, 280. (1803). 

aequabilis Wlk., List, 704.— Venezuela. 

albimacula Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 328. — So. Amer. 

alligans Wlk., List, 713. — Venezuela. 

alterna Wlk., List, 701. — Venezuela. 

anthemon Wlk., List, 733. — Brazil. 

antbracina Wd., Aus. Z\v. ii, 324. — Brazil. 

apicalis Wlk., Dipt. Sauud. 275. — Colombia. 

atrata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 284.— Brazil. 

atratula Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 304.— Brazil. 

atrifrons Wd., Anal. Ent. 46 (Melanophora) . Aus. Zw. ii, 338. — So. America. 

aurifera Wlk., List, 702. — Venezuela. 

basalis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 285. — So. Amer. 

caliginosa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 268. — Brazil. 

chrysophora Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 316. — Brazil. 

chrysotelus Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 296. — Brazil. 

Cincta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 303.— Brazil. 

Cingulata Fab., Syst. Ant. 301. Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 323.— So. Amer. (Wd.); 

Is. So. Amer. (Fab.). 
compacta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 294. — Brazil. 
constans Wlk., List, 705. — Venezuela. 
contermina Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 285. — So. Amer. 
diversa Wlk., List, 703. — Venezuela. 
divisa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 270.— Parg,, Brazil. 
infirma Wlk., List, 719.— Chili. 
latifrous Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 284.— So. Amer. 
melaleuca Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 320. — Brazil, 
melanax Wlk., List, 700. — Venezuela. 
melanoppyga Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 292. — Surinam. 
mutata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 338.— So. Amer. (Wd., Fab.). 

Syn. Ocyptera diaphana Fab., Syst. Ant. 314. 
nigrifera Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 303.— Brazil. 
nigrorufa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 284.— Colombia. 
picea Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 293.— Colombia. 
pilosa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 266. — So. America. 

?Syn. Musca pilosa Drury . 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 15 

pinguis Fab., Syst. Ant. 302 {Musca). ? Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 342.— So. Amer. 
(Fab., Wd.?). 

planiventris Mcq., Dipt. Exot. Sup. iv, 205, pi. 18, f. 13. — So. Amer. 

proxima Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 287.— Par^. 

ruficornis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 304. — So. America. 

scita Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 302.— Brazil. 

similis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 269. — So. America. 

singularis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 335. — Brazil. 

socia Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 286.— Brazil. 

sordida Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 297.— So. Amer. 

spinipennis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 303. — Brazil. 

squamata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 279. — Colombia. 

subpicea Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 297.— Brazil. 

tenebrifera Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 302. — Brazil. 

tincta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 287.— Brazil. 

transiens Wlk., List, 706. — Quito. 

transversa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 274. — Brazil. 

trianguli Wlk., List, 706. — Venezuela. 

tricinctaFab., Syst. Ant. 301. Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 327.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd.). 

triformis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 267. — Colombia. 

urabrifera Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 294.— Brazil. 

usta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 313. — Brazil. 

vittata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 273.— Colombia. 

vittata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 301.— So. Amer. 

Note. — It is useless to cbange the specific name until it becomes evident 
that this and the preceding belong in the same genus, which is improb- 
able. 

vulgata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 300. — So. Amer. 

Gen. HYPOTACHINA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 47. (1891). 

disparata B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 47. — Brazil. 

Gen. TRICHOLYGA. 

Rdi., Pr. Dipt. Ital. i. (1856). 

vivida Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 312 (TacAma). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 99.— Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. GYMNOMMA. 
V. d. Wulp., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 38. (1888). 

nitidiventris v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 38, pi. 5, ff. 17, 17a.— Mexico (v. 
d. W.); Brazil (B. B.). 

Gen. TRICHOPHORA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. ii, 62. (1847). 

? albocalyptrata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 82.— Quito. 
analis Sch., Novara, 330. B. B., Mus. Sch. Qii, f. 246.— So. Amer. 



16 South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidae. 

xnitis Sch., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Colombia. 

Note. — Is this species described ? 
nigra Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. ii, 63, pi. 3, f. 7. — Brazil. 

Gen. PARAGYMNOMMA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 80. (1891). 

diaphana B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 80. — Brazil. 
hystrix B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 80. — Brazil. 

Gen. TRIXA. 

Meigen, Syst. Beschr. iv, 222. (1824). 

ii, 98.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd., Mcq.). 
uncana Fab., Syst. Ant. 330 (Dictya). Wd., Ans. Zw. ii, 27.7. Mcq., Hist. Nat. 

Gen. MILTOGRAMMA. 

Meigen, lUig. Mag. ii, 280. (1803). 

unicolor Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 166, pi. 20, f. 9. — Brazil. 

Gen. BOLBOCH^TA. 

Bigot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 25 f^v. (1885). 

haustellata Big., Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 25 fev.— Buenos Ayres. 

Gen. TRICHODISCHIA. 

Bigot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 25 fev. (1885). 

caerulea Big., Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 25 fev. — Buenos Ayres. 
soror Big., 1. c. — Buenos Ayres. 

Gen. MASICERA. 
Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 118. (1835). 

arcuatipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 101. — Quito; Peru. 

auriceps Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 59. — Brazil or Chili. 

inclinans Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 199. — So. America. 

insignia v. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv. 85. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 29. — Chili. 

longiuscula Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 198. — So. Amer. 

nigricalyptrata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v. 100. — Amazon. 

tenuiseta Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 164, pi. 15, f. 4. — Venezuela. 

Gen. CRYPTOMEIGENIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 7. (1891). 

Betifacies B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 7. — Brazil. 

Gen. PSEUD O VI VI ANA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 7. (1891). 

platypoda B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 7. — Venezuela. 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidas. 1 7 

Gen. MASIPHYA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 9. (1891). 
brasiliana B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 9. — Ypaneraa, Brazil. 

Gen. ALSOPSYCHE. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 9. (1891). 

nemoralis B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 9. — Venezuela. 

Gen. PROSOPOCHiETA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 210. (1850). 

nitidiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 211, pi. 19, f. 5.— Chili. 

Gen. CHRYSOTACHINA. 
Br., Bgst. Muse. Schiz. i, 93. (1889). 

reinwardtii Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 3U) (Tachina). v. d. Wulp, Biol. C.-A. Dipt, 
ii, 40 {Gymnochoeia). B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 93; ii, 14.— Brazil (Wd.); 
Guatemala (v. d. W.). 

Gen. EXOPALPUS. 
Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 176. (1850). 

bicolor Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 177, pi. 16, f. 1. — Colombia. 

Gen. SELENOMYIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 57. (1891). 

brevicornis Phil., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 57.— Chili (B. B.). 

Gen. NEMOR-aiA. 

Rob., Desv. Myod. 71. (1830). 

brasiliensis Sch., Novara, 329. — Brazil. 

? ciligera R. Desv., Myod. 173 ( Winthemia). — Brazil. 

Note. — This may perhaps be an Exorista. 
erythropyga v. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 83. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 28. — Chili. 
pictipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 183, pi. 16, f. 7. — Colombia. 

Gen. MYIOPHASIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 58. (1891). 

aenea Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 298 {Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. di, 58.— Montevideo 
(Wd.); Georgia (B. B.). 

Gen. MASIPODA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 94. (1889). 

geminata B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 94; ii, 37. — Orizaba, Mexico ; Brazil. 
xanthocera Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 329 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 98.— Brazil. 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dee. 1892.— 2 



18 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 

Gen. APORIA. 
Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 168. (1846). 

caudata Sch., Novara, 320. — So. America. 
nitens Sch., Nov. 320. — So. Amer. 

quadrimaculata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 169, pi. 15, f. 7. Sch. Nov. 319. 
B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 62, f. 222.— Colombia (Sch., Mcq.). 

Gen. MICROTRICHODES. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 160. (1846). 

analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 161, pi. 14, f. 5. — Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

Gen. LEPTOSTYLUM. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 207. (1850). 

pulchellum Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 208, pi. 19, f. 2.— Bahia. 

Gen. EXORISTA. 

Meigen, Illig. Mag. ii, 280. (1803). 

brasiliensis R. D., Myod. 116 (Olinda). — Brazil. 
flaviventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 61 {Lydella). — Gruiana. 
longa Rdi., Dipt. Am. iEq. Oscul. (sep.) 10. — Rio Napo. 
niveifacies Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 189, pi. 17, f. 7. — Bahia. 
rubescens R. D., Myod. 117 (Platijmya). — Gruaratuba, Brazil. 
rufata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 257.— Para, Brazil ; Mexico. 
ruJBcornis Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 520. — Rio Janeiro. 
rufilatera Rdi., Esap. ditt. (sep.) 9. — Venezuela. 

Gen. PAREXORISTA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 19. (1889). 

inculta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 330 (TacAma). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 19.— Brazil (Wd.)- 
optica Sch., Novara, 327 {Exorista). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 19.— Brazil (Sch.). 

Gen. HEMIMASICERA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 19. (1889). 

? quadra Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 328 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 96.— Brazil 
(Wd.). 

Gen. ACHiETONEURA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 30. (1891). 

lata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 322 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 30.— Montevideo 
(Wd.). 

Gen. PARALISPE. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 33. (1891). 

brasiliana B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 33.— Brazil. 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 19 

Gen. PHOROCERA. 
Rob., Desv. Myod. 131. (1830). 

ciliata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iii, 49, pi. 5, f. 9.— Colombia. 
cirrata R. D., Myod. 138.— Brazil. 

elongata R. D., Myod. 139 {Medina). — Guaratuba, Brazil. 
elongataRdi., Esameditt. Brasil. (sep.) 15. — Brazil (Rdi.); ? Cayenne (Mcq.). 
?Syn. Pkorocera tenuiseta Mcq. Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 166, pi. 14, f. 6. 
Note. — If the latter is the same species, Macquart's name should hold ; 
but if not, some other name must be substituted for Rondani's, which 
is preoccupied. 

Gen. PARADORIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 35. (1891). 

nigra B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 35. — Venezuela. 

Gen. NEOMINTHO. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 35. (1891). 

heros Sch., Novara, 325 (Phorocera). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 35. — Rio Janeiro 

(Sch.). 
macilenta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 305 {Tachina). Sch. Nov. 326 {Phorocera). B. B., 

Mus. Sch. ii, 35.— Brazil (Wd., Sch.). 

Gen. FRONTINA. 

Meigen, Syst. Beschr. vii, 247. (1838). 

aurulenta Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 84.— Brazil. 

Gen. DEGEERIA. 

Meigen, Syst. Beschr. vii, 249. (1838). 

antarctica Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 527. — Patagonia. 
brunisquamis R. D., Myod. 157 (Elophoria). — Brazil. 

Gen. GNADOCHiETA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Exot. Sup. iv, 227. (1850). 

coerulea Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 228, pi. 21, f. 7. — Minas Greraes, Brazil. 

Gen. GYMNOSTYLIA. 

Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 216. (1835). 

analis R. D., Myod. d22(Macromya). — Brazil. 
analis Mcq., Dipt. Exot. ii, 3, 88. — Gruiana. 

Note. — This name is preoccupied by R. Desv. It may be changed to G. 

guianensis. 
brasiliensis R. D., Myod. 324 (Harrisia) . — Gruaratuba, Brazil. 
cilipes R. D.,Myod. 325 {Leschenaultia) . Mcq. Hist. Nat. ii, 217. Dipt. Ex. 

ii, 3, 89.— Surinam (Mcq., R. D.). 



20 South American Species of Caly pirate Muscidse, 

cingulata Sch., Novara, 327 (Meigenia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 101. — Brazil 

(Sch.). 
depressa R. D., Mjod. 322 (Macromya). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 217. — Brazil 

(R. D., Mcq.). 
famelica Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 331 (Tackina). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 101— Brazil 

(Wd.). 
fasciata Mcq., Dipt. Ex, Sup. iii, 52, pi. 6, f. 3. — Brazil, 
ornata Sch. litt. B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 60, f. 212; ii, 70.— Colombia ; Venezuela 

(B. B.). 
scutellaris R. D., Myod. 324 {Harrisia). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 217. — Brazil 

(R. D.,Mcq.). 

Gen. PHASIOPTERYX. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 79. (1889). 

depleta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 298 (Tachina). B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 79.— Brazil 
(Wd.). 

Gen. MYIOMINTHO. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 70. (1889). 

data B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 70. — Venezuela. 

Gen. PSEUDOREDTENBACHERIA. 

Br. Bgst-., Muse. Schiz. i, 70. (1889). 

brasiliensis Sch., Novara, 323 (Redtenbacheria). B. B., Muse. Schiz. i, 70. — 
Brazil (Sch.). 

Gen. MYOBIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 99. (1830). 

aurifrons Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 169, pi. 15, f. 8. — Venezuela. 

brachyptera Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 527. — Rio Janeiro. 

dasycnemis Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 525. — Galapagos. 

diadema Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 382 (Dexia). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 137, 

pi. 4, f. 2.— Brazil (Wd.); Mexico; Yucatan; Costa Rica (v. d. W.); 

U. S. 
flavipennis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 380 (Dexia). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 138. 

—Brazil (Wd.); Mexico (v. d. W.). 
longicotnis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 65, pi. 7, f. 3. — Brazil, or Chili. 



Gen. GENE A. 
Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 10. (1850). 

maculiventris Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 11.— Venezuela. 



South American Species of Caly pirate Muscidse. 21 

Gen. TELOTHYRIA. 

V. d. Wulp., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 167. (1890). 

brevipennis Sch., Novara, 324 (Miltogramma). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 74. — 
Brazil (Sch.). 

Gen. RHINOMACQUARTIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Sch. ii, 76. (1891). 

chaetophora (Sch.) B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 77.— Brazil (B. B.). 

Gen. ARGYROMIMA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 72. (1889). 

mirabilis B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 72, 102, f. 277.— So. America. 

Gen. BESKIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 71. (1889). 

-cornuta B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 71, 102, f. 276.— Brazil. 

Gen. HYADESIMYIA. 

Bigot, Mission Scien. du Cap Horn, Dipt. 26. (1888). 

clausa Bigot, Miss. Cap Horn, Dipt. 27, pi. 3, f. 7. — Cape Horn. 
sarcophagidea Big., Miss. Cap Horn, Dipt. 28, pi. 3, f. 8. — Cape Horn. 

Gen. EUCESTROPHASIA. 

Towns., Trans. Aih. Ent. Soc. xix. 133. (1892). 

aperta B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 78 (Oestrophasia). Towns., Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. xix. 
133.— So. Amer. (B. B.). 

Gen. TRICHOPROSOPUS. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 70. (1843). 

durvillei Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 71, pi. 8, f. 2. — Conception, Chili, 



Fam. DEXIIDAE. 

Gen. ACTING CH-aiT A. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 69. (1889). 

columbiae B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 69, 102.— Colombia ; Venezuela (B. B.). 



22 South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidae. 

Gen. UROMYIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 215. (1830). 

caudata Scli., B. B. Muse. Sch. ii, 139. — So. Ainer. 

Note. — Described ? B. B. indicate this species with a query as equal to 
U. producta R. D. 
nitens Sch., B. B. Mas. Sch. ii, 139.— So. Amer. 

Note. — Described ? B. B. indicate it with a query as equal to U. producta 
R. D. 
producta R. D., Myod. 216 (C7.). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 168 {Serkocera). 
B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 62. v. d. W., Biol, C.-A. Dipt, ii, 251, pi. 6, flF. 6, 
6a.— Brazil (R. D., Mcq.); Centr. Am. (B. B.); Mexico (v. d. W.). 

Gen. DASYUROMYIA. 

Bigot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 11 Mars. (1885). 

penicillata Big., Bull. Soc. Ent. ¥v. 1885, 11 Mars.— Chili. 

Gen. DEXIOSOMA. 
Rdi., Dipt. Ital. Prod. i. (1856). 

nigrum Mcq., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 112. — Brazil. 

Note. — Is this species described ? 
pyrrhoprocta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 381 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 112.— 
Brazil. 

Gen. EBENIA. 
Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 171. (1846). 

claripennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 171, pi. 16, f. 2. — Brazil. 

Gen. CH^TONA. 
V. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 253. (1891). 

icterica Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 321 (Tachina). B. B., Muse. Sell, ii, 74. — Brazil 

(Wd.). 
Note. — Br. aud Bgst. refer Dexia icterica Wd. to Chcetona (see Mus. Sch. ii, 

74). There is no Dexia icterica Wd., that I know of. I therefore take 

it that the authors mean Tachina icterica Wd. 
longiseta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 381 {Dexia). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 253, 

pi. 6, ff. 8, 8a. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 74.— Brazil (Wd.); Costa Rica 

(V. d.W.). 

Gen. EUANTHA. 
V. d. Wulp, Tijds. V. Ent. xxviii. 198. (1885). 

aucta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 377 {Dexia). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 248. 

B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 101.— Brazil. 
dives Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 377 {Dexia). B. B., Muse. Sch. ii, 101.— Kentucky 

(Wd.); So. Amer. (B. B.). 
Note. — The locality So. Amer., given by B. B., may be a typographical error. 



South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidas, 23 

Gen. DEXIA. 
Meigen, Syst. Besclir. v, 33. (1826). 

? albicans Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Loud. n. s. iv, 204. — Valley of the Amazon. 

angusta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 314. — Brazil. 

basalis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 311.— So. Amer. 

convexa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 312.^Brazil. 

dorsalis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 308.— So. Amer. 

extrema Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 203. — Valley of the Amazon. 

gortys Wlk., List, 839.— Brazil. 

insolita Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 318.— Brazil. 

limbata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 371. — Brazil. 

longa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 311. — So. Amer. 

muscaria Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 308. — Brazil. 

obscura Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 307. — Brazil. 

parvicornis v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 33, pi. 2, ff. 7, 8. — Argentine Rep. 

pica Fab., Syst. Ant. 293 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 371.— So. Amer. (Fab., 

Wd.). 
plana Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 315.— Brazil. 
-quadrimaculata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 319. — Brazil. 
randa Wlk., List, 852.— Brazil. 

semipicta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 316. — Amazon River. 
sermyla Wlk., List, 850. — Brazil. 
tenuicornis v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 32, pi. 2, flf. 5, 6. — Argentine Rep. 

Gen. PTILODEXIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 51. (1889). 

rubriventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 188, pi. 20, f. 10 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. 
Sch. i, 51 (Clinoneura). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 113.— Venezuela (B. B.); 
Merida, Yucatan (Mcq.). 

Gen. SARDIOCERA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 51. (1889). 

rutilans Fab., Sp. Ins. ii, 436. Mant. Ins. ii, 342, Ent. Syst. iv, 314. Syst. 
Ant. 287 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 392 (do.). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 
113.— So. Amer. (Wd.); Is. Am. (Fab.). 

Gen. TRICHODURA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 91. (1843). 

anceps Fab., Syst. Ant. 296 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 372 (Dexia). Mcq., 
Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 91, pi. 11, f. 1. v. d. W., Tijds. voor. Ent. xxviii, 194, 
pi. 6, ff. 5, 6, 7, 8. B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 52.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd., 
Mcq.); Brazil (B. B.); Surinam (v. d. W.). 

recta Sch., Novara, 320. — So. Amer. 

vidua Sch., Novara, 321. — Brazil. 



24 South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidse. 

Gen. HYSTRICHODEXIA. 

V. Roder, Dipt. Ges. S. A. Al. Stubel. (sep.) 12. (1886). 

armata v. Rod., Dipt. Ges. S. A. 12 (sep.), pL, ff. 3, 3a, 3b.— Ecuador. 

Gen. EUDEXIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 52. (1889). 

goliath Br. Bgst., Muse. Sch. i, 52, 99. — So. Amer. ; Venezuela. 
nemorina Soli. litt. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 113. — Brazil. 

Note. — Is this species described ? 

Gen. MELANOPHORA. 

Meig., Illig. Mag. ii, 279. (1803). 

americana Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 72, pi. 8, f. 4.— Brazil, or Chili. 

Gen. PROSENA. 
St. Farg. and Serv., Encycl. M^th. x, 500. (1825). 

brevicornis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 230. — Bahia. 

longipalpis v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 30, pi. 2, ff. 1, 2. — Argentine Rep, 

longitarsis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 92, pi. 11, f. 2.— Bogota. 

sarcophagina v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 31, pi. 2, ff. 3, 4,— Argentine Rep. 

Gen. MYIOMIMA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 51. (1889). 

braziliana B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 60. — Brazil. 

crassa Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 387 (iliusca). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 139.— Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. PROSENOIDES. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, (i6. (1891). 

papilio Sch. litt. (Prosena) B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 66.— Brazil (B. B.). 

Gen. SCOTIPTERA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 83. (1843). 

filipes R. D., Myod. 318 (SopJda).— Brazil. 

gagatea R. D., Myod. 318 (Sophia). — Brazil. 

melaleuca Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 369 (Dexia). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 83, pi. 9, f. 1. 

Perty, Delect. An. Brasil. 186, pi. 37, f. 7. v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt. 

ii, 224, pi. 5, ff. 5, 5a. B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 58, f. 204.— Rio Janeiro (Wd.); 

Sebastianopolis (Pty.); Brazil (Mcq.); Panama; Guatemala (v. d. W.). 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidae. 25 

punctata R. D., Myod. 318 (Sophia). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 215.— Brazil (R. D., 
Mcq.). 
Note. — Mcq. (Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 83) says this is perhaps the same species as 
Scotiptera {Dexia) melahuca Wd., and S. vittata Guerin. Mr. v. d. Wulp 
(Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 224) gives it as a synonym of S. melahuca, with a 
query. 

Gen. MEGISTOGASTER. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 211. (1850). 

analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 214. — Amazon. 



Gen. CORDYLIGASTER. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 90. (1843). 

petiolatus Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 374 (Dexia). Wlk., List, 851 (do.). Mcq., Dipt. 

Ex. ii, 3, 90, pi. 10, f. 6. Rdi., Esame Ditt. Brazil, (sep.) 16. Sch., 

Novara, 322. v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. xxviii, 192, pi. 6, ff. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 61.— So. Amer. (Sch.); Brazil (Wd., Wlk., Mcq., 

Rdi.); ? Java (Mcq.). 
tipuliformis Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 205. — So. Amer. 

Gen. PACHYGRAPHIA. . 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 75. (1891). 

fervens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 383 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 75. — So. Amer. 

(Wd.); Brazil (B. B.). 
virgata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 382 (Dexia). B. B., Muse. Sch. ii, 75.— Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. LEPIDODEXIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 75. (1891). 

tetraptera (Sch.) B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 75. — Venezuela. 

Gen. XANTHODEXIA. 

v. d. Wulp, Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 256. (1891). 

sericea Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, ?,\Q (Tachina) . v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 256, 
pi. 6, ff. 11, 11a, lib. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 73.— Brazil (Wd.); Mexico 
(v. d.W.). 

Gen. CALODEXIA. 
V. d. Wulp, Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 257. (1891). 

flavipes Sch., Novara, 326 (Meigenia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 72.— Brazil (Sch.). 



26 South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidse. 

Gen. MINTHODEXIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 72. (1891). 

flavicornis B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 72. — Venezuela. 
gravipes B. B., Mus. Scli. ii, 72. — Venezuela. 

Gen. PSEUDODEXIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Sch. ii, 74. (1891). 

eques Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 378 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Seh. ii, 74.— Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. LEPTODA, 
V. d. Wulp, Tijds. V. Eut. xxviii, 196. (1885). 

bicolor Fab., Syst. Ant. 291 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 392 (do.). B. B., 

Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd.). 
filipes Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soe. Lond. n. s. iv, 202 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 

102. — Valley of the Amazon. 
longipes Fab., Syst. Ant. 298. Mant. Ins. ii, 348 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. 

ii, 379 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd.); 

Cayenne (Fab., Mant. Ins.). 
pellucida R. D., Myod. 318 (Sophia). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 215 (Scotiptera) . 

B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil (R. D., Mcq.). 
pheeoptera Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 370 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil 

(Wd.). 
plumosa Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 370 (Dexia). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iii, 53 (do.). 

Big., Sagra, 815 (do.). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil (Wd.); Rio 

Negro (Mcq.); Cuba (Big.). 
potens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 368 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. GONATORRHINA. 

V. Roder, Dipt. Ges. S. A. Al. Stubel (sep.) 10. (1886). 

paramonensis v. Rod. Dipt. Ges. S. A. (sep.) 10, pi., ff. 2, 2a, 2b. — Paramo, 
Colombia. 

Gen. STOMATODEXIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 57. (1889). 

bibens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 249 (Stomoxys). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 105.— Brazil 

(Wd.). 
cothurnata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 249 (Stomoxys). v. d. W., Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 

239. B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 57, f. 195.— Brazil (Wd.); Mexico (Big., v. d. 

W.). 
Syn. Prosena maculifera Big., An. Soe. Ent. Fr. 1888, 264. 
famelica Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 250 (Stomoxys). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 102.— Brazil 

(Wd.). 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 2T 

Gen. SPATHIPALPUS. 

Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 20. (1863). 

flavifrons Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 21. — Valdivia. 

longipalpis v. d. W.,Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 138 {Myohia). B. B., Mus. Sell, ii, 

102.— Bahia (B. B.); Mexico (y. d. W.). 
philippii Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 21. B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 69.— Valdivia 

(Rdi.); Bahia (B. B.). 

Fam. SARCOPHAGIDAE. 

Gen. TOXOTARSUS. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 238. (1850). 

rufipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 238, pi. 22, f. 3.— Chili. 

Gen. DIAUGIA. 
Perty, Delect. An. Brasil. 187. (1830-4). 

angusta Perty, Delect. An. Bras. 187, pi. 37, f. 9. Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 109. 
— Minas (Pty.); Brazil (Mcq.). 
Note. — Mr. v. d. Wulp (Biol. C.-A. Dipt, ii, 250) expresses the opinion that 
this genus may be closely allied to Leptoda. As Perty states, however, 
that it is allied to Sarcophaga, I have included it in the Sarcophagidce. 

Gen. AGRIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 376. (1830). 

fuscipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 109. Bigot, Mission du Cap Horn, Dipt. 26. 
—Brazil, or Chili (Mcq.); Chili (Big.). 

Gen. CYNOMYIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 363. (1830). 

auriceps Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 209. — Quito. 

desvoidyi .Jaen., N. Ex. Dipt. 378.— Chili. 

fuscipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 110. — Brazil, or Chili. 

splendens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 231 {Phrissopodd). Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 96, 

pi. 11, f. 3 (c/o.). Blanch, in Gay, Hist. Chili, vii, 427, pi. 5, f. 3 {do.), 

V. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 34 {do.). Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 87 {do.). 

B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 110.— Cobija, Bolivia; Chili; Africa (Mcq.); Chili 

(v. d. W., Blanch.). 

Gen. ONESIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 365. (1830). 

americana Sch., Novara, 311. — Chili. 
bivittata Jaen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 378. — Chili. 
tnuscaria Jaen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 378. — Chili. 



28 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 

Gen. TRIPANURGA. 

Sch. litt. Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 63. (1891). 

albicans Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 363 (Sarcophaga) . B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 63.— Brazil 

(Wd.). 
bicolor (Sch.) B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 63.— Brazil. 
dimidiata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 360 (Sarcophaga) . B. B., Muse. Seh. ii, 63. — 

Brazil (Wd.). 

Gen. TRICHARiBA. 

Thorns., Dipt. Eugen. Resa, 541. (1868). 

scatophagina Thoms., Eugen. Resa, 541. — Rio Janeiro. 

Gen. SAROTHROMYIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 61. (1891). 

femoralis Sch., Novara, 315 (Sarcophila) . B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 61. — Brazil 
(Sch.).. 

Gen. SARCONESIA. 

Bigot, An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 3 ser., v. (1857). 

chlorogaster Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 359 (Sarcophaga) . Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 110 
(Onesia). v. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv. 87 ( Sarcophaga) . Amerik. 
Dipt, iii, 35 (do.). Bigot, An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 3 ser., v. 301, pi. 7, f. 5. 
B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 54. — Montevideo ; La Plata (Wd.); Chili ; Argentine 
Rep. (v. d. W.). 

Gen. SARCOPHAGA. 

Meig., Sjst. Beschr. v, 14. (1826). 

advena Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 324.— Brazil. 

amorosa Sch., Novara, 314. — Brazil. 

aureiceps Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 108. — So. Amer. 

aurifinis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 325.— Brazil. 

aurifrons R. D., Myod. 383 (Gesneria). — Cayenne. 

bifrons Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 327.— So. Amer. 

brasiliensis R. D., Myod. 338 (Myophora). — Groyaz, Brazil. 

?calida Wd., Wlk. Dipt. Saund. 326.— Colombia. 

cayennensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 105. — Cayenne. 

chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 104, pi. 11, f. 6. Blanch, in Gay, Hist. Chili, 

vii, 429. V. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv. 88. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 36.— 

Chili (Mcq., Blanch., v. d. W.). 
chrysella R. D., Myod. 339 (Myophora). Rdi., Dipt. Am. Mer. Str. (sep.) 3. 

—Brazil (R. D.); Bahia(Rdi.). 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidae. 29 

cbrysostoma Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 356. Sch., Novara, 313. v. d. W., Amerik. 

Dipt, iii, 36.— Brazil (Wd., Sch.); Bahia (v. d. W.); W. Indies (0. S. 

Cat.). 
chrysotelus Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 329. — So. Amer. 
chrysura Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 25. — So. Amer. 
circumcisa Rdi., Esame Ditt. Brasil. (sep.) 16. — Brazil. 
cognata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 325. — So. Amer. 
comta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 365. — Brazil. 
contermina Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 327. — Brazil. 
cruenta Mcq., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 110. — Brazil. 

Note. — Is this described ? 
decedens Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 207. — Colombia. 
dichroa Sch., Novara, 313. — Chili. 

diversimaculata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iii, 54, pi. 6, f. 4. — Brazil. 
flaveola R. D., Myod. 339 {Myophora). — Guaratuba, Brazil, 
flaviceps Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 103, pi. 13, f. 3.— Brazil. 
flavicostata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 104, pi. 13, f. 4. — Conception, Chili. 
flavifrons Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 191. Blanch, in Gaj, Hist. Chili, vii, 428, 

pi. 5, f. 4. V. d. W., Amer. Dipt, iii, 37.— Brazil (Mcq.); Chili (Blanch.); 

Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.). 
fulvivitta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 326.— So. Amer. 
griseoflavescens R. D., Myod. 383 (6r^esMe/-?a). — Cayenne. 
hirtipes Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 321. — Colombia. 
humboldti R. D., Myod. 338 {Myophora). — Peru. 
injuncta Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 208. — Brazil. 
inoa Wlk., List, 832. — Galapagos. 
jejuna Wlk., List, 811. — Venezuela. 

lambens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 365.— Sao Paulo (Wd.); W. Indies (0. S. Cat.). 
modesta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 363. — Brazil. 

nobilis Thoms., Eugen. Resa, 536. — Montevideo; Buenos Ayres. 
notata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 108. — So. Amer. 
nurus Rdi., Dipt. Am. Merid. Strobel (sep ) 3. — Buenos Ayres ; Europe (Rdi.). 

Syu. S. hoeinorrhoidalis Meig. (non Fall.). 
obtusifrons Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 536. — Galapagos. 
occipitalis Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 532. — Callao. 
opima Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 364. — Brazil. 
oralis Rdi., Dipt. Am. Merid. Strob. (sep.) 3. — Bahia. 
ortogesa Wlk., List, 834.— Chili. 
parva Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 321. — Para. 
philippii Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 24. — Valdivia. 
phoenicunis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 365. — Brazil. 
pigmea Rdi., Dipt. Am. ^q. Oscul. — Rio Napo. 
plinthopyga Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 360. Wlk., Lin. Trans, xvii, 352. List, 820.— 

Brazil; Demerara ; Jamaica; Nova Scotia (Wlk.); St. Thomas (Wd.). 
proerna Wlk., List, 835. — Montevideo. 
pudica Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 12. — Is. Brazil. 



30 South American Species of Galyptrate Mascidse. 

? punctipennis Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 208. — Colombia. 
quadrivittata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 102, pi. 12, f. 4. v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt. 

iii, 36. — Brazil (Mcq.); Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.). 
rubrianalis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 235. — Chili. 
rubriventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 235. — Corrientes, Brazil. 
ruficrura Rdi., Dipt. Exot. 25 (sep.). — Equatorial Amer. 
rufipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 102. v. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 88. 

Amerik. Dipt, iii, 36. — Brazil (Mcq.); Cura9ao (v. d. W.). 
rufipes Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 103.— Chili. 
ruiiventris Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 362.— Brazil, 
spinigena Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 26. — Valdivia. 
subsericans Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 207. — So. Amer. 
taitensis Sch., Novara, 314. v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 36. — Tahiti (Sch.). 

Bahia ; Gruadeloupe (v. d. W.). 
tessellata Fab., Syst. Ant. 285 {Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 363.— Brazil 

(Wd.); So. Amer. (Fab.). 
truncata Sch., Novara, 314. — Chili. 

varipes Rdi., Dipt. Am. ^q. Oscul. (sep.) 10. — Rio Napo. 
violenta Wlk., List, 826. — Gralapagos. 
xanthophora Sch., Novara, 313. — So. Amer. 



Gen. SARCOPHAGULA. 

V. d. Wulp, Tijds. V. Ent. xxx, 174. (1887). 

amata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 367 (Sarcophaga) . v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. xxx, 174. 

—So. Amer. (Wd.). 
brevispina Thoms., Eugen. Resa, 539 {Sarcophagd). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. 

xxx, 174. — Rio Janeiro (Thoms.). 
calida Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 366 (Sarcophaga) . v. d. W., Tijds, v. Ent. xxx, 174. 

—Brazil (Wd.). 
canescens Thoms., Eugen. Resa, 539 (Sarcophaga). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent; 

xxx, 174. — Rio Janeiro (Thoms.). 
despecta Thoms., Eugen. Resa, 540 (Sarcophaga). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. 

xxx, 174. — Panama ; Puna (Thoms.); So. Amer. (v. d. W.). 
genalis Thoms., Eugen. Resa, 539 (Sarcophaga). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. 

xxx, 174.— Brazil- (Wd., Thorns.). 
Syn. Sarcophaga parvula Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 368. 
Note. — B. B. (Muse. Sch. ii, 110) recognize S. parvula and S. genalis as 

distinct. 
obsoleta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 367 (Sarcophaga). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. xxx, 

174.— W. Indies (Wd.); So. Amer. (v. d. W.) 
occidua Fab., Ent. Syst. iv, 315. Syst. Ant. 288 (Sarcophaga). Wd., Aus. 

Zw. ii, 368 (c?o.). v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 37 (o?o.). v. d. W., Tijds. 

V. Ent. xxx, 174.— Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.); W. I. (Wd.). 
pallicrus Thoms., Eugen. Resa (Sarcophaga). — So. Amer. 



South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidae. 31 

sugens Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 367 {Sarcophaga) . v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. xxx, 

174.— Brazil (Wd.). 
surinamensis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 366 (Sarcophaga). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. 

xxx, 174. — Surinam (Wd.). 
terminalis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 366 (Sarcophaga). v. d. W., Tijds. v. Ent. xxx, 

174._Brazil (Wd.). 



Gen. PTILOZEUXIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. i, 55. (1889). 

brevicornis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 299 (Tachina). B. B., Muse. Seh. iii, 111.— 
Montevideo (Wd.). 

Gen. PHRISSOPODA. 

Mcq., Hist. Nat. Dipt, ii, 222. (1835). 

brullei Meq., Hist. Nat. ii, 223. — So. Amer. 

maculata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 97, pi. 11, f. 4. — Cayenne. 

praBceps Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 355 (Sarcophaga). B. B., Mus. Seh. i, 56. — So. 

Amer. (B. B.). 
splendens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 96, pi. 11, f. 3.— Africa ; ? Chili. 

Gen. MICROCERELLA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 236. (1850). 

rufomaculata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 236, pi. 22, f. 1.— Chili. 
sarcophagina Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 541. — Valparaiso. 
steindachneri B. B., Mus. Seh. ii, 85. — Galapagos Is. 



Fam. MUSCIDAE. 

Gen. STOMOXYS. 

Geoffroy, Hist, des Insectes, i. (1764). 

calcitrans Lin,, Fab., Meig., Harris, et al., R. Desv. Myod. 386. — Brazil 

(R. D.). 
genicTilata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 192. — Brazil. 
morio Fab., Ent. Syst. iv, 393. Syst. Ant. 279. Mant. Ins. ii, 362. Syst. 

Ent. 797.— Brazil. 
nebulosa Fab., Syst. Ant. 282. Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 252.— So. America. (Wd.); 

Is. So. Amer. (Fab.). 
sugillatrix R. D., Myod. 386.— Brazil. 
trifaria Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 250. Anal. Ent. 41.— So. Amer. 
variegata Fab., Syst. Ant. 281. Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 251.— So. Amer. (Fab., 

Wd.). 



32 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidas. 

Gen. PACHYMYIA. 
Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 115. (1843). 

crassa Wd., B. B. Mus. Sch. ii, 113 (Chcetogyne), — Brazil. 

Note. — Is this Musca crassa Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 387? 
yexans Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 248 (Stomoxys) . Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 208 (Prosena). 

B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 57 (Chcetogyne) . Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 115, pi. 14, 

f. 3.— Sao Paulo, Brazil (Wd., Mcq.). 

Gen. MYIOSPILA. 
Rdi., Dipt. Ital. Prod, i, 91. (1856). 

cyanea Mcq., B. B., Muse. Sch. i, 139. — Chili. 
Note. — Is this species described ? 

Gen. GRAPHOMYIA. 

Rob., Desv. Myod. 403. (1830). 

americana Sch., Novara, 304.— So. America. 

Note. — The name is preoccupied by R. D. for a N. Am. species. If the two 

species are finally relegated to the same genus, the present one may be 

known as G. meridionalis. 
chilensis Big., Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. xii, 616.— Chili. 

Gen. MUSCA. 
Linn., Fauna Suecica, 439. (1763). 

acromion Wd., Anal. Ent. 47. Aus. Zw. ii, 412. — So. America. 

annulata Fab., Mant. Ins. ii, 348. — Cayenne. 

aurulans R. D., Myod. 397. — Brazil. 

basilaris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 153. Wlk., List, 901. — Brazil (Mcq.); Jamaica 

(Wlk.). 
oaruca Wlk., List, 877.— Chili. 

chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 154, pi. 20, f. 6.— Chili. 
concolor Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 333. — So. Amer. 
consanguinea Rdi., Esame Ditt. Brasil, (sep.) 18. Dipt. Am. Merid. Strobel 

(sep.)4. — Brazil; Buenos Ayres ; Patagonia. 
Note. — This is perhaps a var. of M. domestica. 
costalis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 344. — So. Amer. 
dilecta Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 419. — Brazil. 

Note. — Br. and Bgst. say (Muse. Schiz. ii, 72) that this species is very 

likely the same as Zosteromyia cingulata Mcq., from Tasmania. 
domestica Lin., Fab., Meig., R. Desv., et al. Sch., Novara, 306. Rdi., Dipt. 

Am. Merid. Strobel (sep.) 3. v. d. W. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 37. — So. Amer. 

?(Sch.); Buenos Ayres; Patagonia (Rdi.); Chili (Mcq.); Argentine 

Rep. (v. d. W.); N. Amer. ; Europe (auct.). 
Var. aurifacies R. D. ; campestris R. D. ; vicina Mcq. (Rdi. 1. c.) 
Syn. M. analis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 154, pi. 21, f. 2. 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidee. 33 

?equestris Fab., Sjst. Ent. 782. — Brazil. 

fasciata Wlk., Dipt. Sauiid. 337.— Brazil. 

fulvescens R. D., Myod. 397. — Cayenne. 

gamelia Wlk., List, 878. — Montevideo. 

gibba Fab., Syst. Ant. 297.— So. Amer. 

incerta Wlk.. Dipt. Saund. 334. — Colombia. 

lateralis Fab., Syst. Ant. 286. Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 394.— So. Amer. (Fab.,Wd.). 

lyrcea Wlk., List, 873. — Montevideo. 

mactans Fab., Ent. Syst. iv, 321. Mant. Ins. ii, 344. Syst. Ant. 295.— 

Cayenne. 
pampaslana Big., Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. xxii, 607. — Buenos Ayres. 
phauda WJk., List, 896. — Galapagos. 
pionia Wlk., List, 880, — Galapagos. 

purpurascens Wlk., Lin. Trans, xvii, 355. List, 889. — St. Catharine, Brazil. 
purpurea Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 337. — So. Amer. 
rufiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 200, pi. 17, 8.— Brazil. 
semiatra Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 421. — Brazil. 
stipata Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 348. — Demerara. 
stomoxidea R. D., Myod. 396. — Brazil. 
sufFusa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 336. — Brazil. 
venatoria Fab., Syst. Ant. 285. Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 391. — So. Amer. (Fab., 

Wd.). 
verena Wlk., List, 874. — Venezuela. 

Gen. PHASIOPHANA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 86. (1891). 

obsoleta Wd. litt. {Musca). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 86.— Brazil (B. B.). 

Gen. CYRTONEURA. 

Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 274. (1835). 

bipunctata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 417 {Musca). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 115. — Brazil 

(Wd.). 
brevis Sch., Novara, 303. — So. America. 

cyanea Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 157, pi. 21, f. 6. — Conception, Chili. 
cylindrica Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 200, pi. 17, f. 12.— Brazil. 
lindigii Sch., Novara, 298 {Anthomyia) . B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 115. — So. Amer. 

(Sch.). 
maculipeiinata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 252, pi. 23, f. 7 {Pyrellia). Sch., 

Novara, 304 (c/o.). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 115.— So. Amer. ; Colombia 

(Sch.); Brazil (Mcq., Sch.). 
nudiseta v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 42. — Argentine Rep. 
pictipennis Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1878, 39.— Brazil. 
scutellaris Fab., Syst. Ant. 293 {Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 410 {do.). 

B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 115.— So. Amer. (Fab., Wd.). 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dec. 1892.--3 



34 South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidse. 

stabulans Fall., Meig. Ztt. {Musca). Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 277. Sell., Dipt. 

Austr. i, 597. Blancli. in Gay. Hist. Chili, vii, 437. v. d. W., Notes 

Leyd. Mus. iv, 89. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 41. — Chili (Mcq., Blanch., v. d. 

W.); Fu. and No. Amer. (0. S.); Auckland (Sch.); Australia (Mcq.). 

Syn. Anthomyia cinerascens Wd., Zool. Mag. i, 1, 79. 

Cyrtoneura vicina Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 157, pi. 21, f. 7. 
violacea Fab., Syst. Ant. 288 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 409 (do.). B. B., 
Mus. Sch. ii, 115.— Brazil (Wd.); So. Amer. (Fab.). 

Gen. IDIA. 

Meig., Syst. Beschr. v, 9. (1826). 

americana Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 193. — Colombia. 

Gen. RHYNCHOMYIA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 424. (1830). 

fasciata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 194. — Colombia. 

Gen. MESEMBRINA 
Meigen, Syst. Beschr. v, 10. (1826). 

eeneiventris Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 376 (Dexia). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 115. — 

Brazil (Wd.). 
quadrilineata Fab., Syst. Ant. 286 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 347. Perty, 

Delect. An. Brasil. 186, pi. 37, f. 6.— Brazil (Wd.); So. Amer. (Fab.); 

Sebastianopolis (Pty.). 

Gen. PARALUCILIA. 

Br. Bgst., Muse. Schiz. ii, 87. (1891). 

fulvipes Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 132, pi. 16, f. ?> (Calliphora) . Sch., Novara, 309 
(do.). Rdi., Dipt. Am. Merid. Strobel (sep.) 3 (Somomyia). B. B., Mus. 
Sch. ii, 87. — Chili (Mcq., Sch.); Buenos Ayres ; Mendoza ; Concordia 
(Rdi.). 

Gen. LUCILIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 452. (1830). 

curvipes Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 544. — Rio .Janeiro. 

durvillei Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 142, pi. 20, f. 3.— Payta, Peru. 

elegans Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 112. — So. Amer. 

eximia Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 399 (Musca). v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, lii, 39.— 

Brazil (Wd.); Argentine (v. d. W.). 
fernandica Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 112, pi. 6, f. 9. — Fernando. 
fulvicornis R. D., Myod. 462.— Brazil. 

fuscanipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 250, pi. 23, f. 5. — Bahia. 
incisuralis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 147, pi. 20, f. 2,— Braail. 



South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidse. 35 

luteicornis Jsen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 375. — Venezuela. 
marginata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 147. — Brazil, or Chili. 
nigrofasciata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 112, pi. 6, f. 8. — Fernando. 
nubipennis Rdi., Esame Ditt. Brasil. (sep.) 17. — Brazil (Wd., Rdi.). 

Syn. Musca segmentaria Wd. (non Fab.), Aus. Zw. ii, 40. 
ochricornis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 408 {Musca'). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 149, pi. 20, 

f. 5 (Pi/rellia). Bigot, Sagra, 821 (Jo.). B. B.,. Mus. Sch. ii, 116.— 

Brazil (Wd., Mcq.); Cuba (Mcq., Big.). 
parensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 142, pi. 18, f. 5.— Par4. 
peruviana R. D., Myod. 455. — Peru. 
picicrus Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 543. — Panama. 
porticola Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 544. — Callao. 
princeps Rdi., Esame Ditt. Brasil. (sep.) 17. — Brazil, 
punctipeunis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sapl. iii, 56. — Brazil. 
putrida Fab., Syst. Ent. 775. Ent. Syst. iv, 316. Mant. Ins. ii, 343. Syst. 

Ant. 288 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 404 (do.). Jaen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 

4 (Sep.). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 116.— Is. Amer. (Fab.); So. Amer. (Wd.); 

Cuba (Jsen.). 
quadrisignata Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 544. — Galapagos. 
ruficbrnis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 198. Sch., Novara, 304. Bigot, Sagra, 821. 

—Chili (Sch.); Colombia (Mcq.); Cuba (Big.). 
segmentaria Fab., Syst. Ant. 292 (Musca). B. B., Mus. Sch. ii, 116.— So. 

Amer. (Fab.). 
smaragdula R. D., Myod. 462.— Brazil. 

subrectineuris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 250. — Minas-Geraes, Brazil, 
varipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 141, pi. 19, f. 3.— Brazil. 



Gen. COMPSOMYIA. 

Rdi., An. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova vii. 9. (1875). 

macellaria Fab., Syst. Ent. 776. Ent. Syst. iv, 319. Mant. Ins. ii, 344. 
Syst. Ant. 292 (Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 405 (do.). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. 
ii, 3, 147, pi. 17, f. 9 (Lucilia). E. Lynch-Arribalz., An. Soc. Cien. 
Agent. X, 71. v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 38. See Willist., Albatross 
Explor., Proc. IJ. S. Nat. Mus. xii, 203-4, for extensive synonymy which 
I have not recognized in this catalogue. — Brazil (Wd., Mcq.); Is. Amer. 
(Fab.); Argentine Rep. ; Guadeloupe (v. d. W.); Cuba (Mcq.); United 
States. 
Note. — B. B. (Mus. Sch. ii, 116) apparently do not recognize this genus, 
but refer the species to Calliphora. 

Gen. METALLICOMYIA. 

V. Roder, Dipt. Ges. S. A. Al. Stiibel (sep.) 13. (1886). 

elegans v. Rod., Dipt. Ges. S. A. (sep.) 13, pi., ff. 4, 4a. — Ecuador. 



36 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 

Gen. BLEPHARICNEMA. 

Mcq. Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 126. (1843). 

splendens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 127, pi. 15, f. 5. Scli., Novara, 312. v. Rod. 
Dipt. Ges. S. A. A\. Stlibel, (sep.) 13. B. B., Mns. Scli. i, 54.— So. 
Amer. (Sch.); Ecuador (v. Rod.); Venezuela (B. B.). 

Gen. CALLIPHORA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 433. (1830). 

anthropophaga Conil, Act. Ac. N. C. Ex. iii, 41. — So. Amer. 

fuscipennis Jsen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 376. — Brazil. 

gulo Fab., Syst. Ant. 283 {Musca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 384 {do.). Mcq., Hist. 

Nat. ii, 263.— So. Amer. (Fab.). 
infesta Philippi, Zeitschr. Ges. Naturw. xvii, 513. — Chili. 
magellanica Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 131. — Str. Magellan. 
nigribasis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 242. — Colombia. 
peruviana R. D., Myod. 438. Mcq. Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 131, pi. 16, f. 9.— Peru 

(R. D.). 
peruviana Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 243, pi. 22, f. 9.— Payta, Peru. 

Note. — The name is preoccupied, and may be changed to C. paytensis. 
phacoptera v. d. W., Notes Leyd. Mus. iv, 88. Amerik. Dipt, iii, 40. — Chili. 
semiatra Sch., Novara, 308. v. Rod., Dipt. Ges. S. A. Al. Sttibel (sep.), 15. — 

Colombia (Sch.); Paramo, Colomb. (v. Rod.). 
tibialis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 242. — Rio Janeiro. 
vomitoria Lin., Fab., Meig., et al. (Musca). Mcq., Dipt, Ex. iii, 3, l27. — 

Guiana (Mcq.); Eu. and No. x\mer. 

Gen. CHRYSOMYIA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 444. (1830). 

affinis R. D., Myod., 445. — Brazil. 

fulvicrura R. D., Myod., 446. — Montevideo. 

hyacinthina R. D., Myod., 450. Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3. 148, pi. 17, f. 8 (Lucilia). 

— So. Amer. (R. D.); No. Amer. (Mcq.). 
hyacinthina R. D., Myod., 462.— Brazil. 

Note. — The name is preoccupied. It may be called C. brasiliensis. 
idioidea R. D., Myod., 445. Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 251 (ZMaVm).— Brazil (Mcq., 

R. D.). 
lepida R. D., Myod., 448.— Brazil. 
socia R. D., Myod., 447.— Brazil. 
viridula R. D., Myod., 445.— Brazil. ' 

Gen. SOMOMYIA. 
Rdi., Att. Accad. Sc! Bologna. (1861). 

acutangula Rdi., Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 28. — So. Amer. 
amazona Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 255. — Brazil. 



South American Species of Calyptrate Mascidse. 3^ 

americana Rdi., Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 29. — Chili (Mcq.). 

Syn. Calliphora rujipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 132. 
annulipes Philippi, Zeitschr. Gres. Naturw. xvii, 514 {Calliphora). Rdi., Dipt. 

Ex. (sep.) 30.— Chili (Phil., Rdi.). 
argentina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 254. — Buenos Ayres. 
calogaster Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 246.— La Plata. 
castanipes Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 245. — Quito. 
chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 131, pi. 16, f. 1 {Calliphora). Sch., Nov. 309 

{do.). Rdi., Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 29.— Chili (Mcq., Sch., Rdi.). 
? Syn. Som. philippiana Rdi., Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 29. 
fulvobarbata Big., Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., xii, 598. — Montevideo. 
gratiosa Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 253. — Buenos Ayres. 
montevidensis Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 46. — Montevideo. 
nitens Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 244.— Colombia. 
orenoquina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, 253. — Brazil. 
rubrifrons Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 250, pi. 23, f. 5 {Lucilla). Rdi., Dipt. 

Am. iMerid. Strob. (sep.) 3. — Buenos Ayres (Mcq., Rdi.). 
transmarina Rdi., Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 29. — So. Amer. 



Gen. PYRELLIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 462. (1830). 

chloe Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1878, 36.— Quito. 
diversipalpis Rdi., Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 30. — So. Amer. (Mcq.). 

Syn. Pijr. rvjipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 114. 
facilis Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 214.— So. Amer. 
flavicornis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 58, pi. 6, f. 11. — Brazil. 
maculipenuis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 199, pi. 17, f. 6. — Colombia; Brazil. 
ochrifacies Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 15. — St. Sebastian, Brazil. 
rufipalpis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 252. — Minas-Geraes, Brazil. 
violacea R. D., Myod. 463.— Brazil. 

Gen. DASYPHORA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 409. (1830). 

spinifera v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 39. — Argentine Rep. 

Gen. OCHROMYIA. 
Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 132. (1843). 

flavipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 134, pi. 17, f. 3. — Pard. 

fuscipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 135, pi. 17, f. 2. Rdi., Esame Ditt. Brasil. 

17 (sep.).— Para (Mcq., Rdi.). 
gigas Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. i, 196, pi. 17, f. 9.— Brazil. 
nigrifrons Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1878, 39.— Brazil. 
testacea R. D., Myod. 426 {Bengalia). — Cayenne ; New Holland. 



38 South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidae. 

Gen. REINVTARDTIA. 
Br. Bgst., Muse. Sch. i, 90. (1889). 

tachinina B. B., Mus. Sch. i, 90, 103 ; ii, 109.— Venezuela. 

Gen. MYA. 
Edi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 13. (1850). 

alia R. D., Myod. 447 {Chrysomyia) . Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 13.— Brazil 

(R. D.); St. Sebastian (Rdi.). 
jonicroma Rdi., Dipt. Am. ^q. Oscul. (sep.) 12.— Rio Napo. 
semidiaphana Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 15.— St. Sebastian. 
versicolor Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 13. Dipt. Am. iEq. Oscul. (sep.) 11. — 

Venezuela ; Rio Napo. 

Gen. GRALLOMYA. 
Rdi., Esap. Ditt. (sep.) 18. (1850). 

osculati Rdi., Dipt. Am. JEq. Oscul. (sep.) 12. — Rio Napo. 



Fam. ANTHOMYIDAE. 

Gen. ARICIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 486. (1830). 

bicolor Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v. 117, pi. 6, f. 14.— ? Brazil. 

oanaliculata R. D., Myod. 484 (Phaonia). — Brazil. 

?chilensis Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 294 (Yetodesia).— Chili. 

dichroma VVd., Aus. Zw. ii, 425 (Anthomyia), Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v,117, 

pi. 6, f. 13.— Brazil (Wd., Mcq.). 
dubia Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 294 (Ye^oc?e.sm).— Chili. 
erratica Fall., Macq. Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 162. — Brazil ; Europe (Mcq.). 
flavicornis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. v, 117, pi. 6, f. 12.— St. Fernando. 
ignava Wlk., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. s. iv, 217.— Brazil. 
rufiguttata Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 258, pi. 23, f. 16.— Bahia. 
semiclausa Sch., Novara, 302. — Chili. 

Gen. SPILOGASTER. 

Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 293. (1835). 

adelpha Sch., Novara, 300. — So. Amer. 

bipunctata Sch., Novara, 299. — So. Amer. 

calliphoroides Jsen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 371. — Brazil. 

geniculatus Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 289. — Buenos Ayres. 

grandis Sch., Novara, 302. — So. Amer. 

maculipennis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 163, pi. 22, f. 3. — Gruiana. 

monacha Sch., Novara, 301. — So. Amer. 



I 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 39 

poeciloptera Sch., Novara, 300. — Brazil. 

principalis Sch., Novara, 301. — So. Amer. 

saeva Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 430 (Anthomyia) . Sch., Nov. 300.— Brazil (Wd.); 

So. Amer. (Sch.). 
se:spunctata v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 43. — Argentine Rep. 
trispilus Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 285. — Buenos Ayres. 

Gen. HYDROT^A. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 509. (1830). 

stuebeli v. Rod., Dipt. Ges. S. A. Al. Stiibel, 15 (sep.).— Colombia (v. Rod.); 
? Chili ; New Holland (Mcq.). 
?Syn. Hydr. cyaneiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 263; Sup. v, 118. 

Gen. OPHYRA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 516. (1830). 

andina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 304.— Chili. 

argentina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 302. — Buenos Ayres. 

ecsrulea Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 165, pi. 22, f. 5. Rdi., Dipt. Am. Merid. Strob. 

(sep.) 4 (Limnophora) . Big., Miss. Cap Horn. Dipt. 29. — Chili (Mcq., 

Big.); Buenos Ayres (Rdi.). 
hirtula Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 303,— Chili. 
pusilla Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 304.— Chili. 
setosa Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 303.^Cliili. 
virescens Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 164. — Guaratuba, Brazil, 

Gen. LIMNOPHORA. 

Rob. Desv., Myod. 517. (1830). 

aurifera Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 273.— Chili. 

chlorogaster Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 271. — Buenos Ayres. 

elegans Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 165, pi. 22, f. 6. — Gruiana. 

fuscineuris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 263, pi. 24, f. 6. — Buenos Ayres. 

limbata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 271.— Chili. 

lynchii v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 43. — Argentine Rep. 

vicina R. D., Myod. 520. — Brazil. 

zebrina Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 273.— Chili. 

Gen. HYLEMYIA. 
Rob. Desv., Myod. 550. (1830). 

andicola Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 300.— Chili. 

nigripes R. D., Myod. 553. Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 168, pi. 22, f. 8.— Cayenne. 

Gen. ANTHOMYIA. 

Meig., Illig. Mag. ii, 281. (1803). 

aethiops Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 365.— Brazil. 
arcuata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 425. — Brazil. 



40 South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidse. 

brasiliensis Wlk., Dipt. Sauiid. 366. — Brazil. 

brevipalpis Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 557. — Guayaquil. 

certa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 364.— Brazil. 

chilensis Jaen., Neue Ex. Dipt. 373. — Chili. 

chrysostoma Rdi., Dipt. Exot. (sep.) 33. — Chili. 

corelia Wlk., List, 953. — Montevideo. 

?cothurnata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 298.— Chili. 

cutilia Wlk., List, 954. — Montevideo. 

despecta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 364. — Brazil. 

diversa Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 436. — Montevideo. 

? dubia Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 298.— Chili. 

felsina Wlk., List, 955. — Montevideo. 

gemina Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 436. — Brazil. 

grisea Fab., Syst. Ant. 293 CMusca). Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 422.— So. Araer. 

CFab.,Wd.). 
heydenii Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 429. — Brazil. 
inducta Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 360.— Brazil. 
lanicrus Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 556. — Buenos Ayres. 
leucotelus Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 361. — Brazil. 
limbata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 425. — Brazil. 
maculipennis Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 357. — Brazil. 
maculosa Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 357. — Brazil. 
nigrina Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 424. — Brazil. 

ovativentris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 267, pi. 24, f. 12.— Montevideo. 
pantherina Wd., Anal. Ent. 53. Aus. Zw. ii, 430. — So. Amer. 
pedella Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 423.— Brazil. 
praecipua Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 351. — Brazil. 
prominula Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 550. — Buenos Ayres. 
? rubrifrons Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 297.— Chili. 
sanctijacobi Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 296.— Chili. 
setia Wlk., List, 956. — Galapagos. 
spiloptera Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 433. — Brazil. 
tenuior Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 365. — Brazil. 
tricolor Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 358.— Brazil. 
unicolor Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 353. — So. Amer. 
vicaria Wlk., Dipt. Saund. 361.— -Brazil. 
virgata Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 434. — Brazil. 



CRASPEDOCH.51TA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 268. (1850). 

punctipennis Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 435 (Anfhomyia). v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, 
iii, 45 {Chortophila). Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 269, pi. 24, f. 14.— Mon- 
tevideo (Wd., Mcq.); Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.). 



South American Species of Galyptrate Muscidse, 41 

Gen. CHORTOPHILA. 

Mcq., Hist. Nat. ii, 323. (1835). 

albostriata v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 46. — Argentine Rep. 
chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 2B5, pi. 24, f. 9.— Coquimbo, Cliili. 
chlorogaster Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 427 {Anthomyid) . v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt. 

iii, 47. — Montevideo (Wd.); Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.). 
limbinervis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 169, pi. 22, f. 2.— Chili. 
liturata Rdi., Dipt. Am. Merid. Strob. (sep.) 5. — Buenos Ayres. 
rubrifrons Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 279. — Buenos Ayres. 

Gen. PARACHORTOPHILA. 

Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1852, 21. (1852). 

ruficoxa Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 280.— Chili. 

Gen. ATOMOGASTER. 

Mcq., Hist. Nat. Dipt, ii, 329. (1835). 

pusio Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 437 {Antliomyia) . Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 169.— So. 
Amer. (Wd.). 

Gen. HOMALOMYIA. 

Bouche, Naturg. d. Insecten, i, 88. (1834). 

canicularis Lin., Fab., et al. (Musca), Mg., Mcq., Ztt. (^Anthomyia). Sch., 

Dipt. Austr. i, 654. v. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 47. Big., An. Soc. 

Ent. Fr. 1885, 284.— Chili (Mcq., Blanch.); Buenos Ayres (Big., v. d. 

W.); No. Amer. and Eu. 
Syn. Anthomyia chilensis Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 171, pi. 23, f. 4. Blanch, in 

Gay, Hist. Chili, vii, 442. 
erythropsis Big., Miss. Cap Horn. Dipt. 30, pi. 4, f. 1. — Cape Horn. 

Gen. LISPB. 
Latreille, Precis d. Caract. g^ner. (1796). 

rufitibialis Mcq., Dipt. Ex., ii, 3, 168, pL 22, f. 7.— Brazil, or Chili. 

Gen. CCENOSIA. 

Meig., Syst. Beschr. v, 210. (1826). 

annulipes Mcq., Dipt. Ex. ii, 3, 172, pi. 23, f. 7.— Chili. 
pipunculina Thorns., Eugen. Resa, 559. — Rio Janeiro. 

Gen. MYANTHA. 
Rdi., Dipt. Ital. Prod. i. (1856). 

canicularis Lin., Rdi. Dipt. Ex. (sep.) 34. — Chili. 

Note. — Is this a synonym of Homalomyia canicularis L. ? 
fusconotata Rdi., Dipt. Am. Merid. Strob. (sep.) 4. — Mendoza. 



42 South American Species of Calyptraie Muscidae. 

Gen. BRACHYGASTERINA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Exot. Sup. iv, 259. (1850-1). 

chalybea Wd., Aus. Zw. ii, 428 (Anthomyia), Sch., Novara, 299 (Limnophora) . 
V. d. W., Amerik. Dipt, iii, 44.— Brazil (Wd.); Chili (Mcq., Blanch., 
Sch.); Argentine Rep. (v. d. W.). 
Syn. Brachyg. violaceiventris Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 259, pi. 23, f. 17. 
Blanch, in Gay, Hist. Chili, vii, 439. 

Gen. MICROCHYLUM. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 256. (1850-1). 

vittatum Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 257, pi. 23, f. 11.— Bahia. 

Gen. LEUCOMELINA. 

Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 261. (1850-1). 

pica Mcq., Dipt. Ex. Sup. iv, 262, pi. 24, f. 3. — Minas-Geraes, Brazil. 

Gen. SPATHIPHEROMYIA. 

Big., Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1884, 123. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 267. (1884). 

stellata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 267.— Chili. 

Gen. DASYPHYMA. 
Bigot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1882, 254. An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 268. (1882). 

armata Big., An. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1885, 268.— Chili. 



South American Species of Calyptrate Muscidse. 43 



LIST OF TITLES QUOTED. 

Bigot, J. M. F. — Papers in Bulletin de la Society entomologique de France. 

Paris. 
Bigot, J. M. F. — Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. In Annales de la Societe 

entomologique de France. Paris. 
Bigot, J. M. F. — Dipteres noureaux ou peu connus. Muscidi. In Bulletin 

de la Societe zoologique de France. XII. Paris, 1887. 
Bigot, J. M. F. — Mission scientifique du Cap Horn. Tome VI. Zoologie. 

Insectes. Dipteres. Paris, 1888. 
Brauer, F. — Monographie der CEstriden. Wien, 1863. 
Brauer, F., und J. Edlen von Bergenstamm. — Die Zweifliigler des Kaiserliclien 

Museums zu Wien. IV. Vorarbeiten zu einer Monographie der Muscaria 

scliizometopa (exclusive Anthomyidse). Pars i. In Denkschriften der 

Mathematiscli-naturwissenschaftliclien Classe der Kaiserliclien Akademie 

der Wissenschaften. Band LVI. Wien, 1889. 
Brauer, F., und J. Edlen von Bergenstamm. — Die Zweifliigler, etc. V. Vorar- 
beiten, etc. Pars II. In Denkschriften, etc. Band LVIII. Wien, 1891. 
Fabricius, J. C. — Systema Entomologise. Antliata. Flensburgi et Lipsise, 

1775. 
Fabricids, J. C. — Mantissa Insectorum. Vol. II. Antliata. Hafniae, 1787. 
Fabricius, J. C. — Systema Antliatorum. Brunsvigse, 1805. 
J^nnicke, F. — Neue exotiscbe Dipteren. In Abhandl. d. Senckenb. Ges. 

Vol. VI. Frankfurt. 1867. 
Macquart, J. — Histoire Naturelle des Dipteres. Vol. II. Suites a Buffon. 

Paris, 3 835. 
Macquart, J. — Dipteres Exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Vol. II, part 3. 

Supplements i, ii, iii, iv, v. Paris, 1842-55. 
Osten-Sacken, C. R. — Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. 

Second ed. Smithsonian Institution : Washington, 1878. 
Perty, Maximilianus.— Delectus aniraalium articulatorum quae in itinere per 

Brasiliara, etc., coUegerunt. Monachii. 1830-34. 
Robineau-Desvoidy, J. B. — Essai sur les Myodaires. In Memoires des savants 

etrangers de I'Academie des Sciences de Paris. Vol. II. Paris, 1830. 
Rondani, C. — Esame di varie specie d'insetti ditteri Brasiliani. In Studi 

Entomolog. Vol. I. Torino, 1848. 
Rondani, C. — Dipterorum species aliquse in America sequatoriali collectae a 

Cajetano Osoulati, observatse et distinctse, novis breviter descriptis. In 

Nuovi Ann. sc. nat. Bologna. Ser. 3. Vol. II. Bologna, 1850. 
Rondani, C. — Osservazioni sopra alquante specie di esapodi ditteri del Museo 

Torinese. In Nuovi Annali sc. nat. Bologna. Ser. 3. Vol. II. Bologna, 

1850. 



44 South American Sjyecies of Galyptrate Muscidae. 

RoNDANT, C. — Dipterorum species et genera aliqna exotica, revisa et aniiotata 
iiovis noiiuUis descriptis. In Arcliivio per la Zoologia. Vol. III. Modena, 
1863. 

RoNDANi, C. — Diptera aliqua in America meridionali lecta a Prof. P. Strobel 
annis 1866-67 distincta et aunotata, novis aliquibus descriptis. In An- 
nuario Soc. Nat. in Modena. Vol. III. Modena, 1868. 

ScHiNER, J. R. — Reise der oesterreichisclien Fregatte Novara um die Erde in 
den Jahren, 1857-59. Zoologischer Theil. Diptera. Wien, 1868. 

Thomson, C. Gr. — Kongliga Svenska fregatten Eugenics Resa omkring Jorden. 
Zoologi. Entomologiska bidrag. Diptera, species novas descripsit. Stock- 
holm, 1868. 

VAN DER WuLP, F. M. — Remarks on certain American Diptera in the Leyden 
Museum, and description of nine new species. In Notes from the Leyden 
Museum. Vol. IV. Leyden, 1882. 

VAN DER WuLP, F. M. — Amerikaausche Diptera. Part iii. In Tijdschrift voor 
Entomologie. XXVI. 's Gravenhage (The Hague), 1883. 

VAN DER WuLP, F. M. — Nog iets over langwerpige Dexinen. In Tijdschrift 
voor Entomologie. XXX. The Hague, 1887. 

VAN DER WuLP, B\ M. — Sarcopliagula, een nieuw geslacht der Sarcophaginae. 
In Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. XXX, pp. 173-174. The Hague, 1887. 

VAN DER WuLP, F. M. — Biologia Centrali-Americana. Zoologia. Insecta. Dip- 
tera. Vol. IT. London, 1888-91. 

VON RoDER, V. — Dipteren gesammelt in den Jahren, 1868-77, auf eiiier Reise 
durch Siid-Amerika von Alphons Stlibel. In Stettiner Entomol. Zeitung. 
Vol. XLVII. Stettin, 1886. Sep. Berlin, 1891. 

Walker, F. — List of the Specimens of Dipterous Insects in the Collection of 
the British Museum. Part iv. London, 1849. 

Walker, F. — Insecta Saundersiana, or characters of undescribed Insects in 
the collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq. Diptera. London, 1856. 

Walker, F. — Characters of undescribed Diptera in the collection of W. W. 
Saunders, Esq., F.R.S., etc. In Trans, of the Entomolog. Society of Lon- 
don. New Series. Vol. IV. London, 1858. 

Wiedemann, C. R. W. — Aussereuropaische Zweifliigelige Insecten. Vol. II. 
Hamra, 1830. 

WiLLiSTON, S. W. — Dipterological Notes and Descriptions. Muscidse calyp- 
tratse. In Transactions of the American Entomolog. Society. Vol. XIII. 
. Philadelphia, 1886. 

WiLLiSTON, S. W. — An interesting new genus of South American Tachinidse. 
In Entomologica Americana. Vol. Ill, pp. 151-3. Brooklyn, 1887. 

WiLLiSTON, S. W. — Scientific results of explorations by the U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion Steamer Albatross. Part v. Annotated Catalogue of the Insects 
collected in 1887-88. Diptera. In Proceed, of U. S. National Museum. 
Vol. XII. Washington, 1889. 



II. — An Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Dr. Thomas 
Moromg in Paraguay, 1888-1890. 

BY THOMAS MORONG AND N. L. BRITTON, 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF MISS ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 

Bead June 6, 1892. 

The journey in which the plants enumerated and described in this 
paper were collected was made in the years 1888, 1889, and 1890. 
It was undertaken under the auspices of the Torrey Botanical Club, 
and by the aid of two members of that organization and a generous 
friend of science in Boston, Mass. 

With the exception of a few plants hastily snatched by the writer 
at or near Buenos Aires, while waiting to proceed up the Rio de la 
Plata, the main part of the specimens was obtained in central Para- 
guay within a radius of 100 miles from Asuncion. In January, 
1890, an exploration of the Pilcomayo River, a tributary of the 
Paraguay which forms the boundary line between western Para- 
guay and the Argentine Republic, was set on foot by the Paraguay 
Land Company, and the writer was invited to act as naturalist of 
the expedition. A small steamer was built in England for the pur- 
pose, and sent up the river under the command of Prof. 0. J. Storm, 
of Buenos Aires. After a well nigh herculean effort, lasting six 
months, to overcome the obstructions of this little stream, consist- 
ing of shallows, sand-bars, and innumerable snags and old logs, 
and after proceeding nearly 400 miles, stemming on the way many 
swift and dangerous rapids and a waterfall around which the steamer 
was dragged by land, we encountered an immense swamp or lagoon 
overgrown with grasses and weeds through which it was impossible 
to force a way by any means at our command, and the expedition 
was necessarily abandoned. All of this region, lying in the Gran 
Chaco, is uninhabited except by tribes of roving savages, and much 
of it had never been previously traversed by civilized men. Here 
a considerable, and not the least interesting, portion of the plants 
was collected. 

The notes appended to the species are taken in all cases from 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dec. 1892. 



46 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

written descriptions made by the collector in the field, or from 
fresh specimens directly after reaching home. The observations 
and measurements are entirely his own, none of them being drawn 
from the works cited in the naming of the species, and they simply 
record what he saw himself whether they conform exactly to the 
published descriptions or not. 

The determinations of the genera and species are due principally 
to Prof. N. L Britton, of Columbia College, who visited the Her- 
baria at Kew, the British Museum, Paris, and Geneva in the sum- 
mer of 1891, and compared such as could not be matched in the 
Herbarium of Columbia with the vast collections stored in those 
places. 

He was aided in his researches by such eminent European bota- 
nists as J. G. Baker, Edmund Baker, A. Cogniaux, N. E. Brown, 
M. T. Masters, A. Franchet, Casimir DeCandolle, and R. A. Rolfe, 
who courteously named many of the plants belonging to genera in 
which they are experts. 

Prof. Britton's descriptions of new species and occasional notes 
bear his signature. 

In this joint work we have been greatly assisted by Miss Anna 
Murray Yail, who has not only consulted many publications in the 
attempt to identify the species, but also sorted out the plants, ar- 
ranged them in systematic order, and devoted much time and labor 
to preparing the labels and distributing the specimens to subscribers. 

So much care has been exercised in the identification of the spe- 
cies, that we feel sure that the names are substantially correct. 

The nomenclature adopted is in accordance with the rules pro- 
mulgated by the Botanical Club of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science at its recent meeting in Rochester, 
New York. 

THOMAS MORONG. 

Columbia College, October 26, 1892. 



RANUNCULACEJE. 
Clematis Brasiliana, D.C., Syst. i, 143. 

Near Asuncion (759); Pilcomayo River (1067). 
A climbing vine with white and very fragrant flowers, much like 
our C. Virginiana. The tails of the fruit are longer, plumose, and 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 47 

exceedingly graceful. It climbs high and embowers tall shrubs in 
the Pilcomayo thickets. January-June. 

Ranunculus apiifolius, Pers., Syn., ii, 105. 
Buenos Aires (8). October. 

Ranunculus muricatus, L. Sp. PL, 780. 

Buenos Aires (7). October. 

ANONACE^. 

Rollinia emarginata^ Schleclit., Linnsea, ix, 315. 

Asuncion (99). November. = Balansa, No. 2296. Called in 
Guarani, Araticu ; in Spanish Chirimoya. 

This is not the large edible Chirimoya so common in Peru and 
the more northern South American countries, which, so far as I 
know, does not occur in Paraguay. It is a slender shrub with a 
handsome head of green, coriaceous leaves, 3-5 m. high, and some- 
times a small tree of twice that height. The flowers are curiously 
constructed, consisting of 3 small, ovate, appressed sepals, and 6 
petals, the 3 outer of which are yellow, flat bodies that stand edge 
upwards in a triangular position. These when drawn down at the 
base exhibit 3 other petals entirely unlike the outer ones, being 
small, rounded, and meeting in a whorl at the summit, with a pur- 
ple interior. Under these is a ball or arch of cohering stamens, 
which are completely concealed by the overlapping inner petals. 
Under all is another ball or arch of styles and stigmas, and this is 
completely enclosed by the over-arching mass of stamens. I could 
see no possible manner in which the pollen could reach the stigmas, 
and am satisfied that it must be done as in the next species of the 
same order, which I examined more closely. 

Anona cornifolia, St. Hil., Fl. Bras. Merid., i, 33. Ex. descr. 

Asuncion and Pilcomayo River (149). November. = Gibert, 
No. 1095. 

The outer petals here are not erect as in Rollinia, but flat and 
imbricated over the inner ones. A very similar arrangement of the 
stamens and pistils occurs however. The stamens are in an arched 
disk, the central ones apparently infertile, and all cohering by trun- 
cate callous connectives under which are the anthers. The stigmas 



48 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

lie under the thick mass of infertile stamens, and so far as I could 
judge entirely out of the reach of the pollen by any action of the 
organs themselves. I found, however, that the pollen was very 
plentiful, and that a pin thrust through the anthers obliquely would 
carry its grains to the stigmas. There seemed in the older flowers 
to be evidence that this operation is performed by insects, and I 
came to the conclusion that, as in the case of Evpomatia, described 
by Maout and Decaisne, the plant must always depend for fructifi- 
cation upon insect agency. The fact that fruit is seldom found upon 
the shrub confirms the idea. I often obtained flowers both of this 
and Rollinia, but not one in ten of the flowers formed fruit. In 
both cases the fruit is a large, irregularly shaped berry containing 
many seeds imbedded in a pulpy aril, and said by the people to be 
edible. They are very inferior to the Chirimoya or custard apple, 
to which they are closely allied. 

MENISPERMACE^. 

Cissampelos Pareira, L., Sp. PL, 1473. 

Between Trinidad and Lympio (729); Pilcomayo River (815). 
November-June. 

The ''Pareira hrava''"' of the druggists, the roots of which are in 
high repute, medicinally, in urinary diseases. A dioecious vine 
twining around shrubs and trees. It has many broad cordate-ovate 
leaves, 5-10 cm. long, and nearly as wide at the base. Stems fus- 
cous hairy. Roots exceedingly large and rather woody. 

Cissainpelos Pareira^ L., var. Caapeba (L.), Eichl., Mart. Fl. Bras., 
xiii, pt. 1, 190. 

Asuncion (829). November. 

The variety with leaves only 1 cm. long and 2 cm. broad, bearing, 
when in fruit, many small red berries. This looks different enough 
to be almost regarded as a distinct species. 

Castalia Oibertii, Morong, n. sp. 

Leaves oval in outline, entire, rounded at the apex, the lobes moderately 
spreading and obtuse, the under surface covered with short branching fuscous 
lines interspersed here and there with elevated raphioidal striae, the upper 
surface having these striae mingled with minute tubercles, especially near the 
sinus. Flowers white, turning yellowish in drying, inodorous, 6-7 cm. in 
diameter. Sepals oblong-ovate, 3-3^ cm. long, somewhat acute, with numer- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 49 

ous fuscous lines 6v elevated striae on the exterior surface. Petals in 3 series, 
a little shorter than the sepals, marked with faint purplish lines, which are 
even with the snrface or slightlj raised, the outermost thick and green along 
the middle of the back, like the sepals, and with broad white margins. Stamens 
in 4 series. Anther cells of the outermost 6 or 7 mm. in length. Carpels 
somewhat immature, but apparently 18. Ripe fruit and tubers not seen. 

An unnamed specimen collected by Gibert (No. 53) at Asuncion 
in June, 1858, is at Kew. 

Above the Falls on the Pilcomayo River, May 6 (1028). 

Victoria Amazonica (Poepp.), Planch. Rev. Hort., Feb. 15, 1853 
(F. regla, Lindl.). 

In lagoons near Asuncion (281). December-January. 

This famous flower is abundant in the lagoons on the Paraguay 
River, and is found as far south as Corrientes. The popular name 
which it bears, ''Mais del agua,^^ is derived from the use made of 
its seeds. These are aboQt as large as buck-shot, and are gathered 
by the natives and roasted or pounded into meal, from which very 
palatal)le and nutritious bread is made. 

PAPAVERACEJE. 
Argemone Mexicana, L., Sp. PL, 508. 

Asuncion (155). Apparently naturalized. 

FUMARIACE^. 
Fumaria capreolata, L., Sp. PL, 701. 
Buenos Aires (18). October. 

CRUCIFERJE. 
Lepidium Bonariense, L., Sp. PL, 645. 

Buenos Aires (12). October. Pilcomayo River (1056). June. 

Coronopus didymus (L.), Smith, Fl. Brit, iii, 691. 
Buenos Aires (5), October. 

Raplianus sativus, L., Sp. PL, 669. 

Railroad between Paragua and Luque (855). December. 
Seems to be thoroughly naturalized in the vicinity of towns, but 
it bears no root like the cultivated radish. 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dec. 1892.— 4 



50 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

CAPPARIDACE^. 
Cleome aculeata, L. Syst., Ed. 12, iii, App., p. 232. 
Asuncion (lit and ll'T a). November. 

Gynandropsis pentaphylla (L.), D. C, Prod., i, 238. 

Asuncion (348). December. 

6-9 dm. high. Flowers large, purple, showy. Leaves on long 
petioles, 5-foliolate. Stem, petioles, and the dorsal nerves of the 
leaves beset with glandular hairs and small prickles. Peduncles, 
petals, and ovary with yellow glands. Pods 3^-4 cm. in length, on 
long peduncles, jointed about ^ way up. 

Capparis cynopliallopliora, L., Sp. PL, 504. 

Asuncion (763). July. 

Found only in fruit. A small tree 5-6 m. high, with flexuous 
greenish-yellow branches, glabrous, with small black warts on the 
bark. Leaves simple, alternate, elliptical or oval, coriaceous, shin- 
ing above, greenish-yellow, shortly petioled, the blades about 1 cm. 
long, and 3 cm. wide. Pods in clusters of 1-5, often as much as 
30 cm. long, cylindrical, moniliform, the outside greenish-yellow or 
brown, the interior lining red. 

Thickets near Asuncion. 

Capparis declinata, Veil., Fl. Flum., v, t. iii. 

Pilcomayo River (946 a). In fruit. January. 
Similar to No. 763, but with smaller leaves and pods. 

Capparis Tweediana, Eichl., Mart. Fl. Bras., xiii, pt. 1, 273. 

Pilcomayo River (1046). May. 

Nearer C. Tweediana than C. crotonoides as described in Mart. 
Fl. Bras., but not exactly agreeing with either. The projections of 
the disk are 5, alternate with the stamens, looking like staminodea. 
Leaves la'rger, petioles longer, pedicels longer than in G. Tweediana. 
Flower bud tetragonous (not triquetrous, as in G. Tweediana). 
Stamens 5 (in G. crotonoides 6-8). 

A common shrub or small tree on the Pilcomayo, with roundish 
leaves, which are green and glabrous above and white tomentose 
beneath. It blossoms late in May and then sparsely. The flowers 
are peculiar, with 4 spreading yellowish-green sepals and as many 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 51 

petals, 5 long stamens, alternate with as many staminodia or disk 
projections, and an ovary on a stellately downy stipe 2J cm. long. 
The flowers themselves are borne on a stellately downy peduncle 
1^-2 cm. in length. The trunk of this shrub has near the base 
light brown scaly bark, smooth and yellowish above. 

€rataeva Tapia, L., Sp. PL, 444. 

Asuncion (820); Pilcomayo River (89t). 

A fine tree growing around Asuncion and far up on the Pilco- 
mayo River. It reaches a height of 16 m. or more. It has a 
smooth gray bark, and smooth, glossy, ternate leaves. The flowers 
are white in thick clusters at the ends of the branches, on pedicels 
2-g— 3|- cm. long. The fruit at the time I saw it, January 24, was 
nearly as large as a lemon, on peduncles Y-12 cm. long, solitary, 
green on the outside, with a thick white meat on the inside, contain- 
ing many seeds irregularly disposed. The tree is known among 
the Paraguayan natives as " Papaguayan" (name of a tribe of 
Paraguayan Indians) or ''Indian orange," and it is said that the 
fruit is eaten as an orange by the Indians. Its numerous, large 
dark green leaves well adapt it for an ornamental shade tree, as 
which it is sometimes used in Paraguay. 

Flowers in October, fruits in January. 

yiOLARI^. 

Calceolaria Brasiliensis^ Brittou. 
Jonidium album, St. Hil., not C. alba, R. and P. 

Caballero (410). January. 

Calceolaria cominunis (St. Hil.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 41. 

Near Pirayu (662). April. 

This interesting plant growing in open woods is a suflfruticose 
herb about 1 m. in height. The delicate white flowers are peculiar, 
entirely losing their character in dried specimens. There are 5 free, 
hairy, persistent sepals, and 5 distinct petals, 4 of them minute and 
the 5th larger and standing out prominently from the rest, w4th 
upturned edges which give it the appearance of a miniature sugar 
scoop. Stamens 5, the 2 lowest with short white spurs ; filaments 
broad ; anthers somewhat sagittate, the cells long and parallel, sur- 
mounted by a brownish sharp-pointed cap. The seeds, at first shal- 
low pitted, when fully ripe are nearly smooth, black and shining. 



52 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

BIXINE^. 
Myroxylon Salzmaimi (Clos.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 44. Ex descr. 

Asuncion (235 and 718). December. Pilcomayo River (1585). 
January-May. 

An interesting dioecious shrub common about Asuncion, 1|— 3 m. 
in height, armed with sharp spines. Leaves coriaceous, round or 
oval, often cuneate, serrate, with 2 glands on the petiole at the 
base of the blade. Flowers small, white, apetalous, in clusters, the 
staminate with 4 or 5 ciliate, ovate sepals, the peduncles and pedi- 
cels subtended by several ciliate bracts ; stamens numerous, the fila- 
ments long, yellow, much exserted, and the anthers small, round, 
yellow, 2-celled, opening by slits above. Pistillate flower on an 
articulated pedicel, with 5 round, ciliate sepals which are persistent 
on the fruit. The fruit, about as large as a huckleberry, is blackish- 
purple when ripe. In fact, I thought it was a huckleberry when I 
found it. Berries very numerous, rather insipid in taste. 

The spines are generally at the base of the leaves, and seem to 
take the place of stipules. The staminate and pistillate plants often 
far apart. 

POLYGALE^. 
Poly gala Aregliensis, A. W. Bennett, Jour. Bot., 17, p. 201. 

Pilcomayo River (944). = Balansa, 2187, Herb. Kew. Named 
by A. W, Bennett. 

' An interesting purple-flowered species ; growing on the open 
campo among grass. Some of the stalks are 50 cm. in height, and 
often twisted, several rising from the same root, frequently branched. 
Leaves in whorls of 5, sessile, minutely serrulate. The racemes 
are from 4 to 12 cm. long. The pod contains 2 light brown, hairy 
seeds, each with 2 flat, white caruncles one-half as long as the seeds. 
February. 

Polygala galioides, Poir., var. asperuloides (H. B. K.), Britton. 

Polygala asperuloides, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., v, 403. 

P. galioides, var. major, A. W. Bennett, Mart. Fl. Bras., Fasc. Ixiii, 29. 

Near Luque (325). December. 
Polygala glocliidata, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., v, 400. 

A diminutive plant nearly hidden by the grasses on the Gran 
Campo, 8-10 cm. high. Flowers minute, white, on pedicels about 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 53 

1 mm, long". Leaves linear, 5 oi* 6 mm. long, mucronulate, in ver- 
ticils of 5s. Seeds very hairy, without a caruncle. 

Near Luque (337). Determined by A. W. Bennett. December. 



CARYOPHYLLE^. 
Cerastiiim Sellowii, C. and S. 

Buenos Aires (4). October. Pilcomayo River (921). February. 
=-. Balansa, No. 22^4, Herb. Kew, in part. 

I brought this plant from Kew under this name, but have since 
been unable to find the place of its publication. — N. L. B. 

Tissa grandis (H. B. K.), Britton. 

Arenaria grandis, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., vi, 30 (1823). 

Spergularia grandis, Camb. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras., ii, 177. 

Buenos Aires (3). February. Pilcomayo River (921). 

I had ample opportunity to examine this plant on ray Pilcomayo 
expedition, as it is not infrequent on the muddy banks of that river. 
It much resembles our common ''Corn Cockle" in general appear- 
ance. In height it rises from one to two feet dichotomously much 
branched. The flowers are in irregular cymes at the ends of the 
branches, each on a short subulate pedicel. Calyx of 5 green 
sepals, membranous and white on their edges, persistent. Petals 5, 
white, much smaller than the sepals and hidden by them except 
when expanded. The 5 hypogynous stamens, opposite the petals, 
are on very delicate filaments, which are slightly dilated at the base. 
Ovary superior, 1-celled, many-ovuled, 2-4 mm, in length, increas- 
ing in fruit to an obtusely 3-angled, 1-celled pod a little longer than 
the sepals. The pod is filled with flat seeds, which lie horizontally 
upon each other, and have a broad, membranous wing notched on 
one side. The plant rises from a long, yellow tap-root. 

Polycarpa australis, Britton, n. sp. 

Diffuse, glabrous, much-brancbed, the branches ascending, terete, 20-50 
cm. long. Leaves verticillate, oblanceolate or oblong, obtuse, thick, entire, 
narrowed at the base, 2-5 cm. long, 4-12 mm. wide; inflorescence dichoto- 
mously cymose, the flowers sessile, white, 1-2 mm. broad ; bracts ovate-lanceo- 
late, about 2 mm. long ; sepals ovate, obtuse ; petals entire, rounded, shorter 
than the sepals ; stamens 3; ovary 3-angled, 1-celled; capsule membranous, 
shining, ovoid, about 4 mm. long. 

Banks of the Pilcomayo River (933). February. 



54 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

PORTULACEJE. 

Portulaca pilosa, L., Sp. PI., 639. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (452). January. 

Portulaca marginata, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., vi, 58. Ex descr. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (452 a), January. Pilcomayo 
River (1053). June. 

Portulaca grandiflora, Hook., Bot. Mag,, t. 2885. 

Asuncion (278 and 59). December-June. 

This Portulaca is very common around Asuncion, often growing- 
in the streets oF the city, and abundant in the sandy soil of the 
environs. It varies very much, however, in the size of the flowers, 
often showing a corolla not larger than a dime in diameter and 
again 3 times as large. It is usually of a bright purple or rose 
tint, but sometimes yellow. Its gay-colored corolla, fully expanded 
in the morning sun, scattered in masses over the green sward, often 
tempted me into early walks while the dew still lay upon the ground. 

Talinum crassifolium (Jacq.), Willd., Sp. PL, ii, 862. 

Asuncion (104 and 677), = Balansa 2253. November-January. 

A small branching plant 15-20 cm, high, with small terminal 
clusters of pretty rose-colored or sometimes yellowish-brown blos- 
soms. Leaves succulent, obovate, 4 or 5 cm, long, rouuded at apex, 
and sloping at base into a short petiole. Capsule white, as large as 
a pea, 1-celled, containing many small, black, striolate, cochleate 
seeds. In ordinary drying, this plant goes to fragments, and the 
only method by which I could preserve specimens whole, was to 
steep the fresh plant in boiling water. 

Talinum patens (Jacq.), Willd,, Sp. PL, ii, 863. 

Asuncion (252). December, Between Yilla Rica and Escoba 
(531), January. 

Similar to the preceding species in habit. Flowers white or yel- 
low, in long, terminal panicles, on a leafless peduucle 10-15 cm. long. 
Leaves all near the base of the stem, obovate, rounded or abruptly 
pointed at the apex, 5-12 cm. long, sloping at the base into a short 
petiole. Stem reaches a height of 6 dm., and the panicle 2-|- dm. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 55 

MALYACEJE. 

This order is very prolific of species and individuals in Paraguay. 
Indeed, some of the species run so closely together that it is not 
easy to separate them. In a radius of 3 or 4 miles, on the Pilco- 
mayo River, I found no less than 12 or 15 species of the small, 
shrubby forms which insensibly graded into each other, and even 
the genera were hard to distinguish, 

malTa parviflora, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 969. 

La Plata, Argentine Republic (37). October. 

Malveopsis lateritia (Hook.), Morong. 
Malva lateritia, Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 3846. 
Malvastrum lateritium, Nicholson, Diet. Grard., 2, 319. 

Caballero (403 b). January. 

MalTeopsls Coromandeliana (L.), Morong. 

Malva Coromandeliana, L., Sp. PI., 687. 

Malvastrum tricuspidatum, A. Gray, PI. Wright, ii, 16. 

Asuncion (57 a) ; Pilcomayo River (995). November-April. 

A small shrub about 6 dm. high. The fruit is striking, being a 
broad, flat pod of 10-12 peculiar carpels with grooves between them. 
A row of short, stiff hairs stands on each carpellary edge, and at 
the commencement of the curve of the point there are 2 minute pro- 
jections, the point ending in 2 similar projections, each of which is 
tipped with a weak spine. In the perfectly mature fruit, these rows 
of hairs make the carpels quite rough. Each carpel contains a sin- 
gle large, flat, smooth seed which perfectly fills it. 

MalTeopsis spicata (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI., 72. 
Asuncion (215). December. 

Sida aiigiistifolia^ Lam., Encyc, i, 4. 

Betw^een Yilla Rica and Escoba (454) ; Pilcomayo River (989). 
January- April. 

§ida carpinifolia^ L., f. Supp., 307. 
Asuncion (172). November. 

Sida ciliaris, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 961. 
Asuncion (240). December. 



56 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Sida cordifolia^ L., Sp. PL, 684. 

Asuncion (114). November-March. 

Sida dictyocarpa, Gris., Mart. Fl. Bras., xii, pt. 3, 314. 

Pilcomayo River (956). March. Named by Edmund Baker. 

Sida dictyocarpa, var. Cordobensis, E. Baker, ined. 

Pilcomayo River (953). February. Named by Edmund Baker. 

Sida pandiculata, L., Amoen. Aead., v, 401. 
Asuncion (194). November. 

Sida rliombifolia, L., Sp. PL, 684. 

Asuncion (51); Pilcomayo River (1055). November-June. 

Sida spinosa, L., Sp. PL, 683. 

Pilcomayo River (953 a). February. 

Sida urens, L., Araosn. Acad., v, 402. 

Pilcomayo River (960). March. 

The species of Sida here enumerated are small shrubs or suffruti- 
cose plants, one only, perhaps (;S. urens), being herbaceous. As a 
rule, they have yellow or whitish-yellow flowers, but S. ciliaris has 
brownish-purple, and S. paniculaia lurid-purple petals. They differ 
in the most extraordinary manner in regard to the number of styles, 
the number of carpels, and other fruit characters. S. angustifolia. 
has 5 styles and 5 carpels, each containing a single seed which is 
downy and notched at the apex, the ventral summit projecting into 
one, sometimes two points. S. ciliaris has 8 styles and T carpels, 
the seeds somewhat irregular in shape, and the backs of the carpels 
covered with spine-like protuberances. S. carpinifolia has 7 smooth 
carpels which run up into a combined beak at the summit, each con- 
taining a single seed, and two flat faces meeting in a sharp ventral 
edge that terminates in a sort of curved horn at the apex. S. cor- 
difolia has 13 one-seeded carpels, grooved on the curved back, which, 
with the faces, is rugose-reticulate-veiny, and beaked at the summit 
by two long, parallel, hispid awns that are very close together. 
S. dictyocarpa has 5.7 and 10 styles and 8 carpels, while its so-called 
var. Cordobensis has only 5 styles and 5 carpels. S. paniculata 
greatly differs in general appearance from its congeners, having 
numerous small lurid-purple flowers on long, naked, jointed pedicels in 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 57 

branched panicles, 4 styles, 5, sometimes 4, carpels which arc downy 
and destitute of awns, and seeds somewhat irregularly 3-sided and 
scarcely notched at the apex. S. rhomhifolia has 10 downy carpels 
deeply grooved on the back, beaked at the apex by two short, smooth 
awns. 8. spinosa, which bears no spines in my specimens to justify 
the name, has 5 carpels with very short hispidly hairy awns or 
horns, the faces marked by parallel veins, and smooth seeds which 
have a minute projecting point at the ventral apex. S. urens, the 
most peculiar of all these species in its general appearance, has only 
3 styles, so far as I could discover in the fresh specimens. The 
whole plant is clothed with long, fuscous, glandular hairs, especially 
the calyx, which is greatly inflated, puffing out below in 5 folds and 
terminating in 5 acute lobes ; carpels 5, small, smooth, beaked only 
by two minute points ; seeds smooth, irregularly 3-sided ; flowers 
yellow, massed in close clusters at the summit of the branches. The 
long hairs on the edges of the folds and lobes of the calyx impart a 
very nettle-like aspect to the plant, from which circumstance, I sup- 
pose, the specific name originates. 

IVissadula patens (St. HiL), Garcke, Zeitsch. Natiirw., 1890, 123. 
Pilcomayo River (1021). May. 

Wissadula periplocifolia (L.), Presl. Reliq. Hsenk., ii, 117. 

Asuncion (251 and 376) ; Pilcomayo River (990). December- 
April. Named by Edmund Baker. 

IVissadula Iternandioides (L'Her.), Gtircke, in Mart. Fl. Bras, xii, 
pt. 3, 439. 

Pilcomayo River (985). April. 

Abutilon crispum (L.), Sweet., Hort. Brit, i, 53. 
Pilcomayo River (979). March. 

15-24 dm. in height. Leaves palmately 7-10 nerved, some of 
them measuring 8-10 cm. in length and 6-8 cm. in breadth. 
Petals white, with a slight bluish tinge, delicately striped with 
purple, the corolla nearly 2 cm. in diameter. Fruit a bladdery pod 
with 10-12 carpels, each containing several seeds. 

Abutilosi inaBquilaterUEll, St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid., i, 155. Ex descr. 
Pilcomayo River (992). March- April. 



58 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Abiitilon pedunciilare^ H. B. K., Nov. Gen., v. 212. 

Asuncion (204); Pilcomayo River (942). November-April. 
Named by Edmund Baker. 

Malachra alcaeifolia, Jacq. Coll., ii, 350. 

Pilcomayo River (1034). May. 

A singular plant which was growing in the water of the great 
laguna on the Pilcomayo River. Stem 1-lj m. high, beset with 
weak, yellowish prickles. Lower leaves ternate, 3-lobed or entire, 
dentate, sparsely pellucid-punctate, hairy on the nerves. Flowers 
lilac, in terminal clusters, 5-8 in a cluster and sessile on an invo- 
lucre of large, ovate, crenate, foliaceous bracts. Calyx with 5 ovate, 
very hairy, 3-nerved lobes, shorter than the corolla and subtended by 
7 or 8 subulate, long-haired bracteoles. St3^1es 10. Ovary 5-celled, 
with 1 ovule in each cell. Pod 5 mm. high, and nearly 1 cm. broad 
across the truncate top of 5 rugose, separate carpels, each containing 
1 large seed. 

PsiTOnia Morongii, Spencer Moore, ined. n. sp. 

Stem shrubby, clothed with long, white, scattered hairs and also a close 
down, much branclied, 4-9 dm. high. Leaves cordate-ovate, pointed at the 
apex, unequally dentate, 5-7 palmately nerved, hairy and downy like the 
stem, 3-5 cm. long and 2-2^ cm. wide, on petioles 1^-2^ cm. long. Flowers 
solitary on axillary peduncles 3-5 cm. long. Corolla light yellow, with a dark 
eye at the base inside, the eye radiating in short lines at the top. Petals 
obovate, rounded at the apex. Calyx much shorter, subtended by 7-8 subu- 
late bracteoles 10-12 mm. long, hairy and downy like the stem. Styles and 
stigmas 10. Pod glabrous, depressed globose, splitting into 4 or 5 1-seeded 
carpels. The flowers of this plant when fully developed are very showy and 
beautiful. On the campus nearly the whole length of the Pilcomayo. 

Pilcomayo River (872, 988, and 947). January-April. 

PaTonia comiliuiiis^ St. Hil., Fl. Bras. Merid., 1, 224. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (473). January, 
Stem downy with close, stellate pubescence, 4-6 dm. high. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, 3-5 palmately nerved, dentate, stellately haired 
and pubescent, pellucid-dotted, rounded at base, 5-10 cm. long, on 
petioles 3-5 mm. long. Flowers large, dark yellow. Carpels 5, 
armed with 3 long, downwardly barbed teeth. Persistent sepals 
and bracteoles (5 or 6) longer than the pod. Styles 10. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 59 

PaTonia sepium^ St. Hil., Fl. Bras. Merid., i, 225. 
P. flava, Spring, Flora, xx, Beibl. No. 2, 96. 

Asuncion (473 b) ; between Villa Rica and Escoba (473 c). 
= Mart. Herb. Flor. Bras., No. 95. 

Similar to No. 473, but with taller stems, flowers smaller, on 
much longer peduncles, and the teeth of the carpels more slender. 
This frequently grows 2-3 m. high. Fruit abundant in a long, 
loose, terminal inflorescence, on peduncles 2-4 cm. long. 

Pavonia tiastata, Cav., Diss., iii, 138, t. 47, f. 2. 

Caballero (428). January. 

With hastate-lobed, oblong or ovate-lanceolate leaves. Flowers 
large and showy ; petals 2 cm. long, light purple, with deeper purple 
stripes. Carpels very different from those of the preceding species, 
being flattened oval in shape, rugose-veiny, with 2 narrow wrings on 
opposite sides and 2 gibbous points at the apex instead of the 3 long 
barbed teeth which are found in the other species. On the railroad 
track near Caballero. 

PaTonia Mutisii, H. B. K., Nov. Geu., v, 283. 

Asuncion (702). May. Named by Edmund Baker. 

Stems 1-1^ m. high, very downy, the down mixed with long 
white hairs. Leaves and short lateral branches numerous. Leaves 
broadly cordate-ovate, velvety-downy, 2-6 cm. long and ^\-^^ cm. 
wide, on short petioles. Flowers numerous, solitary on short axil- 
lary peduncles, or when in bud looking as if in clusters, large, light 
yellow, with a dark purplish eye at the base inside. This is readily 
distinguished by its almost glomerate leaves, branches, and flowers, 
and especially by its curious carpels, which are hooded and 1-horned 
at the apex. 

In old fields and along fence rows. 

Hibiscus cisplatinus, St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid., i, 194. 

Asuncion (849); Pilcomayo Kiver (1016). December-April. 
Named by Edmund Baker. 

This grows abundantly about the mouth of the Pilcomayo and 
at the Falls. It has a stem from 1^-3 m. in height, and clothed 
with small, hooked prickles which are slightly stinging. The corolla 
is very large, the petals being 5 cm. or more in length. They are 



60 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

blood-red at the base, and lighter red above, making a ver}^ showy 
flower. The cal3''x lobes have 5 green nerves upon them, alternating 
with as many white stripes. Staminate column with 6 or t rows 
of stamens some distance apart; anthers red, stigmas some distance 
above the highest row of stamens, umbella-shaped from below, and 
with 5 broad, downy-edged lobes. The bark of this plant strips off 
like flax and splits into clean, fine fibres, and could doubtless be used 
in making textile fabrics, certainly as good for that purpose as that 
of our cotton plant, which, it is said, is now used in this way. 

HilbiscilS flircellatus, "Desr., Lam. Encyc, iii, 358. Ex descr. 
H. Diodon, D.C., Prod., i, 449? 

Asuncion (682). April. 

Strongly resembles H. cisplatiniis, and with an equally showy 
flower. It is often cultivated in gardens at Asuncion. When it 
first opens the corolla is rose-red, but soon after fully expanding it 
turns a pure white. 

Cienfugosia sulpliiarea (St. Hil.), Garcke, Bonpl., viii, 148. 
Fugosia Drummondii, A. Gray, PI. Wriglit, 23. 

Pilcomayo River (929). February. 

A shrubby, smooth-stemmed plant about 3 dm. high, with a tough, 
thick root, and many stems springing from it, which are somewhat 
decumbent at the base. Corolla sulphur-yellow, with a brown eye 
at the base inside, about 1^ cm. broad when expanded. Calyx 
smaller, deeply divided, the lobes lanceolate, 3-5 nerved, and they, 
the bracteoles, and the pods marked by rows of black dots. Bracte- 
oles 8. Leaves broadly ovate, palmately t-nerved, irregularly cre- 
nate-dentate, occasionally with small lobes, on petioles 1-2 cm. long. 
Capsule glabrous, 5 celled, cells 2-seeded. Peduncles 2-8 cm. long. 

This occurs in Texas and also in Southern Brazil. 

Gossypiiim maritiinuiii, Tod., Osserv. Cot., 83. 

Pilcomayo River (918). March. 

The native cotton of Paraguay. It is supposed to have been 
originally introduced into the country, but it certainly grows now 
spontaneously. I found it quite abundant about the Falls of the 
Pilcomayo, not only in old Indian encampments, but in thickets 
upon the campos. There it flourishes with great vigor, growing 
often to the height of 2 or 3 m., sometimes bearing 10 or 15 bolls 
upon one stem. Although the staple of the wild plant is not as long 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 61 

as that of our upland Southern cotton, yet the fibre is very fine. 
The seeds are much smaller than those of our cultivated cotton. 
I have no doubt that it would be greatly improved by cultivation, 
and that among an enterprising people it might become an article 
of great commercial importance. March-April. 

CUorisia speciosa, St. Hil., PL Usuel., t. 43. 

Asuncion (725); Pilcomayo River (10*75). March-May. 

One of the most remarkable trees in Paraguay, known popularly 
as Palo borracho, or drunken tree, from the huge belly-like protuber- 
ance of its trunk. The flowers, at first a pale yellow, finally become 
nearly or quite white, and are as large as those of a lily. The limbs 
are long and stand out horizontally from the trunk. The trunk and 
largest limbs are armed with stout spines, which have a large but- 
ton-shaped base, and a strong, sharp, spiny point. The inner bark, 
of a fine white color, strips off in long ribbons, and can be twisted 
into strong twine, which is used by the Indians in making fishing- 
lines and nets. The sap turns blood-red after being exposed to the 
air, and evidently contains a red coloring-matter, which might be 
used as a dye. The swollen trunk is often used for making canoes. 
One that we hewed out was capable of carrying two or three men. 
The wood is soft and can be cut with a penknife as easily as a raw 
potato, which it much resembles, very different from most of the 
woods of the region, which are nearly as hard as iron. 

STEHCULIACEJE. 
Sterculia striata, St. Hil. et Naud., Ann. Sci. Nat., II, ser. xviii, 213. 

Asuncion (616). March. 

A large tree from 16 to 25 m. in height, which I often saw culti- 
vated in gardens at Asuncion. The trunk has smooth, dark bark, 
with large palmately 5-lobed leaves, which have the 2 lower lobes 
overlapping, so as to give a peltate appearance to the leaves at first 
sight. The flowers appear to be polygamous, mostly staminate, 
and hence the fruit is scarce. The inflorescence is very glandular 
and quite sticky in drying. Pruit in 2 twin, divaricate pods, each 
of which is l-celied and several seeded. An American gentleman, 
resident of Asuncion, who had the tree growing in his garden, called 
it the " Peanut tree," though I cannot tell why, as there is nothing 
in the appearance or taste of the fruit like a peanut. 



62 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Melocliia subcordata, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem about 1 m. high, stout, softly and densely fuscous hairy, simple or 
divergently branching at the summit. Leaves broadly ovate, subcordate, or 
the upper ones elliptical, unequally dentate, the teeth tipped with black points, 
stellately fuscous hairy on both sides, palmately 5-7 nerved, the largest col- 
lected 11 cm. long and 8 cm. broad at the base. Petioles 3-6 cm. long. Sti- 
pules subulate, 3-5 mm. long, deciduous. Inflorescence branched, elongated, 
the flowers spicate, in interrupted glomerules. Calyx purple-tinted, hairy, 
with 5 acute lobes, a little more than ^ as long as the corolla, subtended by 
3 subulate bracteoles. Petals light purple, broad and outwardly curved at 
the apex, whitish and clawed at the base, 6-8 mm. long, staminate column 
connate with the petals below ; anthers nearly sessile on the column, closely 
investing the style. Stigmas 5, projecting above the anthers, plumose ; ovary 
silky hairy. Capsule obovoid, 3 mm. long, marked by small tubercles to the 
middle and white hairy above ; seeds obtusely 3-angled, dark, puberulent. 

Open places near Luque (292) ; railway track at Caballero (462). 
December-January. 

Melochia Morongii^ Britton, n. sp. 

Erect, densely pubescent, branched, 4-6 dm. high. Stem and branches 
terete ; petioles terete, about 1 cm. long ; leaves ovate-lanceolate ; prominently 
pinnately-veined, th(^ veins impressed on the upper surface, crenate-dentate, 
obtuse or obtusish at the apex, rounded at the base, 4-5 cm. long, 1-1^ cm. 
wide, pubescent on both sides ; inflorescence densely capitate, terminal, and 
opposite the leaves, peduncles 2-4 cm. long ; heads about 2 cm. in diameter ; 
corolla about 8 mm. long ; calyx 5-lobed to beyond the middle, the lobes lan- 
ceolate, acuminate ; capsule pyramidal, 5-angled, the 5 carpels loculicidally 
dehiscent, triangular, 4 mm. long, tipped with a beak of about one-half their 
length. 

Asuncion (201 a). November. Apparently nearest to 31. parm- 
folia, H. B. K. 

Melochia pyramidata, L., Sp. PL, 774. 

Asuncion (697). May. 

Melocliia Tenosa, Sw., Prod. Flor. Ind. Oc. 97. 
Caballero (403). January. 

Melocliia venosa, Sw., var. polystachya (H. B. K.), Schum., Mart. 
Fl. Bras., xii, pt. 3, 37. 

Caballero (403 a) ; between Yilla Rica and Escoba (588). January. 

This species is densely fuscous woolly all over. Blades of the 

leaves 5-8 cm. long and 1-3 cm. broad, unequally serrate ; petioles 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 63 

5-15 mm. long; stipules lanceolate, acute, 12 mm. long, 4 or 5 mm, 
broad. Flowers small, yellow, in an elongated, naked panicle. 
Calyx 5-lobed, the lobes f as long as the petals and very hairy. 
The variety is much more slender, much branched from the base. 
Leaves shorter and narrower ; stipules 4 or 5 mm. long, setaceous 
or 1 mm. broad at the base. Inflorescence in a contracted terminal 
panicle, or a few flowers at the ends of the branches. Both occur- 
ring near Caballero and Yilla Rica. 

TValtlieria Americana, L., Sp. PL, 673. 
Asuncion (201). November. 

TValtheria com munis, St. Hil., Flor. Bras. Merid., i, 123. Ex descr. 
Asuncion (215 a). December. 

Cliaetaea Faraguayensis, Britton, n. sp. 

Climbing, softly pubescent, branched, tlie twigs channeled. Leaves short- 
petioled, lanceolate, rather coriaceous, obscurely reticulate, blunt-pointed, 
remotely dentate near the apex or entire, glabrous above, slightly pubescent 
beneath, 4-6 cm. long, about 1 cm. wide ; flowers in short, axillary cymes ; 
lamina of the petal filiform ; fruit globose-ovoid, about 1 cm. in diameter, the 
spines conic acute, 3-4 mm. long ; seed obliquely oblong, brown, smooth, 
rounded on the back, the sides nearly flat. 

In thickets, Asuncion (288). December. Same as Balansa's 2002. 

1 do not use the generic name Biittneria, Loefl., because it is a 
homonym of Butneria, Duhamel = Calycanthus, L. N. L. B. 

A singular liana which is not uncommon in the thickets around 
Asuncion. The stems are armed with small, recurved prickles, by 
means of which it climbs upon shrubs and low trees. It clings so 
closely to its supports that it is difficult to detach the branches. 
The largest leaves I found were 12 cm. in length by 5 cm. broad, 
and often had small prickles along the midrib beneath, with a petiole 

2 mm. to 2 cm. long. Calyx monosepalous, with 5-pointed segments 
longer than the corolla. The whole flower is greenish-yellow in 
hue, and quite peculiar in appearance. The petals are flat at the 
base and 2-lobed, throwing up what appear to be 5 yellowish horns, 
which are the most conspicuous part of the flower. The capsule is 
normally 5-carpelled, but often several of the cells of the ovary are 
abortive, and not more than 2 or 3 of the ovules ripen into seeds. 
The fruit is down-covered, and has a curious prickly look about it. 



64 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

TILIACE^. 
Triiimfetta semitriloltja, L., Mant., i, 73. 

Asuncion (116 and 132). November. 

This Florida plant is very common in old fields around Asuncion, 
a rough-hairy shrub 4-6 dm. high, bearing small globular fruit beset 
with hooked prickles. 

Corcliorus Iiirtus, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 747. 

Asuncion (1089). June. 

A small, very hirsute plant, 12-15 cm. high, v^ith long, fibrous 
roots. Stem simple or a little branching at base. Leaves ovate, 
palmately 5-nerved, hirsute, often doubly crenate-serrate, 3-5 cm. 
long, and 10-15 mm. wide, on hirsute petioles 7-12 mm. long. 
Flowers few, axillary, yellow. 

Corcliorus pilolbolllS, Link, Enum. Hort. BeroL, ii, 72. 

Asuncion (703). May. 

Liiliea divaricata. Mart, et Zncc, Nov. Gren., i, 101, t. 63. 

Near Escoba (604). January. 

A tree 6-16 m. high, with smooth and gray bark. Young 
branches and inflorescence pubescent. Bracteoles 6, narrower than 
the sepals, tomentose. Calyx lobes 5, tomentose on the outside, 
glabrous and yellow on the inside. Petals yellow, broad at the apex. 
Flowers large. Leaves serrate, ovate or oval, slightly and obliquely 
cordate, abruptly acute at the apex, dark green above, white tomen- 
tose beneath, nerves conspicuous beneath, 5-10 cm. long and 2-5 cm. 
broad. 

Ijllliea liniflora, St. HiL, Flor. Bras. Merid., i, 226, t. 57. 

Asuncion (676). April. = Balansa 2009. 

A shrub or small tree 5-8 m. in height, growing in copses 
near Asuncion. It was only in fruit when collected, but attached 
to the fruit were the bracteoles, which are green and thick, longer 
than the fruit, linear-lanceolate, 8 or 10 in number. The fruit is a 
hard, pointed, 5-winged nut, green and downy, 5 cm, long and 2 
cm. in diameter, the spaces between the wings concave, having 5 
narrow cells projecting from the centre of the nut to the edges of 
the wings. Remains of the petals show them to be white, and the 
stamens very numerous. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 65 

Prockea Criicis, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 745. 

Asuncion (827). November. 

A shrub 2-3 m. high with brown, smooth bark. Leaves nearly 
glabrous and shining above, downy beneath, acuminate at the apex, 
narrowed and subcordate at base, serrate, the teeth with blunt cal- 
lous points, palmately 5-nerved, 3-10 cm. long and 2^-7 cm. broad, 
on petioles 8-15 mm. long, stipules large, lunate, toothed, amplexi- 
caul. Flowers in short axillary racemes. Flowers about 5 mm. 
high. Calyx lobes downy, ovate, abruptly acute at the apex, re- 
flexed. Petals none. Stamens numerous, j^ellow. Ovary and 
young fruit downy. Each flower is on a downy pedicel 3-10 mm. 
long. 

The genus Prockea, is referred by Eichler to the Bixinese. 

ERYTHROXYLACEJE. 

JErytliroxylon micropliylliiiii, St. Hil., var. cuneifolium, Pey- 
ritsch., Mart. Flor. Bras., xii, pt. 1, 134. 

Pilcomayo River (946). February. 

A straggingly-branched shrub, with light brown, very warty bark, 

4 or 5 m. high, branches mostly short. Leaves ciineate, 1-H cm. 
long, 5-7 mm. broad, retuse. Found only in fruit, a flattish, angled, 
1-seeded berry, when ripe pulpy and dark red, about 5 mm. long 
and 3 mm. wide. The persistent calyx has 5 ovate, acute lobes. 
This shrub occurs only rarely along the banks of the Pilcomayo. 
The ends of the branches are bare and sometimes inclined to be 
spinescent. 

MALPIGHIACE-^. 
Dicella liracteosa, Gris., Linnsea, xiii, 250. Ex descr. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (479). January. 

A large tree. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, cuspidate, entire, 
glabrous and shining above, sparsely hairy beneath except on the 
nerves, the hairs often bicuspidate, 5-10 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide, on 
slender petioles 6-8 mm. long, which are biglandular near the mid- 
dle. Flowers in terminal panicles 10-15 cm. long. Sepals 5, oblong, 

5 or 6 mm. long, silky with appressed hairs outside, whitish inside, 
bearing 8 large glands. Petals none. The nut is nearly 2 cm. long, 
obovate, covered, especially at the base, with silky, fuscous, appressed 
hairs, not crested and angled as described in Flor. Bras., but even, 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dec. 1892.— 5 



66 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

surmounted by the sepals aud glands. The flower buds are very 
silky with appressed fuliginous hairs, and the branches of the in- 
florescence marked in the; same manner. 

Heteropterys angustifolia, Gris., Linusea, xiii, 223. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (48*7). January. 

A liana climbing high among trees, shrubby, or looking like a 
small tree. Leaves opposite, or alternate, willow-like, linear, cuspi- 
date, entire, glabrous, 4-8 cm. long, and 4-8 mm. wide, on petioles 
bracteolate and articulate midway, 2-5 mm. long. Flowers in ter- 
minal corymbs 4-8 cm. long. Found only in fruit, but persistent 
sepals 5, oblong, with 2 glands on the outside of each, and petals 
3-toothed. Fruit a samara in 2s., 2 cm. long, broadly winged. 

Heteropteris Pirayiiensis, Morong, n. sp. 

Suffruticose. Stem terete, angled or striate below, more or less compressed 
and silky downy on tlie young branches, about 1 m. high. Leaves of a silvery 
hue, opposite, entire, coriaceous, ovate, subcordate, apiculate, glabrous and 
somewhat shining above, minutely downy beneath, often with 1 or 2 glands 
near the base of the blade ; the largest collected 8 cm. long and 5 cm. wide. 
Petioles canaliculate above, eglandulose or biglandular near the apex, 5-10 
mm. long. Flowers in small terminal panicles. Found only in fruit, but the 
persistent sepals oblong, each with 2 glands on the back. Flowers 4 in the 
umbel ; pedicels jointed and bibracteolate above the base ; bracteoles minute, 
obtuse. Samaras 2 together, obovate or sometimes cultriform, the wing beau- 
tifully purple-tinted, shining and sculptured with striae, about 2 cm. long, on 
slender peduncles 10-15 mm. long. 

Between Pirayu and Yaguaron (6t2). April 8. 

Heteropteris amplexicaulis, Morong, n. sp. 

A liana, twining over trees for 6 or 8 m. Leaves numerous, opposite, lan- 
ceolate, elliptical or nearly orbicular, amplexicaul, apiculate, entire, callous 
on the margins, glabrous, somewhat shining above, lighter colored beneath, 
eglandulose, 2-6 cm. long, and l|-3 cm. broad. Flowers in rather small ter- 
minal panicles. Calyx 4 or 5 parted, obtuse, downy, membranous and ciliate 
on the margin, with 8, sometimes 10 glands. Petals 4 or 5, bright yellow, longer 
than the calyx lobes (4 or 5 mm. long), rounded at apex, unguilicate. Pedi- 
cels jointed and bracteolate just above the base, midway or near the apex, 
occasionally glandular. Ovary quite hairy, the hairs sometimes reddish. 
Samaras reddish-purple, 3, about 2 cm. long, pubescent below, the wing 
sculptured with striae, broad, crenate on the upper margin. 

Asuncion (199). November-December. = Balansa 2400. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 6t 

Hiraea puldierrima, Morong, n. sp. 

A liana, often climlnng on trees for 10 or 15 m. Stem terete, glabrous or 
minutely appressed pubescent, especially on the young shoots and among the 
inflorescence. Leaves deep green, opposite, entire, ovate, rounded at base, 
acuminate at the apex, shining on the upper surface, pubescent when young, 
5-10 cm. long, 3-6 cm. broad, usually biglandular at the base of the blade. 
Petioles 8-12 mm. long. Stipules minute, ovate, at the base of the petioles. 
Flowers in terminal panicles, often over 30 cm. long. Branches of the panicle 
opposite, spreading divaricately, 3-10 cm. long, the flowers disposed race- 
mosely or umbellately. Pedicels purplish, filiform, with minute bracts at the 
base, sometimes bibracteolate and jointed a little above the base, 8-15 mm. 
long. Sepals oblong, obtuse, hairy. Petals larger, purple, unguilicate. 
Ovary hairy. Samara 1, broadly 3-winged, clothed with long, appressed 
white hairs, crested on the back, becoming more or less glabrate ; wings 
semiorbicular, separate or partly confluent at the base, striate, a shining 
purplish-brown when mature, the whole in dried specimens appearing orbicu- 
lar and about 15 mm. in diameter. Seeds solitary in the centre of the axis of 
the wings. This liana is a great ornament to the woods when in flower, and 
its curious fruit are no less attractive. 

Asuncion (626). March. == Balansa 2405. 
Hiraea Salzmanniana^ Juss., Monog., 312. 

Chaco (431). March. = Balansa 24104. 

In Bull. Soc. Bot. Suisse, i, 34, Prof. Chodat describes a var. 
glandulifei^a based on this number of Balansa, with the character 
that the leaves are biglandular at the base, with which our speci- 
mens agree, but Grisebach in Mart. Flor. Bras., xii, pt. 1, 99, pre- 
viously described a different variety under the same name, the 
character being that the calyx is glandular. 

A liana with small panicles or corymbs of yellow flow^ers ; petals 
6 or Y mm. long, fringed, at the rounded apex. Sepals each bi- 
glandular and white tomentose. Leaves glabrous or pubescent 
when young, lanceolate or obovate, acute or apiculate, 10-20 cm. 
long, and 3-7 cm. broad. Petioles w^hite tomentose, stipuliferous 
And biglandular at the apex. Wings of the samara separate, cre- 
nate or undulate on the border, golden-brown at maturity. 

Hiraea macrocarpa, Chodat, Bull. Soc. Bot. Suisse, i, 35. 

Asuncion (226) ; between the Kecolleta and Luque (721). Decem- 
ber-May. = Balansa 2408. 

This species has round-oval, apiculate or abruptly acute leaves, 
glabrous above, covered with long, appressed white hairs beneath, 
6-12 cm. long, and 4-8 cm. broad, eglandulose or biglandular at 



68 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

base of the blade. Petioles very short. Flowers few, in small 
panicles, yellow or sometimes purple. Calyx with 8 glands. Fruit 
very large, 3- sometimes 5-winged, the wings 2 by 3^ cm., hairy, 
purple-tinged, lobed, or irregularly dentate on the margins. 

Janusia Giiaraiiitica, Juss., Monog., 350. 

Asuncion ("104). November-Ma3^ 

A very pretty little twining shrub, common in old fields and on 
roadsides about Asuncion and on the Pilcomayo, often found climb- 
ing upon herbaceous plants and small shrubs. The 5 green sepals 
have each 2 bean-shaped glands on the back. Petals yellowy with 
long claws, large ovate blades, widely separated, and the corolla 
spreads open rotately in anthesis from half to three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter. The ovaries are 3-carpelled, each carpel becom- 
ing in fruit a 3-winged samara with the seeds at the base. 

Janusia Barbeyi, Chodat, Bull. Soc. Bot. Suisse, i, 34. 

Pilcomayo River (1090). January. = Balansa 2401, Herb. Kew. 

Chodat, in his brief description of this species, cites this number 
of Balansa in part. Our specimens appear slightly different from 
our no. 704, but do not altogether agree with the characters assigned 
by M. Chodat to J. Barbeyi. 

GERANIACE^. 
Tropaeoluni pentapliyllum, Lam., Encyc, i, 612. 
Buenos Aires (14). October. 

Oxalis articulata, Sav., Lam. Encyc, xv, G36. 

Asuncion (656). April. 

Flowers usually bluish-purple, sometimes white. 

Oxalis corniculata, L., Sp. PL, 435. 

Asuncion (319). December. 

An odd-looking little Oxalis, resembling a small clover in general 
appearance. It throws out runners 10 to 15 cm. long, which root 
at the joints, and from each joint rises a fascicle of stems and leaves. 
Leaves ternately or quinately pinnate, the leaflets broader than long, 
emarginate and ciliate. Flowers light yellow. It has a curious 
habit in fruit. The peduncle is about 1 cm. long, and articulated 
half-way up, the joint marked by 2 small bracts. At the articula- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 69 

tion the peduncle bends sharply downwards, w^hile the ripe pod 
bends sharply upwards again and thus becomes erect. It grows 
on the edges of the sidewalks and in the crevices of the bricks all 
over Asuncion. Also along the country roads, but outside of the 
city it attains a much larger size, with a corolla nearly 3 cm. in 
diameter, and the petals marked by six short purple stripes near 
the base inside. 

Zanttioxylum JVaranjillo, Gris., Symb. Flor. Arg., 76. 

Asuncion (809). October. 

A tall shrub 2-3 m. high, in dense thickets about Asuncion. The 
leaflets are minutely crenate, with a row of transparent dots, one in 
each crenature, and, when fresh, quite transparent along the vena- 
tion. Flowers white, in large, terminal cymes. The stems and the 
rachis of the leaves armed with stout curved spines, an ugly custo- 
mer to deal with. 

Pilocarpus pennatifolius, Lam., Jard. Fleuriste, iii, t. 263. 

Asuncion (466 and 635). February-April. = Balansa 2514, and 
Gibert 55. 

The well-known Jaborandi, a medicinal plant of great value. The 
long racemes of dark, lurid flowers, sometimes 20 or 25 cm in length, 
are very striking. These contrast strangely with the dark green 
coriaceous shining foliage. The fruit is equally striking. It appears 
to be a large pod with a thick green shell, which dehisces on one 
side by 2 valves. Within appear 5 other pods, into which the 5 
cells of the ovary have developed, each containing a shining black 
seed enclosed in a bladdery membrane that hardens in drying. A 
shrub about 1^ m. high, with smooth stem, branches, and leaves 
and greenish bark, common in the thickets around Asuncion. 

Helietta longifoliata, Britton, n. sp. 

Glabrous. Leaves opposite ; petioles 2-3 cm. long ; leaflets sessile, lanceo- 
late or sliglitly oblanceolate, narrowed or cuneate at th.e base, 5-10 cm. long, 
1-2 cm. wide, the margins entire, the tip inrolled into a slender, curved pro- 
jection about 3 mm. long ; inflorescence terminal, loose, the flowers numerous, 
about 2 mm. broad; samaras about 1.5 cm. long, the wing oblong, twice as 
long as the body. 

Caballero (457). January. = Balansa 2515. 
A tree 8 or 10 m. in height, occurring on the hillsides near 
Caballero, on the road from Yilla Rica to Escoba. Flowers white. 



70 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

SIMARUBE^. 
Picramnia Sellowii, Planch, in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot., v, 578. 

Asuncion (823). October. = Balansa 2506. 

A straggling shrub 1-lJ m. high, with pinnate leaves and minute, 
greenish flowers in long, compound, linear spikes. Leaves numer- 
ous, shining above ; leaflets 3-4 pairs, the largest 6-7 cm. long and 
about 3 cm. vvide. 

MELIACE^. 
Trichilia Cantigua, A. Juss. in St. Hil. Flor. Bras. Merid., ii, 53. 

Asuncion (762) ; between Yilla Rica and Escoba (448). January- 
July. rr= Balansa 4655 and 2532. 

A tree 8-12 m. high. Leaves pinnate; leaflets 5 or 6 pairs and 
1 odd one, oblong, glabrous, shining above, 6-8 cm. long, and 2-3 
cm. wide. Flowers 3 mm. long, creamy-white, in small, close axil- 
lary panicles or racemes along the branches. 

Tricllilia elegans, A. Juss. in St. Hil. Flor. Bras. Merid., ii, 79, t. 98. 

Asuncion (834). November. = Riedel, 532, from Brazil, and 
Balansa, 2530. 

Differs from the preceding species in having numerous small, 
bright green leaves, the leaflets 2-2^ cm. long, 8-10 mm. wide, 
broader in the middle, sloping to both ends, nearh'" sessile, retuse 
or nearly truncate at the apex. Flowers minute, white, but little 
more than 1 mm. long, in axillary racemes ; petals very deciduous, 
falling off at a touch. A rather smaller tree, but much more grace- 
ful, with more numerous blossoms. 

Cedrela fissilis, Veil., Flor. Flum. iv, t. 68, 177. 

Asuncion (629). 

This tree is known all over Paraguay by the name of Cedar, 
although it bears no resemblance to the true cedar, except in its 
light, red-colored heart wood. It often attains a height of 20 m. or 
more, and is valued as the best cabinet-wood in the country, serv- 
ing almost as well for that purpose as our red cedar, and therefore 
worthy of the name. It has long straggling branches. The long 
pinnate leaves give it an elegant appearance, and the great com- 
pound panicles of flowers, from 4 to 6 dm. in length, are equally 
striking. The ill-smelling leaves and flowers, however, are not 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. Tl 

quite so attractive as the looks. The fruit is an obovate nut, 4-5 
cm. in length, and 2^ cm. in diameter, with a thin, greenish-white 
scurfy rind, looking somewhat like our butternut. It is one of the 
few deciduous trees in Paraguay, the fruit hanging on long after 
the leaves have fallen, which they do in April or May. The fruit 
partakes of the malodor of the leaves and flowers. 

ILICINEJE. 
Ilex Paraguayensis, St. Hil., Mem. Mus., ix, 351. 

Asuncion (636). Not in flower or fruit. 

The famous Paraguay Tea or Jesuits' Tea, or Yerba Mate, as 
it is variously called. It does not grow wild in eastern Paraguay, 
but is found only in the yerbales along the Parana River in the 
western districts. It is occasionally cultivated in gardens at 
Asuncion. 

CELASTRINEiE. 
Maytenus ilicifolia, Mart., Fl. Bras, xi, pt. 1, 8. 

Lympio (135). May. 

A shrub about 2 m. high. Only in bud when collected. Flow^ers 
apparently white. Leaves ovate or oblong, coriaceous, glossy, with 
a callous edge and many spiny teeth on the margins, nearly sessile, 
4-10 cm. long, and 5 or 6 cm. wide. 

Maytenus Vitis-Idaea, Gris., Symb. Fl. Arg. 83. 

Pilcomayo River (1049). May. 

A shrub 3-5 m. high, common in the thickets on the banks of the 
Pilcomayo. It has very thick, flabby leaves, almost circular in 
shape, so heavy that the shrub is bent nearly to the ground under 
their weight. Flowers small, yellowish-green, in small clusters 
along the branches. Fruit an oval, red berry, very scarce. 

RHAMNE^. 
Sageretia elegaiis (H. B. K.), Brong. 

Pilcomayo River (90t). February, = Balansa 2420. 

A shrub 3-5 m. high, with smooth light-colored bark. Leaves 
on short petioles, opposite, ovate, coriaceous, serrulate, glabrous, 
shining, acute, 4-8 cm. long, and 1|— 4 cm. broad, the nerves beneath 
prominent. Found only in fruit. Berry on a short pedicel, nearly 



72 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

as large as a pea, red when ripe, 3-angled. This shrub is armed, 
at least below, with stout, straight spines. 

Retanilla? 

Pilcomayo Kiver (913). 

Known to the natives as the Jacaranda or Caranda, a tree with a 
trunk about 20 cm. thick and 10 or 12 m. high. A striking object 
in the woods. I found it without flowers or fruit. The whole head 
presents the appearance of chevaux-de-frise, being composed, appa- 
rently, of long, stout spines, 8-25 cm. in length, thickened in the 
middle and very sharp at the apex. These are really the branches. 
Leaves reduced to 2 or 3 minute scales at the base of the branches, 
very caducous. The trunk has a dark shaggy bark, and the heart- 
wood is bluish-black, densely hard, with a small ring of white wood 
next to the bark. 

We suppose this to be a Retanilla, but Mr. N. E. Brown, of 
Kew, doubts that it belongs to that genus. 

Gouauia tomentosa, Jacq., Amer., 263. 

Asuncion (644). April. 

A tendril climber, clambering in dense masses over shrubs and 
small trees in thickets in the vicinity of Asuncion. Flowers white, 
in long, slender, supra-axillary spikes, very conspicuous. Fruit a 
globular, slightly 3-angled, fuscous-hairy capsule, 3-celled, with 3 
large, flat seeds, one in each cell. 

AMPELIDE^. 
Vitis palmata (Poir.), Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras., xiv, pt. 2, 216. 

Asuncion (138); Pilcomayo River (1091). Flower November ; 
fruit May. 

An interesting vine which I found climbing upon trees and fences 
in the neighborhood of Asuncion, and afterwards upon shrubs in 
the great laguna on the Pilcomayo River. It has deeply divided 
palmate leaves. Flowers small, wax-like, yellowish-brown, in 
umbel-like clusters. Fruit a pear-shaped, purple berry, 1-celled, 
1-seeded. Exceedingly hard to preserve, as the leaves and flower 
clusters will disintegrate in spite of all endeavors. I never could 
keep one of those collected about Asuncion, although I tried repeat- 
edly to press them, but for some reason had no difficulty with those 
of the Pilcomayo region. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 13 

Vitis sicyoides (L.), Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras., xi\^, pt. 2, 202. 

Asuncion (287). December. 

A tendril climber which clambers very high over tall trees. The 
lower part of the stem appears twin, as it has a deep channel in the 
middle which seems to divide it into two parts, while the branches 
are merely angled or grooved. Leaves deltoid, cordate at base, 
with a broad sinus and rounded lobes, sharply serrate, smooth on 
both sides, on petioles 2-4 cm. long. Flowers small, waxy-yellow. 
Fruit a 1-celled berry, containing 2 flat seeds which lie parallel with 
each other across the cell, the sharp side uppermost. 

SAPINDACEiE. 

Serjania fuscifolia, Radlk. Mon. Serj. 221. 

Asuncion (772). May-June. 

A liana with sulcate, fuscous-downy stem. Leaves biternate or 
triternate, on long fuscous-downy petioles ; leaflets ovate, doubly 
serrate, nearly glabrous above and fuscous-downy beneath. Ka- 
cemes much longer than the leaves; rachis fuscous-downy, axillary, 
the lower part naked and 8-10 cm. long, the upper flowering part 
of the same length. Flowers small, white. Fruit not seen. Ten- 
drils at the base of the flowers. 

Serjania gla'brata3 H. B, K., Nov. Gen., v, 110. 

Asuncion (625). March. = Gibert 1036. 

A liana 4-8 m. high. Difi'ers from the preceding species in having 
glabrous stems, only the young branches being puberulent. Leaf- 
lets glabrous, lobed or with a few large teeth. Fruit a 3-winged 
samara, the wings confluent at the base, in dried specimens when 
the lobes are pressed together looking cordate-ovate, 2-2^ cm. long, 
and lJ-2 cm. broad. The wings are membranous and glabrous, 
each bearing at the apex a globose seed nearly as large as a pea. 

The flowers are on longer peduncles than in no. 772, and in 
panicled racemes at the top of the stem, instead of being in solitary 
racemes among the leaves as in that ; racemes much shorter, 

Serjania meridionalis, Camb. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid., i, t. 76. 

Asuncion (625 b). March. 

Found only in fruit, which is much smaller than that of no. 625, 
the wings yellowish-brown when mature and striate, the samara in 



74 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

the dried specimens being about IJ cm. long, and as wide or wider 
at the base. 

Cardiosperniiim Halicacaliuiii, L., Sp. PL, 366. 

Asuncion (650). April. Pilcomayo River (891). January. 

Cardiospermuni grandiflorum, Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, ii, 698. (C. 
velutinum, H. and A.) 

Asuncion (238). December. 

A liana climbing by tendrils. Stem striate, angled, pubescent, 
becoming glabrate with age. Leaves ternate or biternate ; rachis 
2-4 cm. long. Leaflets ovate, 2-2|^ cm. long, and 1^-3^ cm. wide, 
pubescent beneath, crenate-serrate or lobed, the teeth and lobes 
mucronate or with a callous point. Flowers white, T or 8 mm. 
high, numerous, in small corymbose clusters. Common peduncle 
5-7 cm. long, striate, hirtulose. Tendrils twin at the summit of the 
peduncle under the flowers. Pod ovoid, 4 or 5 cm. long, 2-2|- cm. 
broad in the middle, pubescent, a light yellow when fully mature. 

Pailllinia elegans, Camb., St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. 

Asuncion (153, 387 and 764); Trinidad (737); Pilcomayo River 
(916 and 1092). November-June. 

A climbing vine, running over shrubs and tall trees with coriace- 
ous, shining, pinnate leaves, the pinnae of 2 pairs and one odd leaflet. 
Flowers white, small, in axillary racemes, 8-10 cm. in length, on 
long peduncles. The stem is that of a strong, woody liana, with 
the tendrils generally two, at the base of the leaves. The fruit is 
the most conspicuous part of the plant, consisting of numerous 
bright red berries, as large as a cranberry, containing 3 shining 
black seeds, which are enveloped, like those of Euonymus, in a 
white, mealy aril that covers about one-half of the seed. The juice, 
though scanty, is milky, showing more clearly in the unripe fruit 
than in the stems. 

Paullinia piniiata^ L., Sp. PL, 366. 

Asuncion (373); Pilcomayo River (892). January. 

This Paullinia' diners from the preceding species in having winged 
petioles, pear-shaped and obtusely 3-angled fruit, with tendrils both 
on the stem and at the ends of the peduncles, the whole plant very 
glabrous. Leaflets oblong, with a few large obtuse teeth. Pedun- 
cles 8-10 cm. long. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay 75 

Schmeidelia edulis, Camb. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merdi. 

Asuncion (844). October. 

A shrub with smooth dark-gray bark, covered with white dots, 
1^-2 m. hig-h. Leaves ternate ; common petiole about 2 cm. long, 
downy; leaflets elliptical, glabrous above, downy on the veins be- 
neath, pointed at either end, sessile or subsessile, irregularly serrate 
above, the largest collected 4^ cm. long and 2^ cm. wide. Found 
only in fruit. Berries small, red, in small axillary clusters, on 
peduncles 12 mm. to 2 cm. long. 

Cupania Teriialis^ Camb. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. 

Asuncion (152). June. = Balansa 2473. 

A tree with dark-grayish bark, smooth or somewhat fissured be- 
low, fuscous-downy on the young shoots, 10-15 m. high. Leaves 
alternate, pinnate ; petioles 2-7 cm. long ; petiolules very short ; 
leaflets 5-7 pairs, oblong, rounded at the apex and base, the largest 
collected 10-12 cm. long and 3 or 4 cm. wide, serrate, shining 
above, a little downy on the prominent veins beneath. Flowers 
small, white, or greenish-white, in axillary compound racemes, the 
rachis and sepals downy. Flowers fragrant. Common name as 
given to me by a native Paraguayan, Petato. 

Tliouinia Paragiiayensis, Britton, n. sp. 

A stout, climbing, tendril-bearing vine, tlie young twigs densely and finely 
pubescent, angular. Leaves 3-foliolate ; petioles 3-4 cm. long ; leaflets 
stalked, thick, densely and finely pubescent beneath, glabrate above, broadly 
ovate, truncate but decurrent on the petiole, obtuse at the apex, remotely 
serrate, 3-4 cm. long, and about as wide ; flowers minute, in subglobose, com- 
pound cymes ; cymes axillary, peduncled ; samaras 3, 3 cm. long, the wing 
obliquely obovate, twice as long as the seed. 

Road to Lambare in thickets (625 a). May. 

Melicocca lepidopetala, Radlk., Sitz. Akad. Mun., 1878, 344. 

Asuncion (817). 

A large tree from 10 to 18 m. in height, often planted as a shade 
tree about dwelling-houses in Asuncion, for which it is well adapted 
by its numerous branches and crowded, evergreen leaves. The 
native name, as it was spelled to me by a Guarani scholar is Ibapobo, 
pronounced in English, as nearly as it can be represented, ivapuyu. 
It bears one of the most highly esteemed native fruits, which are 
often sold in the Asuncion market. This is about the size of a 



76 Plants Collected iyi Paraguay. 

plum, globular, with a thick, leathery rind, and a sweet, mucilag-i- 
nous pulp that adheres closely to the seed. The meat is quite 
pleasant to the taste, but slightly astringent, and one may suck the 
pulp-covered seed as though it were a soft gum. The seeds are 
large, oval, with a soft shell, one, sometimes two, in the drupe. 
Parodi (Not. PI. Us. de Corrientes y Paraguay, p. 54) states that 
the leaves are medicinal, and used in decoctions for mucous fluxes, 
owing their properties to an essential oil contained in the vesicular 
glands, which look like transparent dots, and to an astringent tonic 
principle which all the tissues contain. Flowers in September ; ripe 
fruit in December. 

Sapindus Saponaria, L., Sp. PL, 367. 

Asuncion (722). May. 

In Paraguay this is a small tree 5-7 m, in height. Found only 
in fruit. The berries numerous, fleshy, greenish-yellow, about as 
large as marbles. 

ANACARDIACEJE. 
Schinus lenticifolius, L., in March. Anac, 164. 

Near Jaguaron (668). ^= Balansa 2523 a. 

A small shrub about 1 m. in height, in large patches upon the 
open campo. The red, capsular fruit, about as large as peas, look 
almost exactly like those of the pepper tree {Schinus molle). The 
fruit has a thin, brittle shell, which easily crushes between the 
fingers, and contains a single, flattish seed covered with angles and 
grooves. In fruit April 8. 

DUTaua dependens (Ort.), Kunth, Diet. Sci. Nat., Li\rr, 47. 
La Plata, Arg. Republic (28). October. 

DllTaua spinosa (Engler), Britton. 

Schinus spinosus, Engler, in Mart. Fl. Bras., xii, pt. 2, 388, t. 81, f. 2. 

Pilcomayo River (952). March. 

A shrub 5 or 6 m. in height, and a great nuisance about our 
camp, as its short, stiff, stub-like branches are armed with sharp 
thorns, and when cut down it was impossible to burn it or to put 
it to any use. It seems to be all branches, as the leaves are few 
and quite small. The flowers are small, white, polygamo-dioecious, 
scattered along the branches, and looking much like those of our 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 77 

Ilex verticillata. The fruit consists of a small, nearly globular 
berry, blackish-purple when ripe, containing- a single seed which is 
flattish and irregularly grooved on the sides, and having a slight 
aromatic taste. When fully mature, the rind becomes dry and 
crushes into thin fragments under pressure. 

I tried for several nights in succession to make a bonfire of a 
heap of these shrubs which our peons had cut down, and though 
every other shrub and tree in the region would burn readily, this 
was scarcely scorched. 

Qiiebracliia Morongii, Britton, n. sp. 

A large tree. Leaves simple, oblong, thick and coriaceous, entire, pale, 
reticulate-veined, obtuse at each end, mucronulate at the apex, 3-5 cm. long, 
1.5-2 cm. wide, glabrous, petioles 3-5 mm. long, staminate flowers rather 
numerous, in small panicles ; calyx campanulate, glabrous, about 1 mm. long, 
5-lobed nearly to the middle, the lobes ovate-oblong, obtuse ; petals 5, oblong, 
obtuse, apparently white with a green midrib, entire, about 3 times as long 
as the calyx, recurved at least when dry, slightly imbricated ; disc annular, 
5-lobed, elevated ; stamens 5, alternate with the petals, inserted just outside 
the disc ; filaments short, thickened below ; anthers about the length of the 
filaments, versatile, 2-celled, the cells longitudinally dehiscent ; pistil none in 
the single flower examined ; fertile flowers not seen ; samara oblong, slightly 
falcate, glabrous, 2-3 cm. long, the seed-bearing, lower portion rugose. 

This description is drawn from the flowers of Mr. J. Grraham 
Ker's No. 55, kindly sent me by Mr. N. E. Brown, of Kew, and 
the fruit of Dr. Morong's No. 914, both from the Pilcomayo River. 
The species differs from all the other described ones of the genus in 
its simple leaves. In the others they are pinnate. — N. L. B. 

Known universally in Paraguay as Quebracho Colorado. Que- 
bracho or axe-breaker, as the Spanish word imports, is a very suit- 
able name, for the wood is almost as hard as iron. The tree grows 
to the height of 20 or 25 m., and 1-1^ m. in diameter at the base. 

It is found all through the Chaco territory in Paraguay, along 
the Pilcomayo River, on which these specimens were gathered, and 
down the Paraguay River nearly to Corrientes in the Argentine 
Republic, It is extensively used for building purposes, forming 
solid logs which make admirable beams for bridges and other struc- 
tures in which great strength is required. It is almost indestruc- 
tible by time and weather. I saw doors made of the wood 150 
years old, and they seemed as sound as ever. In the ruins of the 
churches in the old Jesuit Missiones in eastern Paraguay there are 



78 Flants Collected in Paraguay. 

beams of this wood still standing, which are at least 250 years of 
age. The wood is so heavy that it sinks in water like lead, and it 
is almost impossible to cut it with a knife. In an attempt to bore 
it with a common gimblet, I twisted the handle off before I had 
penetrated the wood half an inch. The tree is stocky, somewhat 
resembling the English elm in appearance, with a rough, shaggy, 
grayish bark. The wood is ground up in Paraguay and used for 
tanning purposes. The samaras are of a beautiful glossy red color. 
The foliage is usually covered with gray usnea-like lichens, the 
branches thick and bearing strong spines, so that it cannot be 
regarded as a very handsome tree, although invaluable in those 
regions as timber. 

LEGUMINOS^. 
Crotalaria anagyroides, H. B. K., Nov. Gen. vi, 404. 

G-ran Chaco (375). January. 

Fruticose, 3-6 dm. high. Stems branched, striate, fuscous-pubes- 
cent. Leaves ternate, on petioles 3-10 cm. long ; leaflets obovate 
or elliptical, entire, pubescent, varying greatly in size, from 2 to 8 
cm. long, and 6 mm. to 2^ cm. wide. Flowers yellow, in terminal 
racemes. Pods pubescent, 2-2^ cm. long. 

Crotalaria incana, L., Sp. PL, 716. 

Asuncion (225); Pilcomayo River (1093). December-April. 

JHedicago denticulata, Willd., Sp. PL, iii, 1414. 
Buenos Aires (1). October. 

Indigofera Anil, L., Mant., 272. 

Asuncion (205). November-December. 

This well-known plant of the East Indies was formerly cultivated 
largely in Paraguay for the manufacture of indigo, and is still used 
to some extent for that purpose. It has become quite extensively 
naturalized in the country. 

Indigofera gracilis, Bong, in Ann. Nat. Hist., iii, 431. 

Caballero (407). January. ^ Balansa 1568. 

This species differs from the preceding in having simple linear 
leaves, few and scattered, 3-6 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide. The flowers 
are purple, in long terminal spikes. A slender plant 3-5 dm. in 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 79 

height, growing upon the open campo. It has a stout, shrubby 
root. 

Indigofera sa"bulicola, Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras., xv, pt. 1, 40. 

Asuncion (185). November. 

A small plant Avith thick, hard root, prostrate or ascending on 
sandy soil. The small flowers are purple in color, in close heads, 
or, when more developed, opening into short spikes. Leaves pin- 
nate ; leaflets cuneate or spatulate, retuse, mucronulate, 6-12 mm. 
long, 3-6 pairs and an odd one. Pods hairy, 13-15 mm. long. 
Many in dense terminal clusters. 

Cracca cinerea (L.), Morong. 
Galeya cinerea, L., Amoen. Acad., v, 403. 
Tephrosia cinerea, Pers., Syn., ii, 329. 

Between Paragua and Luque (856). November-December. 

A small shrub 15-30 cm. high, irregularly branching, with a 
tough, w^oody root, growing in dry soil. Flowers purple, downy, 
quite large for the plant, the petals 1-2 cm. in length. Leaflets 
4-6 pairs and an odd one, pubescent, obovate, 10-18 mm. long, 
nmcronate. Pods pubescent or glabrate, 3-5 cm. long, solitary 
or 1-4 in a cluster. 

Sesliaiiia exasperata, H. B. K., Nov. Gren., vi, 534. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (934). February-April. 

A tall shrub-like, glabrous, much-branched plant, 2-2J m. in 
height. Flowers light yellow, in short racemes on very long, naked, 
pendent peduncles. Leaflets 25-30 or more. Fruit in a long, loose 
panicle at the ends of the stem and branches, consisting of an elon- 
gated, narrow pod (often 25 cm. in length and only 4 mm. broad), 
with a sharp pointed apex and from 40 to 50 cross-partitioned cells, 
which contain as many small, square, flattish yellow seeds. When 
fully ripe, the leaves fall off and leave the plant covered with these 
long, pendent pods, thus imparting to it a very striking appearance. 
As the lower branches are the largest, the general outline is conical. 
The stem has a large pith in the centre, and the wood is soft. Not 
uncommon on the banks of the Pilcomayo. 

Sesbania inargiiiata, Benth., Mart. Fl. Bras., xv, pt. 1, 43. 

Asuncion (621). February-March. 

A cassia-like looking shrub, 2^-3 m. in height, common on the 
low lands around Asuncion. The flowers, which are quite hard to 



80 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

catch, are verj^ fugacious, small, yellow. The most peculiar thing 
about the plant is the fruit. This, notwithstanding the earl}^ dis- 
appearance of the flower, is quite abundant, and hangs on for 
several months. It consists of a 4-sided pod from 3 to t cm. in length, 
with 3-G cross septa, containing as many oblong beans, each of 
which is imbedded in a light, greenish, dryish pulp. When dry the 
pods are sharply angled, and the angles corky. From 4 to 7 pods 
hang from a single peduncle. The stipules are even more fugaci- 
ous than the petals, dropping off before the leaf is half developed. 

JEscliynomeiie falcata, D.C., Brod., ii, 322. 

Caballero (400). January. 

Stems very slender, almost setaceous, striate, pubescent, 5 or 6 
dm. high, branched, erect or ascending. Leaves pinnate, on petioles 
2-4 mm. long; leaflets 3-5 pairs, obovate, entire, sessile, mucronu- 
late, minutely pubescent, about 5 mm. long. Flowers 1 or 2, diver- 
gent, at summit of the branches, yellow, on a common setaceous 
axillary peduncle, 2-3 cm. long, and jointed and bracteolate in the 
middle. Loments 5-jointed, glabrous. 

iEsdiynomene Montevidensis, Vog. Linnsea, xii, 83. 

Luque (310). December. 

A shrub 2^-3 m. high, with glabrous, glaucous stems. Leaves 
scarcely 2 cm. long, with 20-30 pairs of minute, crowded, mucro- 
nate leaflets, minutely pellucid-punctate. Flowers bright yellow, in 
long, lax, nearly naked panicles. Loments glabrous, 3-10 jointed, 
callous margined on either side, 2-5 cm. long. 

iS^scliynonieiie sensitiva, Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, iii, 1256. 

Asuncion (191). November. 

A shrub 1-1^ m. high. Stems terete, striate, glabrous below, 
often hirsute and glandular on the young branches. Leaves with 
10-20 pairs of pinnae; leaflets crowded, 5-8 mm. long, oblong, 
mucronulate. Petioles about 5 mm. long, clothed with dark glands. 
Stipules greenish-purple, membranous, somewhat lunate, produced 
into flaps at the base, acute, fugacious. Flowers yellow, the petals 
striped with reddish or purplish veins. Sepals ciliolate, with dark 
glands on the margins. Loments 3-4 cm. long, callous margined, 
with 6-8 joints. Branches of this plant alternate, nearly erect, 
very short, 3-4 cm. apart. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 81 

Discolollilini pulclielllim, Bentli., Ann. Mus. Vind., ii, 106. 
Grail Chaco (31*7). January. = Balansa 152*7. 

Stylosantlies CjJtiianeiisiSjSw., Svensk.Vet. Akad. HandL, 1789, 296. 

Asuncion (255); Caballero (399 b). December-January. 

A suffruticose plant with strong ligneous roots, prostrate, ascend- 
ing or erect, 1-5 dm. high. Stems terete, hirsute, with long, spread- 
ing, yellow hairs. Leaves ternate, on petioles 5-15 mm. long. 
Leaflets linear-lanceolate, entire, or with minute spiny serratures or 
cilise, spine-tipped, nearly sessile, with strong white ribs, the midrib 
hirsute, 15-25 mm. long, and 3-5 mm. broad. Stipules connate 
with petioles for half their length, 3-5 nerved, more or less hirsute, 
tipped with 2 hirsutely haired, stout awns. Flowers in close heads, 
small, yellow; bracts 3-pronged, hirsute or pubescent, looking much 
like the stipules. Pods flattish, with a long curved beak, man}^ 
specimens, at least, containing only a single seed. 

The variety in my specimens has much fewer leaves, narrower 
and longer (2-4 cm. long), and only pubescent bracts, but perhaps 
it is not the var. gracilis of Vogel. It seems, however, to vary 
decidedly from the type. 

Stj^losantlies Guianensis^ Sw., var. gracilis (H. B. K.), Vog. Lin- 
nsea, xii, QQ. 

Caballero (399). January. 
Aracbis prostrata, Benth., Trans. Lin. Soc, xviii, 159. 

Near "Villa Rica (181). January. 

A small prostrate shrub, with tough, woody roots which run deep 
in sandy soil, and stems 3 dm, or more in length. It has a bright 
yellow flower with a large spreading standard, the keel with its 
parts coalescing so as to show hardly any lines of division, solitary 
on peduncles 3-8 cm. long. Leaves with 2 pairs of pinnae, which 
are oblong or obovate, mucronulate, the veins resembling those of 
some species of clover, parallel and running from the midrib at an 
angle of 45° to the margin. It flowers very freely, but seldom 
shows any fruit. Common in old fields all the way from Asuncion 
to Yilla Rica. November-January. 

Zornia dipliylla (L.), Pers., var, gracilis (D.C.), Benth., Mart. Fl. 
Bras., XV, pt. 1, 83. 

Gran Chaco (361); Caballero (398 a). December-January. 
Stem slender, 3-5 dm. in height, from tough, woody roots, 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Dec. 1892.— 6 



82 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

minutely silvery dotted. Leaves binate, that is with a pair of 
linear, divaricate leaflets at the end of the petiole, but so few that 
the stem appears almost naked. Stipules peculiar, being acute, 
striate, and attached in the middle, that is wdth a flap below the 
point of attachment nearly as long as the upper part. Flowers in 
terminal spikes, each under a pair of bracts which are just like the 
stipules. Standard large, purple and yellow, with deeper purple 
stripes. Calyx of 6 segments, one of which is larger than the rest 
and ciliate hairy. Fruit a loment of Y or 8 joints, each joint covered 
with prickles. 

Zornia dipliylla (L.), Pers., var. latifolia (D.C.), Beiith., 1. c, 81. 

Caballero (398). January. 

This form is quite leafy, the leaflets ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 cm. or 
more long, and 5-14 mm. broad. The delicate yellow flow^ers are 
nearly hidden by a pair of large, oval, striate bracts. 

Meibomia alMflora (Salzm.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, i, 97. 

Asuncion (105 a). November-December. 

This genus, so far as my experience goes, is very poorly repre- 
sented in Paraguay. The species here noted has a very slender 
prostrate puberulent stem, 3-3^ dm. long. Leaflets round-ovate or 
ovate, 3-5 cm. long and 14-3| cm. wide, sparsely hairy. Flowers 
pale rose color. Stipules free, cordate, lanceolate, very acute, 
strongly nerved. Loment 1-4 cm. long, of 2-t very hairy joints. 

Meibomia barbata (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 195. 

Caballero (408). January. 

Stem erect, much branched, very downy, 3-6 dm. high. Leaf- 
lets obovate, rounded, and retuse at the apex, glabrous above, pubes- 
cent beneath, 2-3 cm. long and 1-2 cm. or a little more in breadth. 
Stipules longer than in No. 105 a, lanceolate, acuminate, striate. 
Flowers small, rose-colored, in glomerate spikes or heads. Calyx 
woolly. Bracts like the stipules. 

Meibomia Clineata (H. and A.), Kuntze, L c, 197. 

Asuncion (159) ; Pilcomayo River (937). November-February. 

This plant, which grows in old fields around Asuncion, 1-lJ m. 
in height, occurs also on the campos along the Pilcomayo, where it 
attains a height of 3 m. The flowers are rose-colored, in great masses 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 83 

at the top of the stem, and so great is the weight of the flowers and 
fruit at maturity that they ahnost bend the stalk to the ground. 
Stem much branched at the top, covered with a thick down, striate, 
stiff and hard. Flowers small, bluish-purple. 

Meillioiiiia siipina (Sw.), Britton. 
Hedtjsarum supinum, Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, iii, 1264. 
Hednsarum incanum, Sw., 1. c, 1265, not Thunl). 
Desmodium incanum, D.C., Prod., ii, 332. 

Asuncion (105). November. 

Cruininium Virgin ianum (L.), Britton, Bull. Terr. Bot. CI., xviii, 
269. 

Asuncion (111 a). November. 

Erythrina Crista-OalH, L., Mant., 99. 

Luque (291). December-June. 

Known in Paraguay as Ceibo. A shrub or small tree from 3 to 8 m. 
in height, common in wet grounds and along watercourses, much 
resembling our Tupelo in general appearance. Trunk, limbs, and 
petioles armed with small but strong hooked spines. The showy 
flowers are in terminal racemes, conspicuous not only for their bright 
red color but also for their curious elongated boat-shape, each of 
them mounted on a reddish-purple pedicel. The standard is nearly 
6 cm. in length, emarginate, oval, with an open fold or curled pro- 
jecting part on each side at the base, the edges slightly cohering 
over the other parts of the flower when young, but slightly spread- 
ing with age ; keel undivided, closing over the stamens and style ; 
laterals hidden under the large standard, each with 2 teeth, 1 tooth 
much larger than the other. Fruit a cylindrical, smooth pod, often 
20 or 25 cm. in length, containing from 15 to 20 smooth, polished, 
bluish, slightly curved seeds. This tree is sometimes cultivated in 
gardens at Asuncion, but does not do so well as in the wild state. 
The bark of the trunk is thick and corky below% and sometimes 
employed as cork. I was informed by natives that a decoction of 
it was regarded as a good remedy for throat affections. 

Oalactia tenuiflora (Willd.), W. and A., Prod., i, 206. 

Lympio (730). May. 

The specimens collected show a slender twining vine which climbs 
over shrubs for 3 m. or more. Stems glabrous or pubescent. Leaf- 



84 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

lets ovate, entire, glabrous above, appressed pubescent beneath, 
obtuse at either end, 2-4 cm. long and 1-1^ cm. wide. Peduncles 
usually longer than the petioles. Corolla light yellow. Pod pubes- 
cent, 4 or 5 cm. long. 

]>ioclea rellexa. Hook., f. Fl. Nigr., 30G. 

Caballero (472). January. 

A liana with stems almost as large as cables, clambering over 
trees 12-16 m. in height, and overpowering them with its multi- 
tude of branches. It bears large spikes of magnificent bluish-pur- 
ple flowers, but unfortunately the flowers, as well as the leaves, 
drop off in the process of drying, so that herbarium specimens afford 
but a very faint idea of the inflorescence as seen in its native woods. 
The fruit is a large silky fuscous-hairy legume. 

CanaTalia ensiformis (L.), D.C. Prod., ii, 404. 
C. gladiata, D.C, 1. c. 

Asuncion (639 and 694). March-May. 

A liana with a stout, strong stem, climbing over shrubs and trees 
6-10 m. in height. Flowers in axillary racemes, yellow and pur- 
ple, quite showy. The standard is a large, long, twisted body, 
curiously convolute and lobed ; keel tubular, closed around the 
stamens and style, with a somewhat enlarged base, closely coiled 
up and 8 or 10 cm. in length. Fruit a narrow, sharp-pointed pod 
from 10-20 cm. in length, or often a ponderous bean-like pod, 25 cm. 
long and 3 or 4 cm. broad, flat, with 2 sharp, longitudinal angles 
near the top, concave in the centre, and containing from 10 to 20 
small seeds lying crosswise and separated by thick partitions. 

PliaseolllS campestris, Mart. ; Benth., Aim. Mus. Vlnd., ii, 141. 

Pilcomayo River (904). February-March. 

Reminding me of the sweet pea in looks, but with a flower much 
inferior to that in beauty. Twining about small plants and bushes. 
Stems and petioles fuscous-hairy. Flowers yellow, two or three 
together, on a hairy peduncle about 20 cm. in length, the standard 
round, emarginate, spreading, 1-2 cm, high. Fruit a fuscous-hairy 
pod, 5 or 6 cm. long and 5 mm. wide, containing 7 or 8 black, 
smooth, irregularly shaped seeds marked with the white scar of 
the hilum. This pea was very abundant about our camp on the 
Pilcomayo River. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 85 

PliaseolllS erytlirolonin, Mart. ; Benth. in Ann. Mus. Vind., ii, 141. 

Asuncion (198) ; Pilcomayo River (993). November-April. 

Stems stout, soft hairy, running over the ground or twining- 
about herbs and shrubs. Leaflets of the ternate leaves rhomboidal, 
velvety downy. Just above each leaf is a conspicuous w^horl of 
green, downy, subulate bracts, about 1 cm. in length. Flowers on 
peduncles 30 cm. in length, the lateral petals spreading, very dark 
reddish-purple, imparting that hue to the corolla; standard green- 
ish, much smaller than the laterals. Fruit a hairy pod containing 
18 or 20 lenticular seeds, shining, mottled black and pale yellow, 
marked with a white hilum scar. I found this at Asuncion in fields 
and pastures, and in thickets on the Pilcomayo climbing upon shrubs 
5 m. high. 

Pliaseolus Truxillensis, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., vi, 451. 

Asuncion (127, 695, 778, and 778a). November-June. 

Twining about herbs and shrubs. Flowers 1-2 cm. high, purple 
and yellow ; standard large, roundish, emarginate ; wnngs obovate 
and beautifully striped with purple. At the base of each leaflet is 
a flat, thick gland. Fruit a heavy pod 12 cm. in length and about 
1 cm. wide, containing from 8 to 15 flattish seeds, undivided by 
septa. The whole plant is clothed with thick, fuscous hairs. Very 
variable in size and length of the stems, hairiness, and especially in 
the size of the leaflets. In some specimens the leaflets are lanceo- 
late with subhastate lobes at the base, 3-4 cm. long and 15-18 mm. 
wide, in others they are rhombic-ovate, 12 cm. long and 8 cm. wide. 
At times the stem and leaves are nearly glabrous. At times the 
pod is much smaller than the dimensions given above and scantily 
pubescent. 

Pliaseolus prostratus, Benth., var. angustifolius, Bentli., Mart. Fl. 
Bras., XV, pt. 1, 192. 

Caballero (414). January. 

Pliaseolus rufus, Mich., Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii, No. 7, 29 ? 

Caballero (406). January. 

A small twining plant, often trailing, in fields. The flowers are 
white or a very pale yellow. Leaflets round or oval, 2 cm. long or 
less. Not seen in fruit. 



86 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

RhyiicIio«)ia Balansae^ Mich., 1. c, 31. 

Asuncion (646); railway track near Caballero (486). January- 
April. = Balansa, 1513. = Gibert, 1022. 

Rhyncliosia melanosticta, Gris., PL Lorentz, 76. 

Asuncion (724). May. 

Rhynchosia Texana, T. and O., Fl. N. A., i, 687. 

Pilcomayo River (1023). May. 

The Phynchosias here enumerated are small shrubbyish plants, 
often with declining or prostrate stems, and racemes of yellow 
flowers. Fruit a small pod with several flattish seeds. Except P. 
Texa.na, which is twining or creeping, flowers a pale yellow, very 
small, solitary or 2 or 3 together in axillary clusters. Fruit a flat 
pod, 1 cm. long, containing a single seed. They all grow in dry 
soil. 

Pterocarpus Michelii, Britton, n. sp. 

Twigs glabrous. Leaves pale, petioled, 9-12 cm. long, 5-7 foliolate ; leaflets 
stalked, broadly oblong, oval or slightly ovate, finely reticulated, rather thick, 
entire, rounded or truncate at the base, obtuse at the apex, 4-7 cm. long, 2-4 
cm. wide ; raceme dense, 10-15 cm. long, about 3 cm. thick, the rachis, pedi- 
cels, and calyx densely and finely pubescent with brown hairs ; pedicels 4-5 
mm. long ; calyx oblique about 6 mm. long ; corolla yellow, about twice as 
long as the calyx ; legume glabrous, rugose, narrowly winged on one side, 
3-4 cm. long and nearly as wide, about 1 cm. thick. 

Gran Chaco, opposite Asuncion (3t9). January. 

The same as Balansa's 1497, collected near the same place, and 
provisionally referred by M. Micheli to P. Rolirii, Yahl. 

A fine large tree from 13 to 20 m. in height, with a branching, wide- 
spread head, and many shoots rising from the base. Covered at 
the time of my visit with racemes of bright yellow blossoms, which 
made it very conspicuous from a distance. 

I visited this tree and others in the vicinity later in the season 
in the hope of getting fruit, but all of them were barren. The fruit 
described above is from Balansa's specimen. 

Rergeronia sericea, Mich., 1. c, 39. 

Asuncion (285, 363 and 811). October-December. 
An unarmed, stragglingly-branched shrub or small tree 3-10 m. 
in height. Bark gray, smooth or warty. Leaves unequally pin- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 87 

nate, with 5-7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers in racemes 8-10 cm. long-, 
bluish-purple. Legume pluricelled, 2-8 cm. long and 6 or 7 mm. 
wide, grayish-downy, containing 1-6 long yellowish beans marked 
by the hilum, which is surrounded by a large aureole. This tree 
occurs in the Chaco, opposite Asuncion, and east of the city in open 
grounds. 

Geoflfroya striata (Willd.), Moroiig. 

Rohinia striata, Willd., Sp. PL, iii, 1132 (1803). 

Geoffroya superba, H. and B., PL ^quin., ii, 69, t. 100 (1809). 

Pilcomayo River (888). January-April. 

This is one of the most noticeable trees on the Pilcomayo. It 
sometimes attains a height of 13 m., with long, horizontal branches 
stretching out over the river, on the borders of which it grows. 
Bark rugged and dark colored, the wood very hard, not good for 
timber, as it is knotty and seldom over 10 or 15 cm. in diameter. 
Flowers in small axillary racemes, yellow, and leguminous in struc- 
ture. This would hardly be supposed from the fruit, which is not 
a legume, but a drupe or stone-fruit. When fully ripe, this is from 
2J to 4 cm. in length, flattened-oval in shape, with a green, rather 
thick downy husk or rind, which turns yellowish when mellow, 
enclosing a thin, sweetish, edible pulp. The seed is a hard-shelled 
nut, nearly as large as the fruit, irregularly grooved. This con- 
tains a kernel which is much like an almond in shape and color. 
We tried roasting these stones in the fire, and found the meat quite 
pleasant to the taste. This in all probability gives the popular 
name to the tree, *'Mani de los Indios" or Indian peanut, as it 
certainly has little resemblance to the peanut in any other respect. 

The plant is curiously intermediate between the Leguminosse and 
the Rosaceae, in all respects belonging to the former by its flowers 
and to the latter by its fruit. The stones, however, do not dehisce 
along the edges as in the peach, but along the middle of the two 
flattish sides. It might well be regarded as belonging to a distinct 
order from the Leguminosse. So far as the leaves are concerned, 
they might belong to either family. This tree was very abundant 
upon the part of the Pilcomayg between the Junta and the Falls, 
and we often gathered the fruit. I found only a few flowers, as we 
were a little too late in the season for them. 



88 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Goiirliaea decorticans, Hook., Bot. Misc., iii, 208, pi. cvi. 

Pilcomayo River, near the Falls (1024). May-June. 

Yery different in general appearance from the preceding species. 
Oar peons called it an "algorroba." A small tree some 6 m. in 
height, much and stragglingly branched, all the shortest branches 
armed at the end with a sharp spine. The tree at the time of our 
visit was a mass of yellow flowers, the flowers not being in terminal 
racemes as in no. 888, but massed together in clusters of short 
racemes along the trunk and limbs, each raceme 3 cm. or less in 
length. One of the most noticeable things about the plant, in which 
it varies widely from 888, is the bark. The inner bark is green and 
smooth ; as it grows older it rolls up and peels off in dry scrolls, 
leaving the young green bark in patches, thus imparting a singular 
appearance to the trunk. In all the specimens that I saw the 
flowers were infertile, dropping ofl" and setting no fruit. We were 
in the vicinity for two months, at least, and I should have found 
fruit had the trees borne any. 

Peltopliorum dlllJium (Spreng.), Britton. 

Ccesalpinia dubia, Spreng., Sjst. Veg., ii, 343 (1825). 

Peltophorum Vogelianuin, Bentli. in Hook. Jour. Bot., ii, 75 (1840). 

Asuncion (685). April. 

A tree with smooth bark, growing from 6 to 12 m. in height. 
Young twigs and inflorescence covered with ferruginous down. 
Leaves 20-30 cm. long, bipinnate ; pinnae oblong, numerous, 4-8 
cm. long; leaflets 20-40 pairs, oblong, bright green, shining above, 
oblique at the base, 6-8 mm. long. Flowers in very long, terminal 
racemes, bright yellow, on pedicels 1-lJ cm. long. Fruit a flat, 
smooth, and glabrous legume, 6-8 cm. long, pointed at both ends, 
with 2 sharp edges, containing a few bean-like seeds. This tree is 
an abundant bloomer, and forms a conspicuous object in the woods 
about Asuncion when in blossom. 

Caesalpinia melanocarpa, Gris., Symb. Flor. Arg., 114. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (912). February. 

A large tree 16 or 25 m. in height, known among the natives as 
Guiacdn. The leaves bipinnate, having 3-4 pairs of pinnae and 1 
odd one ; leaflets about 10 pairs, very small, obtuse. I found it only 
in fruit, which consists of an oval or obovate, flattish pod 3-4 cm. 
in length and about 2 cm. in width, with 2-5 small flattish seeds 
lying crosswise. The tree has a very smooth, green, thin bark, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 89 

which is easily peeled off. The heart-wood is dark ia color, some- 
what bluish in tint, glossy when dry, the outer wood white, and all 
the w^ood very hard and susceptible of a fine polish, 

Caesalpinia pulctierrima (L.), Sw., Obs., 166. 

Asuncion (150). November-February. 

A very handsome shrub, with large, showy racemes of red flowers 
at the ends of the branches, much cultivated in gardens at Asuncion. 
5 red sepals, somewhat obovate, alternate with the petals and about 
one-third as long ; petals large, with broad, round, crimped sum- 
mits, clawed, whitish on the edges, spread wide open in flower, 
red and pale yellow, stamens and styles filiform, much exserted. 
Flowers numerous and elegant in appearance. A thorny shrub 
with handsome bipinnate leaves. Fruit a legume bearing several 
large seeds. 

Parkinsonia aculeata, L., Sp. PL, 375. 

Asuncion (151); Pilcomayo River (1094). November-December. 

This thorny shrub, cultivated in Asuncion gardens, vies in beauty 
with no. 150. I found it growing wild on the banks of the Pilco- 
mayo, but at that time without flowers or fruit. Yery different, 
however, from its rival. The leaves, instead of being bipinnate, 
might almost be called pinnate phyllodia, as they consist of a very 
narrow blade 6-20 cm. long, bearing on the sides short oblong 
pinnae in pairs, 6-8 mm. apart. These leaves are very numerous, 
drooping, and impart an elegant appearance to the plant. Flowers 
in racemes at the ends of the branches, numerous, on pedicels about 
2\ cm. long, light yellow. Sepals 5, reflexed in anthesis, one-third 
as long as the petals ; petals 5, about equal, the standard of a 
brownish tint, all hairy at the base within. Stamens and styles 
filiform, exserted. Legume narrow, few seeded. Flowers not as 
abundant or showy as in no. 150, but the peculiar leaves give it an 
appearance almost as elegant. It is much used as a border along 
the garden sides and streets in the suburban portions of Asuncion, 
growing 3-8 m. in height. The numerous sharp spines with which 
it is armed secure it very effectually from molestation. 

Cassia alisus^L., Sp. PL, 376. 

Asuncion (700). May. 

The Cassias are very numerous in Paraguay, the most of them 
tall, shrubby plants with showy yellow flowers, and long, many- 
seeded pods. 



90 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

I note a few points of difference among those here enumerated. 
No. too is a glandular, much-branched herbaceous plant from 3 to 
6 dm. high. The petiolar gland is erect, acute, one between the 
base of each pair of leaflets. Stamens 5-*7, perfect, unequal. Fruit 
a small, flat, glandular-hairy legume 3-4 cm. long and ^ cm. wide, 
containing 6-8 seeds. Found in old cultivated fields. 

Cassia alata, L., Sp. PL, 378. 

Asuncion (643). April. 

A coarse, rank, showy-flowered shrub, much branched, 2-3 m. 
high, cultivated in Asuncion gardens and running wild. Pinnae 
8-11 pairs; leaflets oblong or obovate, 6-10 cm. long, 3-6 cm. broad. 
Flowers very numerous, in long terminal racemes. Legume long, 
2-winged, the wings on opposite sides and with many cross ribs 
which correspond to the septa, containing as many seeds as there 
are septa, 10-12 cm. in length and 1-1^ cm. wide. 

Cassia Mcapsularis, L., Sp. PI., 376. 

Asuncion (631). March-April. 

A smooth shrub 2-2j m. in height, growing in the environs of 
Asuncion. Leaflets large, 4 or 5 pairs, with a thick, greenish, 
oblong, top-shaped or almost globular gland between the lowest pair, 
and the whole leaf 8 or 10 cm. in length. Flowers showy, 2-3 cm. 
in diameter when expanded. Stamens 10, 1 perfect and 3 abortive. 
Pod nearly cylindrical, often 16 cm. long and only ^ cm. in diame- 
ter, with 2 furrows on opposite sides. On the Pilcomayo River in 
fruit. 

Cassia corym'boga, Lam., Encjc, i, 644. 

Asuncion (776); Pilcomayo River (1095 and 1096). May-June. 

A shrub some 2 m. or more in height. Leaves with 2-4 leaflets 
and an oval or globular gland between the first pair. Flowers 
few, rather small. Pod 10-15 cm. long, 1 cm. in diameter, with 2 
convex sides and 2 deep furrows. Not common. 

Cassia leptocarpa, Benth., Liunaea, xxii, 528. 

Asuncion (82). November. 

A shrub with smooth, striate stem, some 2 m. in height, growing 
in thickets about Asuncion. Leaflets 5 or 6 pairs. Flowers moder- 
ately large, but showy. Stamens 10, in 3 groups, 2 long, 4 shorter, 
all 6 fertile, the other 4 short and abortive. Fruit a thick, angular 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 91 

legume 15-20 cm. long-, 3 mDi. broad, very abundant. The petiolar 
gland at the base of the petiole, and none between the leaflets 
Downy on the upper part of the stem, petioles, and leaflet margins. 

Cassia mimiisoides, L., Sp. PL, 379. 

Caballero (404) ; Pilcomayo River (938). January-March. 

This species much resembles our North American P. nictitans, L., 
although often much larger, sometimes reaching a height of G dm. 
Stems suffrutescent at base, simple or branched. Flowers yellow, 
small, in clusters or solitary on the stem. Gland elongated, cup- 
shaped. Stem and leaves hirsute. Leaflets small, mucronate, 14-36 
pairs, linear-oblong, oblique. 

Cassia Morongii, Britton, n. sp. 

Section Chamcefistula. A shrub 1^-2 m. high, the twigs, petioles, leaves 
and inflorescence densely pubescent. Branches striate or angled ; leaves 
short-petioled 6-10-foliolate, 6-10 cm. long; leaflets 4 pairs, sessile, oblong- 
lanceolate, acutish and mucronate at the apex, rounded at the base, 3-4 cm. 
long, about 1 cm. wide ; a sessile gland in the axil of one of the lower pairs ; 
racemes 3-5-flowered, short-peduncled, terminal and in the axils of the upper- 
most leaves ; pedicels 4-8 mm. long ; flowers bright yellow, 1-2 cm. broad ; 
legume stipitate, quadrangular, pubescent with scattered hairs, 5-6 cm. long, 
6-7 mm. thick, the valves reticulated. 

Pilcomayo River (1015). April. Resembles G. tomentosa, but 
the pod very different. 

A tall, branching shrub, occurring sparsely on the banks of the 
Pilcomayo. Flowers showy, in axillary clusters. The pod has a 
sharp, subulate point, and contains from 30 to 40 small seeds lying 
crosswise in as many cells. This was found at the Falls and in one 
or two other places on the river, and always attracted attention by 
its bright yellow flowers. 

Cassia niucronifera, Mart., Fl. Bras., xv, pt. 2, 116. 

Yilla Rica (613). January. 

Stems and leaflets fuscous-hairy. Leaflets 2 or 3 pairs. Glands 
erect, oblong, between each of the 2 lower pairs of leaflets, not cup- 
shaped. Flowers smaller than in no. 82 or 350. A shrub 9 to 12 
dm. in height, growing upon the open campo at Yilla Rica. It has 
long, sharp and hairy stipules, not so deciduous as in most of the 
species. 



92 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Cassia oMongifolia, Vog., Syn. Cass., 23. 

Asuncion (350); Pilcomaj^o River (1097). December-January. 

This merits the specific name bestowed upon it by Yogel, for the 
leaflets of 4 pairs are decidedly oblong, being 3j cm. long by Ij cm. 
broad. It is a much branched shrub, 1^-2 m. in height, with a 
terete stem, downy on the young branches. Flowers large, con- 
spicuous, in terminal, leafy racemes, the corolla often 4 cm. in 
diameter when expanded, and spread wide open rotately. Glands 
large, thick, one between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets, or 
one only. Fruit a cylindrical pod 6-10 cm. long and some 6 or 7 
mm. in breadth. Common in thickets. 

Cassia occidentalis, L., Sp. PL, 377. 

Asuncion (41). November-December. 

A shrub 12-15 dm. in height, common both in the streets of 
Asuncion and in fields on the outskirts of the town. Stem smooth, 
terete or angled above. The whole plant rather ill-smelling. Leaf- 
lets 4 or 5 pairs ; petiole with a swollen articulation at its junction 
Avith the stem, and a large, purple gland on its upiler side at that 
point. Flowers in small terminal clusters. Fruit a flat pod 7 or 
8 cm. long, with a thick margin on each side; seeds oval, some 30 
or more in the pod. 

Cassia pilifera, Vog., Syn. Cass., 23. 

Near Jaquaron (665). April. 

A Cassia with the lowest stems and the largest flowers of any 
that I have seen in Paraguay. Stems not over 3 dm. in height, 
shrubby, with long, scattered white hairs, angled, often prone or 
bending over towards the ground. Leaflets in 2 pairs, large, oval, 
mucronate, ciliate on the margins and hairy on the veins beneath. 
Flowers very showy, bright yellow, often 6 cm. in diameter when 
expanded, frequently lying upon the ground from the bending of 
the stems. Fruit a narrow, linear, downy pod, 25 or more cm. in 
length. A large patch of this was found in the clearing around a 
native's house on the road betw^een Pirayu and Jaquaron, some 30 
miles from Asuncion. 

Cassia rotuiidifolia, Pers., Syn., i, 456. 

Asuncion (171). November. 

A small, clover-like plant, from 13 to 18 cm. in height. Stem 
shrubbyish, covered with small, appressed, scattered hairs. Leaf- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 93 

lets 2, ciliate on the margins, rounded at the apex, narrowing and 
oblique at the base, sessile, with a weak spinulose stipel. Flowers 
very small, axillary, on a long peduncle, which is bent downwards 
at a sharp angle with the stem, bright yellow. Fruit a legume 
about 3 cm. long when ripe. 

Cassia serpens, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 541. 

Asuncion (236). December. 

A small trailing, branching shrub, 10-20 cm. long, growing in 
open, sandy grounds. Roots thick, woody, apparently perennial. 
Stem pilose. Leaflets 4-5 pairs, oblong, cuspidate, oblique at the 
base, sessile, 3-5 nerved, 5-8 mm. long. Gland stipitate. Flowers 
bright yellow, solitary, on filiform pedicels 1^-5 cm. long. Stamens 
with long anthers and scarcely any filaments. Legume not quite 
3 cm. in length. 

€iissia splendida, Vog., Syn. Cass., 17. 

Near Caballero (426). January. 

A very large-flowered and showy shrub, 1-1^ m. high, widely 
branched. Stem smooth. Leaflets in 2 pairs, some of them 9 cm. 
long and 4 cm. wide. Flowers almost as large as no. 665. Glands 
horn-like, one between each of the two pairs of leaflets. Stipules 
bristle-shaped. 

€assia Tora, L., Sp. PL, 376. 

Asuncion (175). November. 

A shrub 1-1^ m. in height, with a strong, rank odor. Stem 
terete below, 4-gonous above, striate, covered with small black 
glands or tubercles. Leaflets in 3 pairs, the gland thick, spotted 
with black, looking like a wart between the two lowest pairs. 
Flowers small, not over 1 cm. in diameter when expanded. 
Legume 8-10 cm. in length and 4 mm. wide, squarish, on articu- 
lated pedicels 2-3 cm. long, containing 25 or more greenish-yellow, 
rhomboidal, slightly shining seeds. 

Bauhinia micropliylla, Vog., Linnjea, xiii, 301. 

Asuncion (284 a). December. 

A stragglingly-branched shrub or small tree from 3 to 6 m. in 
height, armed with spines. The branches usually bend down- 
wards. Bark purplish, smooth, striate. Leaflets a single pair, 



94 Plants Collected in Pai^aguay. 

small, at the end of a filiform petiole, a small spine projecting 
between them at the base. The stipules consist of small spines. 
Flowers greenish, in terminal racemes or clusters. The calyx is 
entire, splitting down on one side when the flower opens, the tube 
marked by 10 ridges. Legume 8-15 cm. long, with a fleshy pulp ; 
seeds small, flattish, shining. The leaves are prettily marked with 
purple-branching veins. This shrub is not very abundant, occur- 
ring in thickets. 

Piptaclenia COlll1>rina (Veil.), Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras., xv, pt. 2, 

282. 

Asuncion (3U, 804 and 829 a). Elower October; fruit January. 

A handsome tree with smooth lightish-gray bark, from 10 to 13 
m. in height. It has a head of drooping limbs, and light, 
graceful foliage. Leaves bipinnate, with 10-25 pairs of pinnae; 
each pinna with 50 or more pairs of light green, minute, oblong 
leaflets. The main rachis is channelled above, and one-third of the 
way up the petiole there is a small, oblong, flat red gland which 
looks like an insect resting upon it. Flowers light yellow, in 
globular heads, axillary, in pairs. Fruit a large, flat pod, 4-17 cm. 
long, 2-3J cm. wide, with raised borders on each valve, dehiscing 
on the lower side ; the upper side, and sometimes the lower, wavy 
or irregularly and deeply notched, imparting a jointed look to it. 
The pod contains from 6 to 12 flat, dark brown, smooth seeds. 
This tree grows in sandy, open grounds. The native name was 
given to me variously, now as Yarupi, and now as Cypay, the y 
sounding something like the French u. 

PJptadenia commuiliSj Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras., XV, pt. 2, 279. 

Asuncion (756). Young fruit, June 20. 

A tree similar to no. 371 in general appearance, in foliage, and 
fruit, but handsomer in shape, the bark whitish, very smooth, and 
the limbs rising upward and bending over in a graceful curve. The 
petiolar gland is small, oval, and cup-shaped. It attains a height 
of from 16 to 20 m., and forms a beautiful object in the monte 
around Asuncion. The leaves have only 6-9 pairs of pinnae, the 
ultimate segments a little larger than those of no. 371, somewhat 
falcate in shape. The native name, as I understood it, is Yerayu. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 95 

Piptadeilia rigida, Benth., Hook. Jour. Bot., iv, 338. 

Asuncion (744 and 825). Flower November; fruit May. 

A tree similar to the two preceding species, with very smooth, 
light-gray bark, growing from 10 to 16 m. in height, common in 
the vicinity of Asuncion. Petiolar gland green, elongated, cup- 
shaped. Flowers greenish-yellow, in axillary, cylindrical spikes 4 
or 5 cm. in length. Pinnae 2-6 pairs, ultimate segments somewhat 
falcate, dark green, 16-30 pairs. Legume 3-10 cm. long and 1-1 J 
cm. broad, containing 2-6 flat, round seeds, which are attached by 
long threads to the upper suture, and enveloped in a hyaline mem- 
brane. 

Prosopis Algarolbilla, Gris., PI. Lorentz, 83. 

Near Luque (851). December. 

An ungainly, very thorny tree, with straggling branches, 5-1 m. 
high, growing on the open campo near the railroad track between 
Paragua and Luque. This is known to the natives as Espanilla, a 
name commonly given to spiny leguminous trees. Also often called 
Algarobo. Flowers white, in slender spikes 6-10 cm. long, either 
among the leaves or on naked branches. Legumes slightly curved, 
constricted between the seeds, 7 or 8 cm. long, containing 6-8 seeds. 
Leaves 2-5 cm. long, glabrous or the rachis puberulent; leaflets 
10-25 pairs, oblong, 3-nerved, the lateral nerves on the margins, 
mucronulate, .3-5 mm. long, sessile. Branches very flexuous. 

Prosopis cainpestrJS, Gris., PI. Lorentz, 84. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (481). 

This tree, so far as my specimens go, differs from the preceding 
species only in having fewer and smaller leaves (2-3 cm. long), 
smaller leaflets (2-3 mm. long), and longer and much-curled legumes. 
Also called Espinilla. 

Prosopis ruscifolia, Gris., PL Lorentz, 82. 

Pilcomayo River (1098). 

An algarobo 8-10 m. in height, very smooth; bark dark gray. 
Leaves pinnate, with 3 or 4 pairs of large, smooth, elliptical leaflets. 
Without flowers or fruit. The thorns of this tree are gigantic, 
some of them nearly a foot long and half an inch thick at the base, 
their wood densely hard, sharp-pointed, looking more like spears 
than thorns. 



96 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

IVeptimia ptlTbesceiis, Bentli., Hook. Jour. Bot., iv, 356. 

Between Paragiia and Liique (85t). December. 

A slender trailing shrub 20-35 cm. long, entirely unarmed. The 
leaves close at a touch as in Mimosa. It grows in hard dry soil. 
Leaves bipinnate, with 2-4 pairs of pinnae and 8-25 pairs of minute 
leaflets. Flowers bright yellow, exceedingly pretty when fresh, 
in solitary globose heads, on peduncles 3 cm. in length. Fruit a 
smooth pod 2-3 cm. long and 5 or 6 mm. broad, flat, 2-edged, con- 
taining 6-10 seeds, 2 or 3 together, shortly stipitate. Only a 
minute, scattered pubescence on the leaf rachis. 

Acuan virgata (L.), Med. Theod. Sp., 62. 
Desmanthus virgatus, Willd., Sp. PL, iv, 1047. 

Gran Chaco(202); Pilcomayo River (1099). November-Feb- 
ruary. 

Stem branching, glabrous, angular, 1-li m. high. Leaves bi- 
pinnate, pinnse 2 or 3 pairs, with about 30 pairs of small, oblong, 
sessile leaflets on each pinnule. A large cup-shaped gland on the 
rachis at the base of the pinnae. Flowers small, greenish-white, in 
small terminal clusters. Legumes 3-6 in the cluster, 4-6 cm. long, 
about 4 mm. wide, acutely pointed, flat, turning black when ripe. 
Seeds in one row, numerous, flattish, chestnut colored, shining. 
This plant is very common in old fields in the neighborhood of 
Asuncion. 

mimosa asperata, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1507. 

Asuncion (143). August-September. 

The Mimosas are numerous in Paraguay. I collected 9 species, 
and there are many more. They are usually small shrubs, very 
spiny, often trailing upon the ground, always with handsome heads 
of flowers. I give notes upon these species in order to show the 
differences among them, which are sometimes very striking. 

No. 143 forms dense, almost impenetrable, thickets on the bor- 
ders of the Paraguay River, in the lowlands near Asuncion. It is 
a thorny shrub 3-5 m. high, much-branched, the thorns straight or 
a little hooked, 3-6 mm. long on the stem and petioles. Leaves 
bipinnate, with 5-10 pairs of pinnae, some of the pinnae 8 cm. long 
and bearing 41 pairs of leaflets, the leaves often 20 cm. long. 
Flowers purple, in terminal racemes. Young shoots and stems 
fuscous-hairy. Fruit a large legume, 5-6 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 97 

thickly covered with fuscous hairs, usually 3-6 together and spread- 
ing divaricately, pluri-celled, a large flat seed in each cell. 

mimosa BalansaB, Mich., Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii, No. 7, p. 52. 

Asuncion (1500). August-September. 

A small shrub, 15-25 cm. high, with tough roots, growing on 
grassy knolls. Pinnae 2, divaricate, at the apex of a petiole 10-15 
mm. long. Leaflets 6-10 pairs, oblong, mucronulate, pubescent, 
5 or 6 mm. long. Heads purple, on short peduncles. Legumes 
hairy, 10-15 mm. long, 2-3 seeded. 

Mimosa COliferta, Benth., Mart. Fl. Bras., xv, pt. 2, 331. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (47t). January. 

This I did not find in flower, but the fruit is very peculiar, the 
legumes rolling themselves into balls, which are 3 cm. in diameter 
when mature. They are densely clothed with long, rather weak 
prickles. A shrub 1-1^^ m. in height, stems and petioles covered 
with prickles like those on the fruit. Leaves of 2 pinnae, at the end 
of a petiole ; pinnae 5-7 cm. long, with about 20 pairs of oblong- 
cuspidate leaflets. 

Mimosa diTersipila^ Mich., 1. c, 57. 

Caballero (429 and 504). = Balansa 1463. January. 

A fuscous-hirsute. and lepidote species, with an angular, spineless 
stem 5-9 dm. high. Pinnae 2, at the end of a very short petiole or 
sessile, 4-6 cm. long. Leaflets oblong, cuspidate, oblique, strongly 
lepidote and hirsute, about 8 mm. long, 12-20 pairs. Flowers 
racemosely disposed on long naked terminal stalks. Heads globose, 
about 1 cm. in diameter, purple, on short peduncles. 

Mimosa Morongii, Britton, n. Rp. 

Branches and petioles pubescent with spreading hairs ; petioles slender, 
1-2 cm. long ; pinnae 4-6, digitate, short-stalked, l|-2 cm. long ; leaflets 
approximate, 14-18 pairs, obliquely linear-oblong, acutish, 3-5 mm. long, 2 
mm. wide, hirsute-pubescent beneath, glabrous above; peduncles axillary, 
longer than the petioles ; heads globose-ovoid, 1-1^ cm. long ; legumes sessile, 
2-3-jointed, linear-oblong, acute, 1^ cm. long, 4 mm. wide, the joints papillose 
and somewhat pubescent. Similar to M. digitata, Benth. 

Central Paraguay (728). May. The same as Balansa's no. 1478 
from Trinidad, referred by M. Micheli to M. hirsuta, Sprang. 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Jan. 1893.— 7 



98 Plants Collected in Paraguay, 

A small creeping plant, 15-30 cm. in length, growing in hard 
soil on the Gran Carapo near Lnque. Prickles few, small, straight, 
mostly just under the leaves. Flowers a light purple, the heads 
spreading and very pretty, especially in early morning when the 
fresh dew is upon them. The heads of flowers upon this small 
plant are quite striking, and its persistency upon the railroad track 
over which trains are daily passing, and over which many people 
are daily tramping, exhibits a toughness of vitality which deserves 
notice. 

JUimosa polycarpa, Knnth, Mim. 8, t. 3. 

Asuncion (101, 351, 773 and 779). Between Yilla Rica and 
Escoba (455). November-May. 

An erect, armed shrub 12-15 dm. in height, with beautiful, bluish- 
purple flowers. Stems striate, covered with small, dark glands, and 
armed with stout, curved or straight spines. Leaves bipinnate, or, 
rather, with 2 long pinnate divisions at the end of a petiole 1 cm. 
in length. Between these divisions is a projecting spine. Pinnae 
with 30 or more pairs of leaflets, which are spiny-serrate, and with a 
projecting spine at the apex. Fruit a spine-clothed loment of 3 or 4 
joints, usually borne in clusters, 4-12 or more in a cluster. Leaves 
very sensitive. Common in thickets. 

Mimosa rixosa. Mart. ; Benth. in Hook. .Jour. Bot., iv, 361. 

Asuncion (131). November. 

Creeping on the ground or climbing upon other shrubs. Stems 
slender, clothed with hirsute, spreading hairs and numerous down- 
wardly curved prickles, which have a dilated base. Flowers a 
beautiful bluish-purple; heads 8-10 mm. in diameter, often twin, 
on peduncles 1-2 cm. long. 2 pairs of pinnae at the end of a petiole 
2-5 cm. long. Leaflets 2 pairs, oblong-elliptical or obovate, the 
first pair very unequal, one being 2-3 cm. long and 7-10 mm. wide, 
and the other 3 or 4 mm. long, all of them glabrous above and 
sparsely setose or hirsute beneath, callous and setose margined, the 
larger ones mucronate and the smaller aristate. Loments many in 
a cluster, very setose, 1-2 cm. long, few-seeded. 

mimosa Alleniana, Morong, n. sp. 

A low plant, with angular or striate ferruginous-hirsute stem. A close 
somewhat glandular down, under the spreading hairs. Leaves mostly conju- 
gate, but occasionally with 2 pairs of pinnae on divaricate petiolules ; common 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 99 

petiole 8-15 ram. long; secondary petiole about 5 mm., hairy like the stem. 
Pinnae about 4 cm. long, often a little curved ; leaflets 5 or 6 mm. long and 
2 mm. wide, 15-25 pairs, oblong, sessile, oblique at the base, mucronulate, 
glabrous or minutely pubescent above, appressed-pilose beneath, ciliate with 
long hairs, 1- rarely 2-ribbed, the midrib approximate to the margin ; cross- 
nerves distinct, 5 or 6 on each side of the midrib. Stipules persistent, lanceo- 
late, very acute, striate, ciliate and pubescent, 5 or 6 mm. long. Flowers not 
seen. Bracts ciliate. Legumes 1-1^ cm. long, 4 mm. wide, with 2-4 joints, 
constricted between the joints, apiculate, strongly appressed-pilose all over. 

Railroad track between Escoba and Caballero (1501). January. 
Named for Dr. T. F. Allen, of New York, a generous donor to 
the equipment of the expedition. 

Sclirankia leptocarpa, D.C., Mem. Leg., 12. 

Asuncion (85). November-December. 

A stiff, angular-stemmed shrub, creeping on the ground, or run- 
ning over bushes, to which it clings by its spines. Stems with 
numerous, small, hooked spines, 15-24 dm. in length. Leaves bi- 
pinnate, the rachis with a circle of spines at the base, and smaller 
spines along its face ; 4 or 5 pairs of pinnae, a weak spine between 
each pair; leaflets about 15 pairs, the secondary rachis ending with 
a weak spine. Flowers bright, bluish-purple, in heads, the long 
projecting stamens and styles giving them an elegant appearance. 
Fruit a narrow, straight legume 6 cm. long, having upon it 10 or 
more rows of straight sharp setae ; seeds black, shining, irregular 
in shape. The leaves of this plant are as sensitive as those of a 
Mimosa, closing at a touch. Common in thickets. 

Acacia aroma, Gillies in Hook. Bot., iii, 206. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (931 and 1502). February. 

A thorny shrub 1^-4 m. high. Leaves bipinnate, with spiny 
stipules. Spines on the stems long and sharp. Flowers yellow, in 
globular balls, about 1 cm. in diameter, and closely packed together. 
The long, bright yellow, exserted stamens form the visible part of 
the flower. Fruit a hairy legume, moniliform, 5-7 cm. long, with 
5-8 joints. The flowers are not fragrant. 

Acacia Bonariensis, Gillies, Hook. Bot. Misc., iii, 207. 

Asuncion (49). November. 

A very thorny shrub 2-5 m. high. Stem angled, smooth or 
minutely downy, covered wiih long, sharp, dangerous spines 



100 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Leaves bipinnate. Flowers light yellow, numerous, in slightly ob- 
long (12-15 by 10-12 mm.) heads, which are racemosely arranged 
at the ends of the branches. Legume 4-6 cm. long, 15 mm. broad, 
irregularly moniliform. The graceful foliage and elegant flowers of 
this shrub are pleasant to look at, but the spines inflict dangerous 
wounds, which are liable to cause gangrene in the hot climate of 
Paraguay. Common in thickets. 

Acacia Farnesiana (L.), Willd., Sp. PL, iv, 1083. 

Asuncion (751). June-July. 

The well-known "Aromita," which occurs in many parts of South 
America, on both sides of the Andes. It is a straggling shrub, 
2-3 m. in height, armed with stout, dangerous thorns. Flowers a 
deep yellow, in small, globular, fuzzy-looking heads. These are 
much esteemed for their fragrance, and when placed in bureau- 
drawers or trunks impart a delightful odor to clothing. Fruit a 
turgid, fusiform pod, 3 or 4 cm. long, filled with a white, cottony 
substance, in which many small, lenticular seeds are imbedded. 
Cultivated in gardens and common in thickets. 

Acacia? 

Pilcomayo River (1050). 

A tall, slender tree some 25 feet high, with slate-colored bark on 
the trunk, and small hooked spines along the branches. Leaves 
delicate, bipinnate, with a small, round, flat gland one-third of the 
distance up the petiole. Pinnae in 3 or 4 pairs, 5 cm. long ; leaflets 
3-5 mm. long, downy, mucronulate, 15-35 pairs, light green in 
color. 

Acacia. 

Suburbs of Asuncion (1503). = Balansa 1423. 

Both M. Balansa's and Dr. Morong's specimens were collected 
only in fruit. N. L. B. 

A small tree 4-6 m. high, glabrous, with gray bark and flexuous 
branches, the branches glabrescent or puberulent. Spines small, 
curved downwards, dilated at base, scattered or infra-petiolar. 
Leaves bipinnate, with 2-4 pairs of pinnae, without glands ; leaflets 
10-15 pairs, glabrous, linear, acute at the apex, oblique at the base, 
2-3 nerved, 3-5 mm. long, not quite 1 mm. broad. Common 
petiole l-lj cm. long, downy. Stipules subulate, deciduous. 
Flowers not seen. Legumes flat, glabrous, 2-4 cm. long, 8-10 mm. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 101 

wide, irregularly moniliform, containing 4-8 oblong, flat, fuscous, 
shining seeds. 

Annesleya parvifolia (H. and A.), Britton. 
Inga parvifolia, H. and A. in Hook. Bot. Misc., iii, 202. 
Calliandra bicolor, Benth. in Hook. Jour. Bot., ii, 139. 

Near Caballero (412). January. 

A beautiful plant 15-25 cm. high, growing by the railway track. 
Leaves bipinnate ; 4 or 5 pairs of pinnae and 30 or more pairs of 
small leaflets. The flowers are exceedingly striking, a large cluster 
of them standing at the top of a long peduncle, the tubular corolla 
mingled red and purple, and surmounted by a mass of long, filiform 
or plumose purple stamens. 18 or 20 of these flowers are in the 
cluster, each on a short pedicel. I found only 2 or 3 of these charm- 
ing plants, though I searched long for more. They must be rare. 
Fruit not seen. 

PitbecoloMum scalare, Gris., Symb. Flor. Arg., 123. 

Asuncion (801). October. 

A tree from 8 to 13 m. in height, with shaggy or broken, brown 
bark. Thorny, but often unarmed ; the spines when they occur 2 
together, diverging, at a leafy node. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnse 2-3 
pairs, the pairs far apart. Flowers light yellow, looking much like 
those of an Inga, which I at first took it to be. They occur in 
axillary clusters, the corolla looking as though it were telescoped 
by the calyx, and the stamens long and exserted. On the rachis 
between the 3 pairs of pinnae, and also on the secondary rachis 
between the pairs of leaflets are green scutelliform glands. In open 
grounds on the outskirts of the city. No fruit. 

Pitliecolo1>illlIl Paraguayense, Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc, XXX, 574. 

Lympio (736). May. 

An unarmed shrub or small tree, with straggling branches, 3-6 m. 
in height. Stem smooth, grayish-white, warty. Leaves 4-binate, 
that is, with 2 pairs of binate leaflets, which are on a slender com- 
mon petiole. Each pair on a divaricate petiolule, and each leaflet 
on a short articulated petiolule of its own. Not found in flower. 
Fruit a black, rough, or velvety pod, about 4 cm. long and 1 cm. 
broad, containing a single row of white, enamelled seeds, attached 
to the valves by threads. The pods dehisce along the lower suture, 
and the seeds are persistently attached by their threads. Thickets. 



1 02 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Pitliecolobium cailliflorum (Willd.), Mart. Fl. Bras., xv, pt. 2, 

450? 

Gran Chaco (360). December. 

Agrees well with this species as to foliage and flowers ; but the 
pod is only 5 cm long and about 2.5 cm. broad. It is the same 
as Balansa's no. 1386, incorrectly referred by Micheli to P. divari- 
catum, Benth., of which I have seen the type in Herb. Kew. — N.L.B. 

One of the most curious trees that I found in Paraguay. It is 
thickly, stragglingly branched, some 8 m. or more in height, very 
knotty, with white, broken bark. Entirely unarmed, but with a 
mass of strong, ungainly limbs. Leaves coriaceous, digitately bi- 
pinnate, that is, with 2 sets of pinnae which diverge from the end 
of a common petiole or rachis, each with 2-6 leaflets. The flowers 
are large, white on the calyx and corolla tube, with numerous, 
showy, exserted purple stamens, in naked clusters on the old wood, 
frequently on very large limbs. Styles as long as the stamens, 
purple-colored above, and these with the numerous stamens (50 or 
more) are very conspicuous, especially as the flowers are borne on 
the old leafless portions of the branches. Fruit an arcuate, flat 
pod 3-6 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, containing 2-5 roundish, flat, 
smooth seeds, quite as curious as the flowers. 

EnteroloMiim contortisiliqiium (Veil.), Morong. 

Mimosa contortisiliqua, Veil., Flor. Flum., xi, t. 25. 

Enterolohium Timbouva, Benth. in Hook. Loud. Jour. Bot., iii, 224. 

Asuncion (271). November-December. 

One of the most noble trees in Paraguay, known popularly as 
the Timbo. Frequently cultivated as a shade tree in the streets 
and gardens of Asuncion, and common on the open campos around 
the city. It grows to the height of 25 m., and its wood is used in 
the construction of boats and in cabinet-work. It has a smooth 
bark on the trunk, which on the branches becomes purplish, shining 
and warty. Leaves bipinnate, bright green, giving a light, elegant 
appearance to the tree. The branches rise in a beautiful symmetri- 
cal head, bearing the leaves near their ends. Flowers white with 
a delicate yellowish tinge, in clustered heads on a common peduncle. 
Fruit a large, reniform pod, the largest 6 cm. broad and 5 cm. long, 
pluricelled, containing many oval, hard seeds. 

One of the few deciduous trees of Paraguay, the leaves dropping 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 103 

off in April or June, and the fruit han^in^ on conspicuously till 
July and August. 

Inga affiiiis, D.C., Prod., ii, 433. 

Asuncion (528). October-January. 

A small, rather handsome tree 5-8 m. in height, with long limbs 
and thick foliage. Leaves pinnate, with 4 pairs of pinnee, the leaf- 
lets elliptical or lanceolate, a little shining above, sessile, entire, the 
rachis between the pairs winged. Between each pair of leaflets is 
a cup-shaped gland. Fruit an edihle legume, 8-10 cm. in length, 
with 2 thick, raised, fleshy margins, very downy, and with 10 or 
12 septa, and as many seeds lying at right angles to the pod. 
Several pods on a peduncle. The flowers of this tree are large and 
conspicuous. The fruit eaten by the common people. Common in 
thickets. Native name Inga. 

COMBRETACE^. 
Coinbretum Jacquini, Gris., Fl. Brit. W. Ind. Isd., 275. 

Asuncion (822). October. 

A bushy-headed and much-branched tree, with smooth, dark gray 
bark, 9-15 m. high. Leaves numerous, crowded, entire, opposite, 
coriaceous, dark green and shining above, lighter colored beneath, 
glabrous or the youngest pubescent beneath, t-10 cm. long and 4-5 
cm. wide. Flowers greenish-yellow, the racemes disposed in clus- 
ters on peduncles 2 or 3 cm. long. The inflorescence rusty pubes- 
cent and somewhat glandular. Calyx lobes and petals 4, the latter 
yellow. Stamens 8, much exserted. The young branches of this 
tree have the curious habit of ending in long naked twigs, which 
twine about themselves like a vine. Fruit not seen. 

Combretum Loeflingii, Eichler, Mart. Fl. Bras., xiv, pt. 2, 110. 

Caballero (450). January. 

A large tree. Young branches, rachis, petioles, pedicels, and 
calyx lepidote. Leaves elliptical, 6-8 cm. long, 3-5 cm. wide, 
somewhat coriaceous, shining above, thickly lepidote beneath, on 
petioles about 1 cm. long. Flowers in lateral racemes 4-6 cm. long. 
Calyx and sepals reddish ; stamens reddish-purple, much exserted, 
3 or 4 times as long as the calyx. Petals much smaller than the 
calyx lobes and nearly hidden by them. Fruit a 4 or 5 winged 



104 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

samara, which in the dried specimens appears about 1^ cm. in 
diameter. 

In flower at Caballero ; in fruit among the hills on the road 
between Yilla Rica and Escoba. 

MYRTACE^. 
Psidiiim GuajaTa, L., Sp. PL, 470. 

Asuncion (118). November-December. 

The well-known Guava, or "Guyada," as it is written and pro- 
nounced in Paraguay, so common in the West Indies. It is com- 
mon both in gardens and wild at Asuncion. The tree grows 5-t 
m. in height. The fruit, much like a small apple in size and shape, 
is highly esteemed both as a fruit for eating and for making jelly. 
It is yellowish-green when mature, and has a pleasant aromatic 
odor and a soft reddish pulp full of seeds. Birds are extremely 
fond of it, and so are pet animals like monkeys. To my own taste 
the meat is rather insipid. The flowers are large, white, looking as 
much like the flowers of a Rubus as anything. 

Psidium Kennedyanuiii, Morong, n. sp. 

A small tree 5-7 m. high, generally bent downwards at the summit. It 
has the habit of P. Guajava, the outer bark scaling off and leaving a smooth, 
whitish-green surface beneath, something like our Buttonwood. Leaves oppo- 
site, glabrous, entire, elliptical, acute at either end, or the tip acuminate and 
sometimes curving upwardly, slightly re volute ; midrib prominent beneath, 
veins and venules distinct, curving into a connected marginal vein, the same 
color on both sides, minutely pellucid-punctate; blades 3-7 cm. long, 1-2 cm. 
wide, on petioles 3-7 mm. long. Branches terete, or slightly compressed at 
the apex, glabrous. Flowers solitary, axillary, in peduncles about 2 cm. long. 
Calyx closed in bud, 6 or 7 mm. long, in anthesis rupturing to the disk in 4 
or 5 very thick ovate lobes. Petals 4 or 5, white, free, oblong, obtuse, 8 or 9 
mm. long. Stamens numerous ; filaments filamentous ; anthers capitate, fixed 
near the base. Style erect, 7 or 8 mm. long, about the length of the stamens ; 
stigma capitate. Ovary 5-celled. Berry pyriform, 2-2|- cm. long, 1^ cm. 
broad, glabrous, minutely rough, many-seeded, surmounted by the remains 
of the calyx and the disk cavity, which is about 5 mm. broad. 

Abundant in dense woods in some localities on the Pilcomayo 
River (890). January. 

Called Guyada chica by our peons, who easily recognized its 
similarity to the common large Guava of the country. It is here 
named in honor of Dr. Geo. G. Kennedy, who generously con- 
tributed towards the expenses of my expedition. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 105 

Myrcia GuaTira, Parodi, Cont. Flor. Par., iv, 142. 

Near Asuncion (838). 

A large fruit-bearing tree, found both wild and cultivated in 
Paraguay. The bark is silvery, breaking into long glistening 
fibres, at least on the young branches. Leaves opposite; sub-oppo- 
site or the lovi^er alternate, glabrous, simple, entire, the margin 
callous or, on the older leaves, eroded, transparent along the vena- 
tion, and minutely punctate with translucent dots, broadly elliptical 
or oval in outline, running into an acuminate point at the apex, 
sloping at base, the largest blades 12 cm. long by t cm. wide; on 
short, channelled petioles. The fruit is often sold in the Asuncion 
markets and greatly esteemed. It is yellow, as large as a plum, 
the flesh sweet and palatable, but slightly astringent, containing 
from n to 8 small, flattish seeds, to which the gum-like pulp closely 
adheres. The tree and the fruit are known popularly as the Guavira, 
Fruit in October and November. The flowers I did not see. 

Myrcia ovata, Camb. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid., ii, 229 ? 

Pilcomayo River (894 a). = Balansa, 1305. 

A shrub 3-5 m. in height, with brownish bark and clean erect, 
fuscous-downy branches. Flowers too young to make out. Leaves 
numerous, coriaceous, downy on midnerve below, pellucid-punctate, 
oval and pointed at both ends, opposite above and alternate below, 
on very short downy petioles. In woods. 

Myrcia ramillosa, D. C, Prod., iii, 250. Ex descr. 

Pilcomayo River (90t a). February. 

A very branching shrub, with light-colored or brownish bark, 
3-5 m. high. Young branches glabrous or minutely fuscous-pubes- 
cent. Leaves oval or ovate, opposite, entire, glabrous, coriaceous, 
obtusely acute at the apex, obtuse or somewhat acute at base, shin- 
ing above, light green on both sides, pellucid-punctate, 2-4^ cm. 
long, 1-2 cm. broad in the middle ; midrib prominent beneath and 
the surface reticulate veiny ; petiole channelled, pubescent, 2-5 mm. 
long. Flowers not seen. Panicles lateral or terminal, axillary, 2-4 
cm. long, 3-1 fruited, the lowest pedicels 5-8 mm. long. Berries 
when ripe red, t or 8 mm. in diameter, crowned with the calyx 
which has 5 small, roundish ovate, often minutely ciliolate, reflexed 
lobes, finally deciduous, leaving an orbicular operculum. The thin 
pulp is dotted with minute tubercles and sweetish to the taste. 



106 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Fruit 2-celled, each cell containing a single, yellowish seed with a 
shining membranaceous test. 

IMfyrcia Assuiuptionis, Morong, n. sp. 

A shrub 2^-4 m. or more high, with reddish, scaly or corrugated bark, 
much branclied, the branches opposite and sometimes tetragonous above. 
Young branches compressed, white villous. Leaves numerous, opposite, 
pellucid-punctate, lanceolate, rounded or subcordate at base, sharply or 
obtusely acuminate at the apex, revolute when dry, 3-7 cm. long, 1-2|- cm. 
broad ; nerves elevated on both sides and the midrib a little sulcate above; 
young leaves white villous below, especially on the midrib, soon glabrate. 
Buds silky canescent. Flowers small, white, in glabrous terminal panicles, 
3-5 cm. long, many-flowered, the branches of the panicle 1-5 flowered, all the 
flowers pedicelled. Flower bud globose ; calyx lobes shorter than the petals, 
ciliate, glabrous ; petals glabrous, rounded above, 2 or 3 mm. long ; calyx 
and petals reflexed in anthesis ; stamens numerous, exserted ; style about the 
length of the stamens. Bracts and bracteoles linear, 1-2 mm. long, ciliolate, 
caducous. Ovary 2-celled. Berry about 5 mm. in diameter, red when ripe, 
containing a single bony seed. 

In copses. Asuncion (260). December. 

Eugenia camporum, Morong, n. sp. 

A small shrub 5-6 dm. high, glabrous, the bark silvery-white, dotted by 
scattered dark glands. Young branches glabrous, reddish-brown, dotted with 
small, yellow, pellucid glands. Leaves opposite, entire, elliptical, coriaceous, 
revolute, pellucid-punctate, sometimes bearing a few scattered fuscous glands 
beneath, sessile, narrowed at either end, obtuse at the apex, 3-6 cm. long, 
1-2 cm. broad ; doubly limb-nerved, the veins distinct and the midrib promi- 
nent beneath and slightly sulcate above. Flowers not seen. Fruit a red berry 
as large as a strawberry, gland-dotted, 7-8 ribbed, containing a thin, red, 
sweet pulp, and one large flattened-globular seed about 1 cm. long ; test crus- 
taceous. Peduncles drooping, filiform, solitary or 3 or 4 together, axillary or 
from a defoliated node, 12-20 mm. long. The fruit is crowned with 4 oblong, 
coriaceous, gland-dotted, venose, concave sepals. 

Yery near Stenocalyx glaber, Berg., in Mart. Fl., xiv, pt. 1, 337, 
but differs from that species as described in its narrow elongated, 
obtuse leaves, number of the peduncles, and in other points. It 
seems also to be the "Eugenia MicheliiV of Parodi in Cont. Flor. 
Par., Fasc. iv, 122, but that species {E. unifiora, L.) has much 
shorter ovate or obovate leaves, and is a much taller shrub, with 
smaller fruit. 

Near Asuncion, open grounds (832). Fruits in November. 

Guarani name Sfangapari-mi, fide Parodi. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 107 

Sugenia Parodiaoa, Morong, n. sp. 

A branching glabrous shrub, 1-2 m. high, with whitish, scaly bark which 
is often dotted with small black glands. Young branches glabrous, often 
compressed, dotted with small yellow, translucent glands. Leaves opposite, 
entire, elliptical, 2^-6 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, narrowed at either end, obtuse 
at the apex, midrib prominent beneath, impressed above, veins and veinlets 
raised, with an arcuate marginal nerve, revolute when dry, pellucid-punctate, 
the punctuations elevated ; on a narrowly winged petiole 2-5 mm. long. 
Flowers pedicelled, pedicels solitary or 2 pairs on a short raceme, glabrous, 
axillary or at a defoliated node on the branches, the pedicels and rachis of 
the racemes 4 or 5 cm. long. Flowers very small, calyx lobes glabrous or 
ciliolate, petals white, and with the disk pubescent, clawed, both calyx and 
petals refiexed in anthesis. Style as long as the stamens, uncinate at the 
stigma. Bracts and bracteoles minute, ovate, ciliolate, caducous. Ovary 
2-celled, the cells several ovuled, apparently ripening only one seed. Fruit 
not seen. 

In sandy soil east of Asuncion (821). October-November. 
= Balansa, 1314. 

Eugenia uiiiflora, L., Sp. PL, 470. 

Pilcomayo River (894). January. 

Compared with a specimen collected by Lorentz in the Argentine 
Republic and so named by Grisebach. — N. L. B. 

A branching shrub about 3 m. in height, with grayish or brown 
bark. Flowers too young to be determined when first observed. 
Leaves (longest) 5 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, simple, enth'e, opposite, 
ovate, obtusely pointed at both ends, shining above and lighter 
green beneath, pellucid-dotted. I afterwards found good fruit. It 
is an edible, pleasant-tasting berry, depressed globular, slightly 7-8 
angled, crowned with the oblong persistent calj^x lobes, solitary or 
in axillary clusters along the stem, quite pulpy and bright red, with 
yellowish meat when ripe, containing a single flattish,rcrustaceous 
seed; on peduncles 2-3 cm. long. Birds are very fond of the fruit, 
and the crops of many " turkeys" that we killed were full of the 
berries. Common in thickets on the banks of the Pilcomayo. 

Eugenia cauliflora (Mart.), D.C., Prod., iii, 273. 

Asuncion (614). Fruit, March. 

A well-known fruiting tree of Paraguay, called Y-ba-pu-rH, or, 
in English Hivapuru, by the natives. 5-8 m. high, with smooth, 
greenish bark. The flowers and fruit grow along the trunk, some- 
times almost to the ground. Flowers very small, white, in short 



108 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

clusters. Leaves opposite, pellucid-punctate, dark green above, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, rounded at base, the largest 4 cm. long 
by 2 cm. broad. Petioles 2 or 3 mm. long, pubescent. Young 
leaves and branches pubescent. Fruit 1-1^ cm. or more in diameter, 
very dark purple when ripe, looking like a plum, with a white, 
somewhat astringent pulp that clings closely to the seeds. Seeds 
2-4, irregularly shaped, soft-shelled. Often sold in the markets of 
Asuncion. 

MELASTOMACE^. 
Rtiyncailtliera rosea, Cogn. in Mart. Flor. Bras., xiv, pt. 3, 181. 

Luque (293 a). December. Named by A. Cogniaux. 

A square-stemmed plant about 6 dm. high, with showy rose- 
colored flowers and rough prickly stalk and linear leaves. Flowers 
in terminal racemes. Open grounds. 

Tilioucliina lierbacea (D.C.), Cogn., 1. c, 408. 

Between Pirayu and Jaquaron (664). April. Named by A. 
Cogniaux. 

A handsome purple-flowered plant 6-9 dm. high, growing on the 
open campo. Corolla smaller than in the other species collected, 
the petals being about 1 cm. in length. Stems and leaves densely 
villous and tomentose. It bears numerous blossoms in long termi- 
nal panicles. 

Tilioucliina gracilis (Bonpl.), Cogn., 1. c, 386. 

Luque (293); near Caballero (598). December-January. 

A very showy-flowered plant, 3-6 dm. high, growing in open 
grounds. Corolla bright purple-red, the petals 2 cm. in length. 
Flowers in long terminal racemes. All the species are bristly . 
hairy, the hairs rising from papillae on the stem. In this species 
the hairs are prickly, white, spreading upwards or appressed, in no. 
664 they are fuscous below and curve downwards. 

L.eandra atropnrpurea, Cogn., 1. c, pt. 4, 106. 

Between Yilla Bica and Escoba (456). January. Named by 
A. Cogniaux. 

A shrub, 5-7 dm. high, with dark-setose stem and leaves, the 
hairs stifi" and spreading. Leaves opposite, oval-lanceolate, the 
largest collected 10 cm. long and 5 J cm. wide. Petiole 1-2 cm. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 109 

long. Panicles 10 or 12 cm. long. Berries capsular, 4-7 mm. long, 
fuscous, setose and glandular-tomentose, 1 to many on each pedun- 
cle. Found only in fruit. 

Miconia staminea (Desr.), D. C, var. parvifolia, Cogn., 1. c, 231. 

Caballero (502). January. Named by A. Cogniaux. 

A shrub in dense thickets on the banks of the Tebicuary, near 
Caballero, 3-4 m. in height. Flowers large, yellow, in terminal 
panicles. Fruit a red berry. Leaves simple, smooth, oval, or 
elliptical, thick, the blade about 10 cm. in length. Upper part of 
the stem covered with a cinereous scurf. 

According to M. Cogniaux (D.C., Mon. Phaner. vii, 725), 
Miconia is antedated by Tamonea, Aubl., PI. Guian., i, 441 (1775), 
but the name does not appear on that page of our copy of Aublet's 
work, but is published on page 659 of the second volume, for the 
verbenaceous genus with which it is usually associated. Leonicenia, 
Scop. (1777), is, however, doubtless an equivalent of Miconia, R. 
& P. (1794), and would be adopted here, but for the uncertainty 
which we feel concerning Tamonea, Aubl., which, if really any- 
where in Aublet's book before page 659, ought to be taken up. 
We have failed to find it, but have concluded to allow Miconia to 
stand.— N. L. B. 

LYTHRARI^. 
Cupbea Balsamona, C. and S., Linnsea, ii, 363. 

Asuncion (76). November, 

A small plant 15-20 cm. high, with a stem 4-gonous above and 
terete below, growing in open, grassy grounds. Calyx somewhat 
inflated, with a gibbous swelling at the base, in which is a nectary. 
Petals 6, small, red, inserted on the calyx tube at its summit be- 
tween as many small green projections. In fruit the pod and calyx 
burst open irregularly and emit the seeds, which are compressed, 
with 2 sharp and margined angles slightly cordate at the top, or, 
rather, the callous margins join cordately. 

Cuphea spicata, Cav., Ic, iv, 56, t. 381. 

Asuncion (136). November. 

A glandular hairy herb about 3 dm. in height. Flowers in ter- 
minal racemes, the petals purple. The fruit is peculiar. Perianth 
persistent, closing as a pod over the ovary at maturity. The pod 



110 Plants Collected m Paraguay. 

contains 10 or more flat seeds arranged in a sort of head, lying im 
bricately upon each other in 3 or 4 rows and attached at the base, 
the uppermost covering the rest in a sloping direction, the whole 
surmounted by the persistent style and stigma. At maturity the 
seeds separate, and appear attached to the receptacle by minute 
stalks. The pod bursts open irregularly and the seeds with their 
stalks are thrust out. In open grounds. 

Pleuropliora saccocarpa, Koehne, Eugl. Bot. Jahrb., ii, 426. 

Pilcomayo River (869). January. = Balansa 2218. 

A shrubby, little, branching plant from 3 to 9 dm. in height. 
Flow^ers with red petals, numerous, crowded, in long racemes upon 
the stem and branches. Calyx enclosing the ovary in a sort of 
sack, whence the specific name. Stamens 6 or t, filiform, much ex- 
serted, giving a graceful look to the flower. Found in open grounds 
at the Obraje de Pedro Gill. 

IVesaea salicifolia^ H. B. K., Nov. Gen., vi, 192. 

Asuncion (129). November. 

A shrubby, bushy-looking plant, common in low, open grounds 
and around watercourses. The bright yellow petals, long, exserted 
stamens, and numerous flowers impart a showy look to the inflores- 
cence. Similar in its long slender leaves and willowy stem to the 
Nessea verticillata, so common about our ponds. 

Lager sir oemia Indica, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 734. 

Asuncion (837). 

A handsome flowering shrub with roughish brown-colored bark, 
5 or 6 m. in height, cultivated in gardens at Asuncion. Flowers in 
large terminal panicles or compound racemes, rose-colored, showy. 
Flower buds enclosed in a broad, somewhat membranous bract, and 
the flowers with 5 and 6 crimped and lobed petals. Flowering a 
large part of the year. 

PuHica Oranatum, L., Sp. PL, 472. 

Asuncion (846). 

The Pomegranate, or Granada, as it is called in Paraguay, is not 
a native of the country, but has been introduced probably from 
southern Europe. A shrub 3 or 4 m. high, with showy scarlet 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. Ill 

flowers and a large edible fruit, often cultivated in gardens. It 
seems to flower at all seasons of the year, or, rather, at almost any 
season when the tree is old enough for the purpose. 



ONAGRARIEJE. 
Jussiaea decurrens (Walt.), D.C., Prod., iii, 56. 

Caballero (425). January. 

This was so determined after a comparison with specimens at 
Kew thus labelled, but it is very doubtful if it can be included in 
this species. The stems are very slender, 3-9 dm. high, angled but 
not winged. Leaves linear or lanceolate, the linear leaves 4-12 
cm. long, '^-3 mm. broad, the others 3-5 cm. long and 1-10 mm. 
broad, all acute at both ends and sessile or shortly petiolate. The 
yellow flowers are large and showy, the petals often measuring 2^ 
cm. in length, 3 times as long as the ovate, acute calyx lobes. The 
capsules appear to be those of J. decurrens, but they and the flowers 
are on pedicels 5 or 6 mm. long. Growing on the railroad track. 

Jussiaea lagunae, Morong, n. sp. 

A slirubby plant occurring in the great laguna of the Pilcomayo River. 
Stem glabrous, terete below, angled and striate on the branches, 9-12 dm. 
high. Leaves alternate or fascicled, 1-nerved, glabrous or rough on the mid- 
rib and margins, entire, sessile, oblong-linear, acute at the apex, acuminate at 
the base, the largest collected 5 or 6 cm. long and 3 or 4 mm. wide. Flowers 
bright yellow, solitary, axillary, shortly pedicelled, 3 cm. high and 5 or 6 cm. 
in diameter when expanded ; sepals 4, ovate, acute, ^ as long as the petals, 
with 2 free, subulate bracteoles at the base ; petals 4, nerved, rounded or with a 
shallow sinus at the apex ; stamens 8, equal, longer than the style, included ; 
disk well marked, the curved lines of the lobes strongly woolly; style pro- 
duced. Capsules tetragonous, 8 nerved, clavate, slightly compressed and 2 or 
3 mm. broad at the apex, 1^-2 cm. long, sloping at base into a pedicel about 
5 mm. long. Seeds nearly round, liattish, scarcely ^ mm. long, striate under 
the lens, very numerous. 

Pilcomayo River (1035). May. 

Jussiaea octonervia, Lam., Encyc, iii, 332. 

Asuncion (137 a and 137 b). November. 

A shrubby plant 12-18 dm. in height, common in wet grounds. 
The 4 petals broad obovate, emarginate, feather-veined, yellow and 
showy. Leaves mostly narrow linear-lanceolate, sometimes 2J cm. 
broad. Pods 8-nerved. 



112 Plants Collected in Paraguaxj. 

Jussiaea Peruviana, L., Sp. PL, 388. 

Asuncion (137). November. 

About as tall as no. 137 a, but a much larger and coarser shrub. 
Leaves 2J-4 cm. in breadth. Pods large, scattered, obovoid, 
4-nerved and 4-angled. Both this and the preceding species are 
downy or hirsute, and common in low grounds. 

Jussiaea pilosa, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., vi, 101, t. 532. 

Asuncion (771). May. 

Hairy, branching, 3-5 dm. high, in water or on low lands. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, 2^-7-J cm. long. Flowers yellow, small, the corolla 
not much over 1 cm. in diameter when expanded. Pod long, linear, 
downy or nearly smooth. At Asuncion and on the Gran Campo 
10 or 12 miles from Asuncion. Petals in this species 5. Stem 
stout and angled. 

Jussiaea repens, L., Sp. Pi., 388. 

Asuncion (178 and 290). November. 

A small creeping bog plant common in low lands, 8-20 cm. high, 
5-parted. Corolla small, yellow, about 1 cm. in diameter. 

Jussiaea sericea, Camb. in St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid., ii, 254. 

Luque (302); Caballero (427). December-January. 

This is the broad-leaved form of the species alluded to in Flor. 
Bras. 

A half-shrubby plant 6-9 dm. high, with silky and ferruginous- 
hairy, angular stem, numerous leaves, and large, sulphur-yellow or 
purplish-yellow flowers, with fugacious petals. Petals and calyx 
lobes 4 ; stamens 8. Style thick and fleshy ; stigma large, globular 
or oval. Around each petal at the base, on the ovarian disk, is a 
semicircular hairy fringe. Leaves sometimes 12 mm. broad. Pod 
4-celled, with numerous small seeds. In dry open grounds. 

SAMYDACE^. 
Casearia sylvestris, Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, ii, 752. 

Asuncion (765). July. 

A smooth shrub or small tree 5 or 6 m. in height, with gray bark. 
Leaves numerous, crowded, lanceolate, acuminate, alternate, pellu- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 113 

cid-punctate; S-t cm. long, serrulate, the teeth callous-tipped, shin- 
ing on the upper surface, often hanging downwards and the pairs 
meeting back to back. Petioles 3 or 4 mm. long. Flowers very 
small, white, in axillary clusters, the clusters appearing like verti- 
cels, looking much like those of our Ilex verticillata. Apetalous ; 
divisions of perianth 6. Anthers 10 or 12. Thickets. 

Banara Brasiliensis (Schott.), Benth. Jour. Lin. Soc, v, App. 2, 91. 

Near Asuncion (689). April. 

A tree 8 or 9 m. high, with gray bark, conspicuous in the woods 
for its numerous yellow blossoms. Sepals 3, pubescent on the out- 
side, alternating with 3 petals, the corolla 10 or 12 mm. in diameter 
when expanded. Stamens numerous, yellow, conspicuous. Leaves 
alternate, glabrous and shining above, pubescent on the nerves be- 
neath, on petioles 1-2 cm. long, which bear 1 or 2 cup-shaped glands 
at the top ; the largest blades about J 5 cm. long and not quite half 
as wide ; the serrulate teeth callous or with a small round gland 
Ijeneath. Berry a little larger than a pea, containing many small 
seeds, which are distributed irregularly, imbedded in a fleshy pulp. 
Style persistent as a beak. Flowers in rather loose terminal pani- 
cles 8-12 cm. long. Young branches cinereous-pubescent. 

Banara tomentosa, Olos., Annal. Sci. Nat., ser. 4, viii, 240. Ex descr. 

:N'ear Asuncion (750). = Balansa 2293 a and 2293 b. 

A tree about 9 m. in height, with grayish bark, the young 
branches, inflorescence, petioles and leaves covered with close white 
stellate and single hairs. Leaves simple, ovate, abruptly and 
obtusely acuminate, 5-nerved from the base, the nerves prominent ; 
the largest blades 15-20 cm. in length and 5 cm. broad, with dark 
callous serratures, or a black gland in their place. Found only in 
fruit, which consists of close, pyramidal, terminal panicles of yellow- 
ish-red berries with a juicy pulp in the interior, containing 6 or 8 
small, minutely pitted, irregularly-shaped, dark-colored seeds, dis- 
tributed at random through the pulp. The pulp stains the fingers 
purple. Berries 5 or 6 mm. in diameter. Panicles 4-6 cm. long. 
In woods. 



Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Jan. 1893.— 8 



114 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

TURNERACE^. 
Named by R. A. Rolfe. 

Tiirnera nerTOsa, Urban, Mon. Turn., 108. 

Caballero (609). January. 

A shrubby plant from 15 to 20 cm. high. Silky hairy on the in- 
florescence, especially on the flower buds, and smooth on the stem 
below. The floral leaves or foliaceous bracts are immediately below 
the flowers, so that the flowers appear without the adnate peduncle 
common to the genus. The cup-shaped glands large and conspicu- 
ous. A very delicate, large, light-purple corolla, 2 cm. long. Leaves 
oblong, glabrous above, pubescent on the midrib beneath, serrate 
above, the largest 3 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, biglandular at base. 
Petioles scarcely none. All the species and varieties here enumer- 
ated grow in dry soil, and have hard tough roots. All have some- 
what vermiform, whitish or brownish pitted seeds. 

Tiirnera Ulmifolia, L., var. cuneiformis (Poir.), Urban, Mon. Turn., 
138. 

Caballero (608). January. 

About as high as no. 609. Stem and leaves covered with long 
white or fuscous appressed hairs. Leaves oval, crenate-dentate, 
cuneiform at base, 2-4 cm. long, 1-2 cm. broad. Petioles 3-7 mm. 
long, white tomentose beneath and darker above. Flow^ers large, 
light yellowish-purple. 

Tiirnera ulmifolia, L., var. elegans (Otto), Urban, Mon. Turn., 139. 

Asuncion (222). December-January. 

Stems very hairy with white appressed hairs, 2-3 dm. or more 
high. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, with large serrate teeth, 
the blades 3-6 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, biglandular at base, sloping 
into a petiole about 1 cm. long. Flowers large and showy, violet- 
colored, with a deep purple base inside, radiating on the petals above 
in lighter purple and yellowish lines. The corolla spreads wide 
open, about an inch in diameter. This plant is very abundant on 
the railroad track near Asuncion. I always found it inhabited by 
large black ants which resented disturbance. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay, 115 

Turnera ulmifolia, L., var. Surinamensis (Miq.), Urban, Mod. 
Turn., 143. 

Pilcomayo River (1504). January. 

This variety differs from the preceding forms in having a much 
taller stem (sometimes 5 or 7 dm. high), short or very short hairs 
on the main stem, leaves from linear to oblong-lanceolate, 2-4 cm. 
long, 5-15 mm. broad, and with petals of a single color. 

Piriqueta cistoides (L.), Meyer, Ex Steud., Nomeucl., Ed. 2, ii-, 724. 

Pilcomayo River (884). January. 

Stems slender, angled, beset with stiff, spreading, tawny hairs, 
2-4 dm. high. Leaves, petioles, and calyx covered with stellate 
down. The whole plant has a grayish aspect. Flowers small, 
3^ellow, axillary, solitary or somewhat clustered at the top; fruit 
on long peduncles, about the size of a pea. Growing among tall 
grass on the campo. 

Piriqueta Moron gii, R. A. Rolfe, n. sp. 

Perennis. Rami glanduloso-setuliferi. Folia petiolata, lanceolato-ovata, 
subacuta, subserrata, glanduloso-hispidula, 1^1^ poll, longa, 6-8 lin. lata ; 
peiioli 1^-2 lin. longi. Flores axillari, solitarii, heterostyli. Pedicelli glan- 
duloso-setuliferi, 6-9 lin. longi. Calyx 4 lin. longus, liispidulo-hirsutus ; 
tubus 1 lin. longus ; lobi lanceolati, acuti ; squamae late suborbiculares, ob- 
tusae, fimbriato-dentatse, ^ lin. longse. Petala violacea, obovata, 5 lin. longa. 
Stamina 2^ lin. longa ; antheree oblongse, apice recurvse, basi profunde bifidae. 
Ovarium sericeum ; styli glabri, \^ lin. longi, apice breviter multipartiti. 
Capsula tuberculata, hirsuta ; semina obovato-oblonga, recta v. parum cur- 
vata, Iseviter reticulato-striata. 

Central Paraguay, Morong (220). In dry soil about Asuncion. 
December. 

The species here briefly characterized is nearly allied to P. Tarn- 
berliki, Urban (known to me only by description), next which it 
may be placed,^ but it has far smaller leaves, and comes from a 
different region. 

In addition to the description given by Mr. Rolfe, it may be said 
that the stems are 3 or 4 dm. in height. The corolla is violet, with 
deeper purple stripes on the outside, having a deep purple base on 
the inside, upon which rests a beautiful 5-pointed green star. It 
spreads wide open rotately at anthesis. Seeds nearly black when 
mature. 



116 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

PASSIFLORE^. 
Named by Dr. M. T. Masters. 

Passiflora coerulea, L., Sp. PL, 959. 

Asuncion (141). November-January. 

Climbing over shrubs to a height of 6 m. or more. Very branch- 
ing and leafy. Leaves small, smooth, 5-7 deeply palmately lobed. 
Flowers small, greenish-yellow. Fruit the size of a small hen's 
egg, orange-colored. 

Passiflora foetida, L., Sp. PL, 959. 

Asuncion (57T); Pilcomayo River (935). January-February. 

A charming little Passion-flower, 6-15 dm. high, climbing upon 
herbs or small shrubs. Flowers pure white or light purple, not 
larger than a silver half dollar when expanded, and enclosed in 
large, finely dissected involucral bracts, the ultimate segments of 
which are tipped with small glands. Stems hispid with yellow 
spreading hairs. Leaves cordate, mostly 3-lobed, the lobes some- 
times angled or lobed, the 2 lower lobes much rounded at base. 
Fruit a bladdery pod nearly half as large as a hen's Qgg. 

Passiflora foetida, L., var. gossypifolia (Desv.), Masters in Mart. FL 
Bras., xiii, pt. 1, 582. 

Asuncion (223). December. = Gibert 1031. 

Were it not for the determination of Dr. Masters, who hesitates 
about separating this from P.foetida, var. gossypifolia, I should not 
doubt its distinctness, for it bears little resemblance to no. 577, of 
which it is called a variety. Stems climbing 3-7 m., densely and 
closely tomentose, as are also the leaves. Leaves 3-lobed, but very 
differently from 577. The 2 lower ones stand out hastately at right 
angles from the erect upper one, and have a very broad, shallow 
sinus below. Tendrils very stiff and strong, opposite the leaves. 
Flowers blue, small, the involucral bracts shorter than the flowers, 
the segments few, short and undivided, glandless. Stipules appa- 
rently obsolete. Not seen in fruit. 

Passiflora Maximiliana^ Bory, Ann. Sci. Phys. Gen., ii, 149, t. 24. 

Pilcomayo River (896 and 1032). January-May. 
Stem 4-angled, downy, climbing over low shrubs. The leaves 
quite curious, being composed of 2 long linear leaflets, which are 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 117 

thoroughly united at the base, spreading* divaricately so as to appear 
as if there were only a single leaf t-15 cm. in length, standing at 
right angles to the petiole. This is 8-20 mm. wide at the widest 
part, and obtuse or acuminate, sometimes aristate at each end. 
Flowers very light purple, not over 4 cm. in diameter. Fruit about 
as large as a plum and dark purple when mature. I found this on 
the banks of the Pilcomayo near the ''Junta," and very common 
in the water of the great laguna above the Falls, where its numer- 
ous dark berries were very conspicuous. 

Passiflora Tucumanensis, Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 3636. 

Pilcomayo River (1505). May. 

Leaves glabrous, nearly equally 3-lobed, w^ith a broad, rather 
deep cordate sinus at base. Flowers large, sepals greenish; petals 
light purple. Fruit not seen. Climbing 5-6 m. or more. In 
thickets. 

Carica Papaya, L., Sp. PL, 1036. 

Asuncion (370). January. 

This tree is usually called the Mamona or Mamon in Paraguay. 
It is the well-known Papaw of the West Indies, and has been ex- 
tensively cultivated in tropical South America for centuries. The 
fruit, about as large as an apple, is much liked by the natives, but to 
me it seemed insipid. The juice is milky, and has many valuable 
properties, among others that of rendering tough meat wrapped in 
the leaves quite tender. I tried many experiments with the leaves, 
and found that they readily dissolved small cubes of fresh beef and 
the white of a hard-boiled qq^. This juice is highly esteemed as a 
pepsin, and for other medicinal qualities. For an account of the 
tree and its ally (no. 389) and their chemical and medicinal proper- 
ties, see my article on Carica quercifolia, in the Bulletin of Phar- 
macy for April, 1891, p. 163. 

Carica quercifolia (St. Hil.), Solms. in Mart. Fl. Bras., Fasc. cvi, 178. 

Villa Rica (389). January. 

Much resembles the preceding species in general appearance, but 
the leaves are simple instead of being palmately 7-cleft as in that. 
It is somewhat smaller, being from 3 to 7 m. in height, and it is 
dioecious, whereas the other is monoecio-polygamous The fruit is 
small and not edible, pulpy and perishable. It has the same prop- 



118 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

erties as the Maraona, if anything even more active in dissolving- 
meat fibres. The name Jacaratia is applied by the natives to this 
species, although it is not the true Jacaratia. A native of Para- 
guay, and common around Asuncion as well as Villa Rica. 

CUCURBITACEJi]. 

Named by A. Cognieux. 

Momordica Charantia, L., var. abbreviata, Ser. in D.C. Prod., 
iii, 311. 

Asuncion (45). November-May. 

This vine is one of the most noticeable plants in the suburbs 
of Asuncion, climbing in thick masses over fences and shrubs to 
the height of 5 or 6 m. or more. Stem slender, glabrous, much 
branched. Leaves glabrous, deeply 5-cleft, the lobes broadened at 
the top and irregularly lobed or toothed. Flowers small, yellow, 
axillary, on long capillary peduncles. They are monoecious as in 
other Cucurbit aceae, but instead of there being first a pistillate and 
then a staminate flower on the stem, those of one kind are on one 
branch, and the other on a difi*erent branch. The fruit is especially 
conspicuous. The ovary is green, covered with rows of spiny 
])rojections, running up into a long point upon which the flower is 
seated, 3 celled, several ovules in each cell, with a thick fleshy pulp. 
In the fruit 1, or sometimes 2, of these cells become abortive, and 
the ovary develops into a large, angular, oval body clothed with 
tubercles and spiny protuberances, which finally turns yellow, the 
pulp of which decays, leaving in the shrivelled shell 12-20 red flat- 
tish seeds, which stick like mucilage to each other and everything 
which they touch. These pepos hang on long, pendent peduncles, 
and at once attract attention. The roots are large, woody and 
tough, and are said to possess valuable medicinal properties, and 
similar virtues are attributed to the fruit. The pulp is quite nause- 
ous both to the touch and taste. 

Melotliria Cucumis, Veil., Flor. Flum., i, t. 70, 29 ? 

Pilcomayo River (1506). 

A vine climbing 6 m. or more by tendrils in thickets. Leaves 
cordate, 4 or 5 inches in diameter, smooth, palmately 5-cleft, the 2 
lower lobes hanging downwards below the others, all the lobes 
sparsely angled or toothed. Fruit oval, nearly as large as a hen's 
^g^, blotched with white and green. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 119 

JHelotliria Uliginosa, Cogn. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 4, 26. 

Asuncion (T61); Pilcomayo River (986). April-July. 

This vine is rather delicate, climbing by thread-like tendrils over 
stumps and underbrush, or running" along the ground and rooting 
at the nodes. Leaves broad-ovate, 5-lobed or angled, deep green, 
the surface sprinkled with silvery, hardly punctate, dots, and some- 
what prickly hairs, ciliate on the margins. Petioles 2-5 cm. long, 
like the stems angular and often prickly haired. Flowers minute, 
rough downy on the exterior, yellow, and the 2 kinds on different 
branches on the same plant as in no. 45, or sometimes fully dioeci- 
ous. Fruit an oval pepo 5-7 cm. long, 1-2 cm. in diameter, pointed 
at both ends, 3-celled, with many small seeds in each cell. 

Cucur1)itella Clicumifolia (Griseb.), Cogn. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 

4, 70. 

Pilcomayo River (930, 936 and 1508). February-April. 

A dioecious vine common on high banks along the Pilcomayo 
River. Leaves deeply 3-cleft, and the lobes toothed and lobed. 
Flowers rather small, yellow, mealy-granular on the outside of the 
petals. The plant runs several metres on the ground or over small 
shrubs and herbs. Fruit yellow, smooth, oval or obovoid, 3-4 cm. 
long, filled with small flattish seeds, brownish-black when mature. 
The plant has a large, thick, woody root which runs deep into the 
dry soil in which it grows. Leaves rough on both surfaces, deep 
green, on stout striate petioles, 3-4 cm. long, the petioles with 1 or 
2 rows of minute hooked prickles. One can feel occasionally the 
same kind of prickles on the stems. 

No. 1508, which is possibly a variety, has a leaf which is acumi- 
nately pointed at the apex, and the lateral lobes irregularly formed 
or none, 6-7 cm. long and 4-7 cm. broad, cordate. The leaves 
appear to be polymorphous in many of the specimens collected. 

Cayaponia Citrullifolia (Griseb.), Cogn. in Griseb. Symb. Flor. Arg., 
135, var. breviloba, Griseb. in D.C. Monog. Phanerog., iii, 749. 

Asuncion (190). November. 

A rough, angular-stemmed tendril-climber with 3-5 palmately 
lobed leaves which have scattered, callous teeth on the margins, 
rough with short hairs, rugosely veiny beneath, nearly smooth 
above, 5-10 cm. long, 6-12 cm. broad. Flowers greenish-yellow. 
Not seen in fruit. The leaves are very irregularly lobed, all deeply 
cordate at base. 



120 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Cayaponia podantha, Cogn. in D.C. Monog. Phanerog., iii, 753. 

Pilcoma3^o River (1027 and 150t). 

A vine climbino: over grasses and shrubs for several metres, both 
monoecious and dioecious, in wet, marshy grounds. The yellow 
flower is quite pretty, the corolla being about 2 cm. high and 3 cm. 
in diameter when open, the outer portion of the lobes green, pointed, 
nerved and hairy, while the inner lining is white with a broad 
border extending beyond the outer part and glandular hairy. Fruit 
1-celled, oval, about 2J cm. long, with a thin, watery, white pulp ; 
seeds several, large, flattish, in the centre of the pod. Leaves 
rough, deeply 3-lobed and 3-nerved, with spinous teeth on the 
margins, 5-*7 cm. long and about as broad, the lobes obtuse, apicu- 
late or aristate. No. 1507 has small lateral lobes or is simply angu- 
late. 

Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser., Mem. Soc. Phys. G-eneve, iii, 25, t. 2. 

Asuncion (1588). January-May. 

The form of the common gourd, the fruit of which serves in 
Paraguay as a vessel for drinking Yerba or " Paraguay tea," the 
national beverage. It is both cultivated and runs wild on the farms 
around Asuncion. The gourd or " mate," as it is popularly called, 
is ovoid, 6 or 8 inches in length, with a short neck. When young, 
it is bound with twine, and made to grow in various fantastic 
shapes. When ripe, the outer shell is carved with various orna- 
mental figures, blackened with soot, often rimmed with silver, and 
used as a drinking-cup for the favorite beverage. The powdered or 
broken tea is crowded into the gourd, boiling-hot water is poured 
upon it, and the beverage is sucked through the ''homhilla,^^ a long 
tin or silver tube, which has a perforated bulb at the base. 

BEGONIACE^. 
Begonia semperflorens, Link and Otto, Ic. Rar., t. 9. 

Asuncion (145). November-December. 

The Begonias are numerous in Paraguay, but this is the only 
species that I attempted to collect, as they are very succulent and 
exceedingly difficult to dry. This has a reddish fleshy stem, 3-9 
dm. in height, common on the borders of thickets and along moist 
sandy roads. Flowers small, white, with a ruddy tinge, in terminal 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 121 

clusters, on peduncles 2-7 cm. lon<^, subtended by ciliate bracts. 
Leaves slightly diagonally reniform, the lower part projecting down- 
wards. Stipules lunate, ciliate, acute. Whole plant very smooth. 

CACTE^. 

Cereus saxicolus, Morong, n. sp. 

Growing among rocks, often reclining or creeping. Stem cylindrical, 1-2 ra. 
or more in heiglit, 2-3 cm. in diameter, glabrous. Costse 9, somewhat sharply 
angled ; furrows obtuse. Areoles 10 or 12 mm. apart, 5 or 6 mm. in diameter, 
the short yellowish wool becoming with age fulvous tomentum. Spines 6-11, 
stout, straight, the lowest 5 or 6 mm. long, the central one, or the 3 central, 
larger and 10-15 mm. long, all cinereous below and black at the tip. Flowers 
solitary, 6 or 7 cm. long, about 6 cm. in diameter when expanded, the outer 
scales small, round-ovat'e, sometimes ciliolate, the uppermost greenish-purple ; 
petals silvery-white. The flower is very showy, opening at night and closing 
soon after sunrise. -Berry stipitate, oval, about 5 cm. long and 3 cm. in 
diameter ; seeds small, black, shining, very numerous. The berry is edible, 
but rather dry. 

This plant seems to differ from any of the species described in 
Flor. Bras., D.C. Prod., or Salm-Dyck's Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
Near Trinidad (26Y). December. 

Cereus Balansae, K. Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras., iv, pt. 2, 210. 

Trinidad (268). December. = Balansa 2504. 

Stem columnar, 5-8 cm. thick, growing upright among rocks 3 m. 
or more, with 4-5 angles and as many rows of spines, the spines 
in 5s, of unequal length (1-4 cm.). Flowers very handsome, some 
15 cm. in length, the petals a brilliant white; peduncles t or 8 cm. 
long and covered with lanceolate scales, 2J cm. in length. Fruit a 
large globular red berry, 6 cm. long and nearly as broad, the pulp 
fleshy, white, edible, full of small black, hard seeds. The flowers 
close soon after sunrise. 

Opuntia nigricans, Haw., Syu., 189. 

Asuncion (164). November-January. 

Common on rocky cliffs by the Paraguay River, a much branched 
cactus, some 2 or 3 m. in height. The dark yellow spines, spring- 
ing from a cushion-like disk, consist of 3-5 larger ones, divaricately 
spreading, unequal, the largest 1^ cm. long, and many smaller ones. 
Flowers with reddish-yellow corollas about 3 cm. high and 5 or 6 
cm. in diameter when spread wide open, the sepals frequently of a 



122 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

dark-purple tinge. Fruit a red, pear-shaped berry, 5-7 cm, long 
and 3-5 cm. in diameter. The joints of the stem are oblong-ov^ate, 
10-20 cm. long. 

Peireskia Bleo, D.C., Prod., iii, 475. 

Asuncion (188). November-January. 

One of the most striking plants in the region, often used as a 
hedge, for which it is admirably adapted by its thick foliage, its 
numerous, spreading branches, and its terrible thorns. Shrub-like, 
often growing into a small tree 6-8 m. high. Stems green, smooth. 
Leaves coriaceous, thick, nearly sessile, obovate or oblong, 5-10 
cm. long, 4-5 cm. wide. The spines are in axillary clusters, the 
main one 4 or 5 cm. in length, very sharp and strong, wounds from 
which are very painful and apt to cause gangrene. The flowers, in 
terminal clusters, are white and rose-colored, as large as a Camellia 
blossom, very showy. Fruit a hard green nutlet, about 2|- cm. in 
diameter, l-celled, many seeded. Yery difficult to preserve in Herba- 
rium specimens, as the leaves and stems fall to pieces in drying. 
The common Spanish name of this species is Amapola, and the 
Guarani name Surubi-y. 

FICOIDEJE. 

Tetragonia liorrida, Britton, n. sp. 

Decumbent, glabrous, stems angular, branched, 3-9 dm. long. Leasees fleshy, 
rhomboid-spatulate, obtuse at the apex, narrowed into a broad petiole, papil- 
lose, 4-6 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide ; flowers axillary, several together, sessile ; 
fruit strictly sessile, dry, angular, 3-4 mm. long, crowned by the 4-7, unequal 
veiny, spiny calyx-lobes. Stamens 50. 

Pilcomayo River (917). February. 

Related to T. expansa, Ait., which occurs in southern Brazil and 
Uraguay. 

This vicious-looking plant spreads upon the ground in large 
masses. Corolla small, some 6 mm. in height, whitish, with pur- 
ple stripes, folded and ending in 5 short hardly apparent lobes. 
The persistent calyx, enlarging on the ovary, forms a spiny, burr- 
like fruit, which it is decidedly unpleasant to handle. 

SesuTiuiii parviflorum, D.C., Prod., iii, 453. 

Pilcomayo River (1042). May. 

Growing in dry soil on the open campo. This species differs 
from the following in having an erect, suffruticose, dichotomously- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 123 

branched stem, terete below, linear leaves 1-2 cm. long, and crowded 
and sessile or subsessile flowers. It is regarded as a variety of S. 
Portulacastrum by Rohrbach in Mart. FI. Bras., xiv, pt. 2, 310. 

SesuTium Portulacastrum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 684. 

Asuncion (789). October. 

Succulent. Spreading on the ground 15-20 cm. Leaves linear 
or spatulate, 1-2 cm. long. Flowers small, pedicellate, the interior 
of the calyx lobes rose-colored. I found these little plants spring- 
ing up in great numbers on the river-side where the land had been 
overflowed in the winter freshet, and from which the waters had 
receded. The bright rose-tinted perianth spreads wide open in the 
sun. 

]9Iollugo Terticillata, L., Sp. PL, 89. 

Asuncion (186). November- January. 

This cosmopolitan plant is as abundant around Asuncion as it is 
in cultivated grounds in North America. 

UMBELLIFERJE. 
Hydrocotyle leucocepliala, C. and S., Linnsea, i, 364. 

Asuncion (100). November. 

A delicate plant, running over the ground under the shade of 
larger plants and rooting at the nodes. Flowers white, very small, 
waxy, in simple umbels, on long capillary peduncles. Stem, peti- 
oles and leaves sparsely pilose. Leaves crenate or lobed, very vari- 
able as to size, about 9-nerved. 

Hydrocotyle ranuuculoides, L., f. SuppL, 177. 

Asuncion (241). December. 

Common in miry places, pools, and rivulets, which form from 
streams that run down into the Paraguay from the high banks 
around Asuncion. Notable for its supposed medicinal virtues 
among the herb doctors of Asuncion. Called by quacks Yerdolaga 
palustre, or Herva do capitao, in Guarani Acaricoba and Caahay. 
It is regarded as aperient and diuretic, and is employed for remov- 
ing obstructions of the liver and bowels. Like thousands of the 
vegetable nostrums of the Paraguayans, its reputation is far beyond 
its real value. 



124 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

EryngiuiU coronatum, H. and A. in Hook. Bot. Misc., iii, 350. 

Between Paragua and Luque (852). December. = Balansa 1079 a. 

Stem smooth, striate, 2-3^ dm. high. Leaves mostly radical, 
5-10 cm. long, 1-lJ cm. wide, with numerous spine-tipped lobes, 
which are 4-15 mm. long and sometimes 2 mm. wide. Stem leaves 
under the branches similar but smaller. Involucral bracts 2 or 3, 
linear, spine-tipped, entire or sparsely spine-dentate. Heads cylin- 
drical, 1-2 cm. long. Dry soil, open grounds. 

Sryngiiim elegans, C. and S., Linnsea, i, 348. 

Between Villa Bica and Escoba(419); Grran Chaco near Asun- 
cion (576). January. = Balansa 1084. 

Stem striate, glabrous, 2^-8 dm. high. Radical leaves numerous, 
oblanceolate, 7-25 cm. long, 1-2 cm. broad at the apex, beset with 
numerous sharp spiny teeth 4 or 5 mm. long. Involucral bracts 
5-7 mm. long, with many spiny teeth. Heads globose, or globose- 
ovate, 5-6 mm. in diameter, in lax spreading corymbs 5-10 cm. 
broad and 12-15 cm. long. This corresponds very well with var. 
microcephalum., Urban, as given in Mart. Fl. Bras., xi, pt. 1, p. 11. 

Eryngium paniculatlim, Cav. in Delaroch Eryng., 59, t. 26. 

Gran Chaco (436). January; Asuncion (840). October. 

A stout, glabrous striate-stemmed plant, 1-2 m. high. Leaves 
5-6 dm. long, 3^-4 cm. wide at the base, lanceolate, tapering into a 
long acuminate point, free from marginal spines on the sheathing 
part for 8-10 cm. Inflorescence very broad and lax, 2-3 forked, 
10-30 cm. long and nearly or quite as wide. Heads oval, 8-15 mm. 
long, 7-10 mm. in diameter. Particularly distinguished by its 
broad forking panicle, and its long lanceolate radical leaves. 

Sryngium multicapitatum, Morong, n. sp. 

Stems 1^3 m. high, fistulose, 7-8 mm. thick below, elevated striate, dark 
colored when dry. Radical leaves parallel-nerved, 3^-4 dm. long, 4-4^ cm. 
broad below, diminishing gradually to 2| cm., oblong-lanceolate, shortly acu- 
minate, the margins beset with single strong, upwardly-curved, fuscous spines 
2-5 mm. long. Stem leaves under the peduncles very numerous, amplexicaul 
over the entire base, the lower 7 or 10 cm. long, diminishing to bracts 1| cm. 
long, strongly parallel-nerved, spine-pointed, sparsely spiny-dentate, the teeth 
often double and canaliculate above, or the lower half of the leaf nude, turn- 
ing white when dry. Inflorescence racemose, 30-40 cm. long ; peduncles very 
numerous, 2 or 3 cm. apart, striate, often compressed or even ancipital, 4r-l 
cm. long ; corymbs 3-rayed, or the rays sometimes again forked and 1^-3 cm. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 1 25 

Jong. Involucral bracts 4-8, lanceolate, striate, spine-tipped, entire, 5-10 
mm. long, 1-3 mm. broad at the base. Floral bracts much longer than the 
flowers, similar to the involucral bracts. Heads cylindrical, 10-15 mm. long, 
(J-IO mm. in diameter. Sepals oblong, apiculate, about 1 mm. long. Petals 
shorter, white. Stamens about the length of the petals. Styles about 3 mm. 
long. Not seen in fruit. 

On the campo between Yilla Rica and Escoba (451). January. 

This species resembles E. Glazovianum, Urban, in stem and 
character of the canline leaves, but is very different in its long 
racemose inflorescence, in the shape and size of the heads and in 
its radical leaves. 

Eryngium Sangllisorlia, C. and S., Linnsea, i, 339. Ex descr. 

Near Luque (334). December. = Bala.nsa 1080 a. 

Appears to be one of the forms of this very variable species, 
judging from the description given by the authors. Stem slender, 
striate, naked except for a single bract near the centre, about 3 dm. 
high. Radical leaves linear, 8-12 cm. long, about 6 mm. broad at 
the sheathing base, 4 mm. above, acute, with small distant, callous 
or setose teeth about 2 mm. long and usually retrorse. Inflorescence 
terminal, 3-5 radiate, the rays with solitary heads. Heads dark 
rosy-purple, ovoid or somewhat cylindrical, 8-12 mm. long, 6-7 
mm. in diameter. Involucral bracts 6-8, entire, spine-pointed, re- 
flexed, 1-3 nerved; bracts of the peduncles 1, and of the rays 2, 
minute, opposite. Among bushes on the open campo. 

Apium Ammi (Jacq.), Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras., xi, pt. 1, 341. 

La Plata, Arg. Republic (29); Asuncion (798). October-Decem- 
ber. 

ARALIACE^. 
Didymopanax ? 

Pilcomayo River (997). 

A tree 9-16 m. in height, growing on the open campo. Collected 
without flowers or fruit. It has a very thick, light, fissured, corky 
bark, and I thought when gathered that it might prove a substitute 
for the bark of Quercus suber, but experts in New York inform me 
that it lacks one of the chief qualities of true bark, namely elasticity, 
and yet it might be of considerable value in all other respects. The 
leaves are thick, coriaceous, quinate, on a thick petiole 10-15 cm. 
in length ; leaflets elliptical, entire, thick, glabrous, granulated on 



126 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

both surfaces, the 2 lower on very short petiolules, and smaller 
than the others; the 3 upper on petiolules 6 cm. long; the largest 
leaflets 20 cm. long by 6 cm. broad, all light green in color. It is 
known popularly as Lepacho del campo, resembling the true Le- 
pacho only in having quinate leaves. 

KUBIACE^. 
Liignstum ignitlim (Veil.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 287. 

Lympio(^31); Caballero (512). January-May. 

A slender, climbing vine. Leaves glabrous, opposite, entire, 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, shortly petioled, 
rounded at base, 2-4 cm. long, 1-2J cm. wide. Flowers single, at 
the ends of long drooping peduncles, trumpet-shaped. Corolla dark 
red, about 4 cm. long, with 4 short oblong lobes. Capsule 2-celled, 
2-seeded, 10-12 mm. long. 

A showy-flowered vine in thickets. 

Oldenlandia thesiifolia (St. Hil.), Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 

6, 269. 

Near Luque (330). December. 

A pretty little flower much resembling our Houstonia coeridea, 
but decidedly different. The stems very slender, 6-10 cm. high; 
bending over or nearly prostrate, growing in wet grounds. The 
corolla is white, showing, no trace of a yellow or blue tinge. No 
signs of dimorphism about the stamens or style. Flowers 1-3, in 
a pedicellate cluster at the top of the stem. Without radical leaves. 
Yer}^ hairy in the throat, style and stigma protruding through the 
hairs. Leaves ovate or nearly oval. 

Mactiaonia acuminata, H. and B., PI. iEq., i, 101, t. 29. 

Gran Chaco, near Asuncion (3*74 a). January-February. 

An unarmed shrub 3-5 m. high, with light gray, warty bark. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, shortly petiolate, entire, acuminate, rounded 
at the base, at first pubescent, soon glabrate, lighter colored beneath, 
5-1 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide. Flowers small, white, in terminal 
pyramidal panicles. Twigs and perianth tube pubescent. 

Machaonia spinosa, C. and S., Linu?ea, iv, 2. 

Asuncion (374); Pilcomayo River (883). January-April. 
A shrub or small tree 3-5 m. high, with light gray, warty bark. 
Quite spiny, but the spines a sharp, hard projection at the ends of 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 12T 

undeveloped branches. Leaves small, opposite, vi^ith an interpetiolar 
stipule which consists of one large-based, stiff hair. Flowers small, 
white, in large irregular corymbs. The disk is in 2 parts, which 
rise around the ovary like a collar. Fruit splits into 2 rather long 
seeds. 

Basanacantlia spinosa (Jacq.), Sclmm. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 6, 
376. 

Asuncion (806); Pilcomayo River (893). 

A thorny shrub in thickets. Corolla greenish-white, tubular, 
with 5 large, downy, recurved lobes. The most striking thing 
about the plant is the fruit, which is a large oval nut, 4-celled, each 
cell containing a single seed, the interior filled with a thick, white 
meat, covered by a separable rind, which is sprinkled on the outside 
with mealy dots, reminding one in appearance of the Cedrella nut, 
though without the offensive odor of that. I could not learn that it 
is ever eaten, even by the Indians. Flower October ; fruit January. 

No. 806 corresponds very well with var. pubescens, Schum., in 
Mart. Fl. Bras., 1. c, 378, and no. 893 with vsiV.ferox of the same 
author. 

Cbotuelia Morongii, Britton, n. sp. 

A shrub 3-9 m. high, with divergent, reddish, smooth branches, the young 
twigs pubescent. Leaves short-petioled, oval or ovate-oval, acute, acuminate 
or sometimes obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base, pubescent, with short 
hairs on the upper surface and with matted spreading ones on the lower, 4-10 
cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide ; peduncles slender, pubescent, 1-1^ cm. long, 2-8- 
flowered ; corolla tube slender, finely pubescent without, about 1| cm. long, 
4-5 times as long as the oblong, obtuse lobes ; calyx-teeth short, unequal ; 
style slender, glabrous ; fruit oblong, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, finely and 
densely velvety-pubescent. 

Pilcomayo River (906). = Balansa 3165. Related to C.pedun- 
culosa, Be nth. 

A beautiful unarmed shrub abounding in thickets on the borders 
of the river. Flowers pink colored, in small clusters, exhaling fra- 
grance in wet weather. The lobes of the calyx are sometimes obso- 
lete ; the lobes of the corolla and the stamens sometimes 5, instead 
of the normal number 4. Berry dark purple, with a thin pulp, the 
4 cells becoming compact when ripe and appearing to mature only 
a single consolidated bony seed. It is quite sweet to the taste, and 
was freely eaten by our company. 



128 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Cliomelia obtusa, C. and S., Linnsea, 1829, p. 185. 

Asuncion (15T). November. = Balansa 1*755 a. 

A thorny shrub 3 or 4 m. high, with numerous, small, coriaceous, 
shining leaves. Flowers small, a lurid purple, on long, thread-like 
peduncles, almost hidden among the leaves. Fruit a purple, pulpy 
berry, containing a flat bony seed, grooved on one side. In dense 
thickets. 

Ctiiococca brachiata, R. and P., var. acutifolia, Miill. Arg. in Mart. 

Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 5, 53. 
C. racemosa, H. B. K., not L. 

Asuncion (65Y). April. = Balansa 1T5Y. 

A small unarmed shrub, 6-9 dm. in height, with glabrous, shin- 
ing leaves, common in thickets. Flowers small, numerous, green- 
ish, in axillary clusters. Fruit a light purple-colored berry with 2 
flat seeds. 

Coffea AraMca, L., Sp. PL, 172. 

Asuncion (212). Fruit December. 

The cofi'ee is cultivated to a very limited extent in Paraguay. 
For some reason it does not succeed well in that country. I am 
inclined to think that this is owing to the excessive humidity of the 
climate and the variation of the annual temperature. At any rate, 
I saw but very few attempts made at its culture, and the plants 
looked unhealthy, the leaves drooping and showing yellow spots as 
if attacked by a fungoid disease. Such berries as T saw ripened 
appeared inferior in size and, I was told, were of inferior quality. 
Probably if the right localities are chosen, and intelligent culture 
given, the coffee might do very well in Paraguay. As mate, how- 
ever, is the favorite beverage, the people have little inducement to 
engage in cofl'ee-raising. 

Psycliotria alba, R. and P., Fl. Per., ii, 58, t. 205, f. a. 

Pilcomayo River (878 and 1059); Caballero (606). January- 
June. = Balansa 1736. 

This shrub and no. 877 (Psycliotria crocea) grew side by side, 
and so much resembled each other that at first I mistook them for 
the same thing, but a close examination shows that they are dif- 
ferent species. This has white flowers, while those of 877 are light 
yellow. The branches gceen, in the other dark red. The persistent 



Plants CoUecled in Paraguay. 129 

disk on the summit of the fruit here is white, in that red. The fruit 
in this case is marked with 10-12 ribs, while in that there are 5-8 
ribs. 

Psycliotria crocea, Sw., Prod., 44. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (501); Pilcomayo River (877). 
= Balansa 1738 a. January. 

This is apparently not Palicourea crocea, Schlecht., Linnsea, 
xxviii, 525. 

Psychotrophum, P. Br. Hist. Jam., 160, is undoubtedly an older 
name for the genus Psychotria, but we are retaining Psychotria, 
because we are uncertain about Myrdiphyllum, P. Br., 1. c, 152, 
which Dr. Kuntze says is also an equivalent, and has 8 pages 
priority of place in Browne's work. — N. L. B. 

Geophila Tiolaefolia, D.C., Prod., iv, 537. 

Near Pirayu (661). April. 

A small trailing, somewhat succulent plant, growing in deep 
woods, the stems rooting at the nodes. Leaves opposite, entire, 
glabrous, cordate-ovate, acute or obtuse at the apex, the rounded 
basal lobes divergent, 8-6 cm. long, 2^-5 cm. wide, on petioles 3-10 
cm. long. Found only in fruit. Flowers said by DeCandolle to be 
white, 3-7 or more in clusters at the end of an axillary peduncle 
about as long as the petioles. Fruit an oval, pulpy, purplish-black 
drupe, crowned with the persistent calyx, containing 2 coffee-shaped, 
bony seeds. 

Ireophila lierbacea (L.), Morong. 

Psychotria herbacea, Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 245. 

Geophila reniformis, C. and S., Linnsea, 1829, p. 137. 

Near Pirayu (669). April. 

This species, found at the same time and place with no. 661, 
differs from that in having much more slender stems, smaller leaves, 
2-3 cm. long and about as wide, the lobes smaller and approximate, 
shorter petioles and peduncles, fewer flowers (1-3), and scarlet 
drupes. Not at all succulent. Both species have 1 or 2 lines of 
short shaggy hairs on the petioles. 

Spermacoce tenuior, L., Sp. PL, 102. 
Pilcomayo River (1057). June. 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Jan. 1893.— 9 



]30 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Borreria cen trail tlioides, C. and S., Linnaea, iii, 328. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (610). January. = Balansa 
1743 a. 

A stiff square-stemmed plant 3-6 dm. high, with opposite or fas- 
cicled narrowly-elliptical leaves, which are from 2 to 4 cm. long and 
5-12 mm. broad. Flowers small, white, in long, naked, compound, 
terminal cymes. Young branches and calyx more or less downy. 
Inflorescence 5 or 6 times trichotomous. Stipules with a short 
sheath and 5-1 setae. 

Borreria latifolia (Aubl.), Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 6, 61. 

Caballero (605). January. 

Differs from the preceding species in having opposite, broad lan- 
ceolate, acuminate leaves, 4-7 cm. long and 1^-3 cm. wide. Flowers 
white, in small axillary verticils along the stem for nearly its whole 
length. Stipules with 10 to 15 setae. As I found it, it was not 
creeping, as in ordinary cases, but a weak-stemmed plant growing 
2-2^ m. high, and sustaining itself by leaning against shrubs in 
thickets. 

Borreria ocymoides, D.C., Prod., iv, 544. 

Pilcomayo River (973). March. 

This species has delicate stems, mostly prostrate, 2 to 6 dm. long. 
Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, often cuspidate, l^-3j cm. long, 
2-6 mm. wide, revolute, 1-nerved, the nerve white and prominent 
beneath. Flowers white, minute, terminal or in small clusters in 
opposite leaf axils appearing whorled. Stipules with 6-9 rather 
long setae. 

Borreria Poaya, D.C., Prod., iv, 549. 

Caballero (611). January. = Balansa 1765. 

Stems 2-3 dm. high, ascending, often much branched, glabrous or 
pubescent on the upper branches, or sometimes all rough. Leaves 
2-4 cm. long and 5-20 mm. broad, very acute at the apex, sloping 
into a very short petiole. Flowers in terminal, somewhat globular 
clusters, or of several terminal verticils, with a pair of reflexed, 
foliaceous bracts beneath them ; corolla purplish, 7-12 mm. long. 
Stipules with 1-3 rather large setae. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 131 

Borreria tenera, D.C., Prod., iv, 543. 

Asuncion (61) ; between Trinidad and Lympio (t2*7). Novem- 
ber-May. 

Stems nearly terete below, tetragonous above, 15-25 cm. high, 
much branched from the base, often ascending, with long tough 
roots. Leaves sub-setaceous, 1-nerved, often fascicled, sharply 
callous-tipped. Flowers white or often pale purple, in axillary or 
terminal verticils, the corolla about 5 mm. long. Stipular setse 3-7, 
much longer than the sheath. Leaves about the length of the inter- 
nodes. This rough-looking little plant is found growing along road- 
sides or on grassy knolls, in hard, dry or clayey soil, and its numer- 
ous verticils of flowers have a burr-like aspect. 

Borreria verticillata^ Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq., 83. 

Asuncion (66 and 106). November. 

A very variable species. Forms growing in dry soil or among 
grass, with a ligneous root and very thick, hard, knot-like, numer- 
ous stems, spreading on the ground or ascending 10-15 cm., with 
crowded leaves. Others are erect, 40-50 cm. high, with nodes 3-6 
cm. long. Leaves verticillate, linear or linear-lanceolate, 1-3 cm. 
long, 2-5 mm. broad, revolute and retrorsely scabrous on the mar- 
gins, acute at both ends ; petiole scarcely any. Stems more or less 
pilose or scabrous on the angles. Flowers small, white, in dense, 
globular verticils, which are terminal or axillary and 5-10 mm. in 
diameter. Stipular setae 4-7 as long as or longer than the sheaths. 
The prostrate forms of this species might be mistaken for no. 727, 
but the plant is much coarser, with larger leaves, thicker stems and 
larger flower verticils. 

Richardia Brasiliensis^ Gomez, Mem. Ipecac, 31, t. 2. 

Asuncion (55). November, 

A rough, prostrate plant, spreading 15 or 20 cm. on the ground, 
dichotomously much branched. Stems tetragonous, hispid or vill- 
ous. Leaves obovate or sometimes oblong-lanceolate, 1-3 cm. long, 
5-10 mm. broad, glabrous or scabrous above, ciliate, acute, attenu- 
ated into a short petiole. Stipular setae 3-5, hispid, usually shorter 
than the sheath. Diff'ers principally from Borriera in having ter- 
minal verticils of flowers seated upon large involucral bracts. In 
this case the bracts are 2, sessile, oblong, rounded at the apex, 2 cm. 
long, 1 cm. broad. Flowers minute, white. Calyx 6-lobed, the 



132 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

lobes ciliate, persistent, half as long as the corolla. Lobes of corolla 
6, acute, hairy on the lower side. Style 3-divided, with 3 capitate 
stigmas. Fruit murieate or hispid, 3-carpelled, 3-celled, 1 seed in 
each cell. Seeds pitted. 

Ricliardia grandiflora (C. and S), Britton. 
Richardsonia grandiflora, C. and S., Linnsea, ill, 351. 

Between Escoba and Caballero (422 and 413). January. 

Differs from the preceding species in having stems setosely hispid, 
linear leaves 3-4 cm. long, very large heads, 2-4 acuminate, lanceo- 
late involucral bracts 2 cm. long, many acuminate hispidly ciliate 
floral bracts, and purplish or rose-colored flowers with a corolla 
10-13 mm. long. The seeds are covered with pellucid, glandular 
tubercles. This plant grows in red, clayej^ soil on the railroad track 
between Escoba and Caballero, its fine large flowers forming a great 
contrast to the rough stems and bracts. 

CALYCERE^. 
Acicarpha triliuloides, Juss., Ann. Mus., ii, 348, t. 58, f. 1. 

Buenos Aires and Asuncion (2). 

Common about Buenos Aires, and covering all the waste grounds 
in and around Asuncion. Its spiny leaves and burrs make it a 
great nuisance. It continues to flower and fruit all the season from 
early October to May. 

COMPOSITE. 
Pacourina edulis^ Aubl., PI. Guian., ii, 800, p. 316. 

Asuncion (224 a). December. 

The main difference between this and the following form lies in 
the absence of lobes and spines on the leaves and scales. Leaves 
oblong-spatulate or lanceolate, 10-25 cm. along, sparsely spiny- 
dentate. 

Pacourina edulis^ Aubl., var. spinosissima, Britton, n. var. 

Similar to P. edulis, Aubl., but witb elongated, lanceolate-oval leaves, often 
a foot or more long, which are deeply laciniate into triangul-ar-lanceolate, 
spine-pointed lobes ; outer bracts of the involucre tipped with short spines. 

Asuncion (224). December. Same as Balansa's 862. This ap- 
pears to be different from P. cirsiifolia, H. B. K. — N. L. B. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 133 

The most striking among the herbaceous Composites growing at 
Asuncion. It occurs abundantly in wet grounds along the river- 
side. A stout succulent stem 9-12 dm. high, the upper portion 
curling over gracefully. On the upper side is a row of 10 or more 
conspicuous heads nearly 3 cm. in diameter, the involucral scales 
green in the middle and white membranous on the edges, giving 
them the appearance of a string of rosettes. When open the flowers 
are very handsome, of a bright rose tint, the corolla lobes curved, 
the staminate tube and styles long exserted. Leaves lanceolate, 
often 3 dm. long, deeply cut into triangular, strongly spine-pointed 
lobes. Oater scales of the involucre also tipped with short spines. 
Leaves pellucid-punctate. Achenia ornamented with rows of glist- 
ening glands. 

Ternonia diamaedrys. Less, Linnsea, 1829, p. 259. 

Luque (339) ; Yilla Rica (495). December-January. 
Vernonia flexuosa, Sims, Bot. Mag., t. 2477. 

Caballero (467). January. 
Ternonia graniinifolia, Grard. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot., vi, 421. 

Pilcomayo River (1509). January. 
Ternonia incana. Less, Linnsea, 1829, p. 277. 

Trinidad (275). December. = Balansa 771. 
Ternonia Platensis, Less, Linnaea, 1829, p. 312. 

Luque (305); Caballero (591). December-Januar}^ 
Ternonia scorpioides, Pers., Sjn., ii, 404. 

Asuncion (767) ; between Yilla Rica and Escoba (489). January- 
July. 

Ternonia tricholepis, D.C., Prod., v, 54? 

Asuncion (53 and 53 a). November. 53 --= Balansa 1128. 53 a 
= Gardner 3787, which number is quoted under V. tricholepis by 
Mr. Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 2, 70. 

Ternonia Tweediana, Baker, Mart. FL Bras., vi, pt. 2, 99. 

Asuncion (174 and 653). November-April. 
Ternonia glalirata, Less, Linnsea, 1829, p. 294. 

Asuncion (165); Luque (590). November-January. 



134 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

The Yeriionias are very numerous in Paraguay, all of them 
bearing heads of showy, purple flowers. I collected 9 species, only 
a small part of the number occurring in the country. Perhaps the 
most striking of them is V. glahrata (nos. 165, 590), with many 
sessile heads 2 cm. in diameter, growing by fence rows and road- 
sides in the vicinity of Asuncion. 

Another with ample leaves, rugose above and velvety hairy 
beneath, numerous crowded flower-heads, and strong stems over 3 m. 
in height, V. Tweediana (nos. IH, 653), abounded in waste grounds 
around Asuncion. 

V. incana (no. 2t5) and V. graminifolia (no. 1509), both with 
long narrow, linear leaves, the panicles of flowers on long naked 
peduncles, are exceedingly graceful and ornamental species. 

V. Chamaedrys (nos. 339, 495) has a close, thyrsus-like panicle 
of bright purple flowers. Leaves small, black or olive-green and 
shining on the upper surface, and white woolly beneath. Stem 
shrubbyish, l-H m. in height. 

Elepliantopus angustifolius, Sw., Prod., 115. 

Asuncion (162 a); Luque(313); Pilcomayo River (1510). 

Elepliantopus tonientosiis, L., Sp. PL, 814. 
E. scaber, v. tomentosus, Schultz Bip., Linnsea, xx, 516. 

Asuncion (258). December. 

The two species of Elephantopus here noted are very difi'erent. 
E. angustifolias has its flowers in terminal wand-like spikes, some- 
times 3J dm. in length, the leaves oblanceolate, 1^-3 dm. long, the 
glomerules subtended by a single small ovate bract. E. tomentosus 
has its flowers in large terminal panicled corymbs, the leaves obo- 
vate, 10-13 cm. long, the glomerules much smaller, subtended by 3 
large foliaceous bracts. Both occur in old fields and open grounds, 
the former very common in the vicinity of Asuncion and on the 
Pilcomayo River. 

Adenostemma triangulare, D.C., Prod., v, 113. 

Trinidad (270) ; Pilcomayo River (1003). December-April. 
= Balansa 865. 

Noticeable for its lowest leaves, which are broad hastate-deltoid, 
sometimes 15 cm. long and as broad, and its corymbs of heads, 
which appear to be nearly all styles and stigmas, having 2 or 3 
rows of small, appressed scales, numerous green tubular corollas. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 135 

a pappus of 5 minute red scales, and long exserted, pure white 12- 
divided styles, with clavate stigmas. 

SteTia saturiaefolia (Lam.), Sch. Bip., Linnaea, XXV, 291. 
Asuncion (107 a). November. 

Cupatorium bartsiaefoliiiiti, D.C., Prod., v, 147. 

Asuncion (1512). = Balansa 952. 

This differs from all the following species in its low stems (3-6 
dm. high), its crowded, deltoid-ovate leaves only 2-3|- cm. long, 
scabrous above, with large ciliate, retrorsely revolute teeth, and 
heads 8 or 9 mm, long, scales in 3 rows, with a pubescent, slightly 
recurved tip. Achenia black, hispid on the angles. Whole plant 
glandular and fuscous-hispid. 

Eupatoriiim "betonicaeforiiie (D.C.), Baker, Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, 

pt. 2, 362. 

Pilcomayo River (1511). April. 

A coarse plant with scabrous, branching stems 6-9 dm. high. 
Leaves petiolate, opposite, cuneate, cordate or hastate at the base, 
more or less dentate. Heads small, shortly pedicellate, in dense 
corymbs 3 or 4 cm. long and broad. 30-40 flowers in the head. 

£upatoriiiiu Candolleanum, H. and A., Comp. Bot. Mag., ii, 243. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (366j ; Caballero (465). December- 
January. 

These numbers were distributed by mistake as E. steviaefolium, 
D.C., some of which may be mixed with them. 

A more delicate species, 4J-5 dm. high, with lanceolate, petioled, 
more or less serrate leaves, with small corymbs of flowers on spread- 
ing terminal branches. Styles much exserted, giving a feathery 
appearance to the head. Flowers reddish-purple, 30-40 in the head. 

Ellipatoriuili Christieamim, Baker, Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 2, 298. 

Asuncion (70). November. 

Yery glabrous, suffruticose, 6-12 dm. high. Leaves lanceolate, 
acuminate, cuneate at base, petioled, 3-nerved, entire or rarely few- 
toothed, the largest about 10 cm. long and 3 cm. wide. Flowers 
light blue, in small corymbs. Heads almost cylindrical, 6-8 mm. 
long, 9-10 flowered, with 4-5 rows of appressed, ciliate involacral 
scales. 



J 36 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

£upatorium coiiyzoides, Vahl., Symb., iii, 96. 

Asuncion (684). April. = Balansa 940 a. 

Stems downy. Branches opposite, divaricate, nearly at right 
angles to the stem. Leaves petioled, unequally serrate or entire, 
triangular, acuminate, cuneate at base. Flowers blue. Corymbs 
large, di-trichotomous. Heads 15-20 flowered, 9 or 10 mm. long. 
Scales 3-5 nerved, appressed. Achenia scabrous. This occurs 
occasionally on the Florida coast (Curtiss). 

Eupatorium densiflorum, Morong, n. sp. 

Stems 6-12 dm. liigh, and with the branches striate and pubescent. 
Branches numerous, opposite, ascending at a sharp angle ; internodes 1^3 
cm. long. Leaves numerous, opposite, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, entire 
or sparsely and remotely serrulate, revolute, obtusely pointed at the apex, 
sloping at base into a short petiole, 3-nerved, glabrous above, pubescent and 
black glandular dotted beneath, the largest 10 cm. long and 2 cm. wide. 
Densely flowered. Flowers blue, the corymbs numerous on long terminal 
branches, the whole flower-bearing portion 20-25 cm. long. Heads scarcely 
campanulate, 7 or 8 mm. long, on peduncles 7-15 mm. in length. Involucral 
scales linear, acute, glabrous, 3-nerved, appressed, in 4 or 5 rows, the inner- 
most 5-7 mm. long, a little surpassed by the white pappus- About 20-flowered. 
Achenia black, slightly pubescent on the angles. 

Near E. ivaefolium, but dififering from that species in the density 
of the inflorescence and leaves, the pubescence, and especially in the 
involucral scales. 

Found at the Kecolleta, near Asuncion (627). March. 

Eupatorium hecatantliiiiti (D.C.), Baker, 1. c, 365. 

Asuncion (280 b). December. 

Easily distinguished by the red woolly appendages at the tips 
of the scales. Heads 50-80 flowered. Leaves long-petioled, broad 
cordate-hastate, deltoid in outline, crenate-dentate, 6-15 cm. long. 

Kiipatorium iTaefolium, L., Amoen. Acad., v, 405. 

Trinidad (274); Pilcomayo River (1012). = Balansa 939. 
December- April. 

Does not seem to differ from the forms of this species occurring 
in our Southern States. 

Siipatorium laeve, B.C., Prod., v, 169. 

Asuncion (637). April. = Balansa 918. 

The specimens obtained were from the garden of Herr Mangels, 
for many years German Consul at Asuncion. It has been .exten- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 137 

sively cultivated an Paraguay for the manufacture of indigo, of 
which it makes an excellent quality, but is now seldom seen, except 
in the wild state. A shrub 12-15 dm. high, with white striate 
stem and large ovate-lanceolate, serrate leaves, the whole plant 
very smooth. Pappus tawny. Heads small, 15-20 flowered. 

£upatoriiiiit laevigatum, Lam., Encyc, ii, 408. 

Pilcomayo River (951). March. 

Stem 12-18 dm. high, viscous, much branched. Flowers blue, 
the corymbs with numerous crowded heads, on widely spreading 
terminal branches 25-35 cm. long. Heads cylindrical, 8-10 mm. 
long, with 4 or 5 rows of 3-5 nerved scales, about 20-flowered. 
Achenia black, glabrous. Leaves petioled, lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, 4-12 cm. long, 2-5 cm. wide, acuminate, more or less 
serrate above the sloping base. 

Some of this was probably distributed as E. conyzoides. 

Eupatorium macrocephallim (D.C.), Less., Linnaea, 1830, p. 836. 

Caballero (463); Pilcomayo Kiver (1513). January-April. 

The long naked peduncles, large heads, purplish involucral scales, 
purple flowers and long plumose purple styles of this plant bear a 
striking resemblance to Liatris when growing on the campo. Heads 
often 2 cm. high and as broad when in full flower, 75-100 flowered. 
Stems very glandular hairy or bristly, the hairs nodose and trans- 
lucent. 

Eupatoriiim macropliyllum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1175. 

Asuncion (280 and 280 a). December. 

This was one of the "stickiest" plants I ever encountered, the 
stems and leaves being covered with glandular hairs, and adhering 
so forcibly to the drying-paper that it required a daily change and 
nearly a month's drying to make herbarium specimens. Flowers 
very numerous, a bright purple, with long protruding yellow styles, 
giving them quite a variegated appearance. Heads 50-60 flowered. 
Leaves large, on long petioles, cordate-ovate, crenate. 

Eupatorium inulticreniilatiim, Schultz Bip. ; Baker, 1. c, 335. 

Yilla Kica (482) ; Asuncion (632). January-March. 
Suffruticose, like many other species growing in Paraguay. 
Stems from Ij to 2 m. high, hoary with white down all over, with 



138 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

large branching corymbs of sruall purple heads. Hairs on the 
peduncles and pedicels glandular. Leaves lanceolate, minutely ser- 
rulate, the largest 12-15 cm. long, 2-3 cm. broad. A striking plant 
upon the open campo where it grows. 

Eupatoriiim pallescens, B.C., Prod., i, 154. 
£. glomeratum, D.C., 1. c. 

Asuncion (630 and 683); Pilcomayo River (957). March-April. 

Stems stout, pubescent, striate, growing on the Pilcomayo to a 
height of 3 m. Leaves deltoid-ovate, 3-nerved, pubescent, serrate 
above the sloping base, the largest 16 or 18 cm. long, 5 cm. or more 
wide. Petiole alate above. Corymbs dense, the flowers massed 
glomerately. Flowers white. Heads 5 mm. long, 12-15 flowered; 
scales in 2 or 3 rows, downy, rounded, somewhat spreading, nerved. 
Achenia glabrous or sometimes minutely downy. 

Eupatorium steTiaefolium, B.C., Prod., v, 158. 
Gran Chaco near Asuncion (366 a). December. 

Eupatorium urticaefoliiim, L., f. Supp., 354. 

Asuncion (174). May. = Balansa 936. 

Stems 6-12 dm. high, covered with long, spreading, translucent, 
nodose hairs. Leaves ovate, cuneate at base, obtusely pointed, in- 
cised-dentate, 2^-7 cm. long, on petioles 6-25 mm. long. Flowers 
blue. Heads 20-25 flowered, in small corymbs on long, spreading 
branches. Common in old fields. 

Siipatorium Ternoniopsis, Schultz Bip. ; Baker, 1. c, 334. 

Asuncion (107 and 109) ; Luque (589). = Balansa 784. Novem- 
ber-January. 

Stems striate, grayish-pubescent, often much branched at the top, 
sometimes simple, 9-18 dm, high. Flowers blue. Heads small, 
8-10 flowered. Leaves opposite below, subopposite or alternate 
above, 2-5 cm. long, 1-3 cm. broad, crenate or serrate, pubescent 
on both sides, 3-nerved, the nerves prominent beneath, the teeth 
callous tipped. 

If illougUbya cordifolia (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 372. 

Gran Chaco near Lympio (182 a and 182J). May. 
This vine differs from the more common W. scandens in having 
the stems and leaves densely clothed with a grayish pubescence, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 139 

denser and larger clusters of flowers, larger heads (7-10 mm. long), 
and tawny pappus. The flowers are very fragrant, and attractive 
to insects, which were hovering over the blossoms in great numbers 
when collected. 

Willougllbya SCandens (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 371. 

Asuncion (182); Pilcomayo River (1082). November-January. 

Solidago polyglossa, D.C., Prod., v, 10. 

Asuncion (111); Pilcomayo River (1080). 

The only golden-rod which I found in Paraguay. Yery abundant 
in all the waste grounds around Asuncion, and flowering the entire 
season from October to May. Of this genus I believe that not 
more than one or two species at the most are known to occur in all 
that part of South America. This plant is esteemed as a vulnerary 
by the common people, and hence was named S. vulneraria by 
Martins. 

Aster sill) tropicus, Morong, n. sp. 

A. divaricatus, T. and Gr., var. graminifolius, Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 3, 
22. A. exilis, Ell., var. australis, Asa Gray, Syn. Fl., i, pt. 2, 203. 

As found in Paraguay the plant whicli is commonly referred to this form 
seems sufficiently distinct from A. divaricatus to merit specific designation. It 
grows from 4 to 9 dm. high, Avith a stout, glabrous, often much branched stem. 
Leaves glabrous, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, reduced on the branchlets to 
subulate bracts, entire or sparsely serrulate, the largest 6-8 cm. long and 5-8 
mm. wide. The heads are usually much larger than in our North American 
plant, being often 8-10 mm. long, containing 50 or more flowers. Involucral 
scales in 4 or 5 rows, a little over 1 mm. in breadth, obscurely 1-3 nerved, 
rather abruptly acute, the innermost 7-8 mm. long, with green or rosy tips. 
Ray flowers small, pale blue, recurved, very fugacious. Disk flowers thread- 
like, scarcely surpassing the pappus. The pappus somewhat coarse and more 
copious than in A. dioaricatus. Achenia pubescent. 

This aster is much more stocky, the branches more massed, leaves 
and flowers more numerous than in the next species, of which it has 
been called a variety. It grows on the banks of fresh water and 
on uplands far inland. 

Near Asuncion (620). March. 

Aster exilis, Ell., Bot. S. Car. and Georgia, ii, 344. 

Pilcomayo River (1081). February. 

Growing in saline soil like the plant of this country. Much of 
the region along the Pilcomayo abounds in salt pools, and the 



140 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

streams running from the Cordilleras to the Paraguay are brackish 
or strongly impregnated with salt. 

Erigeron Bonariense, L., Sp. PL, 863. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (359). December-January. 

It is difficult to see any difference between this species and a 
Conyza, as there is really no ligule on the ray flowers, or it is so 
minute as to be inappreciable. A tall coarse weed 12-15 dm. high, 
with a very large head of branches, some 5-Y dm. long, springing 
from nearly the same point. Heads small, apparently discoid, the 
flowers all threadlike, tubular and fertile. Flowers and pappus 
tawny. Stem stout, striate, rough on the striae, pubescent among 
the inflorescence. Leaves linear, glabrous, serrulate, 6-12 cm. long. 
Common in the lowlands on the western side of the Paraguay. 

Erigeron linifoliiis, Willd., Sp. PL, iii, 1955. 
Conyza pleheja, PliiL in Herb. Kew. 
Conyza ambigua, D.C., Prod., v, 381. 

La Plata, Arg. Republic (22); Asuncion (322 and 342). October- 
December. 

Stems 3-9 dm, high, hirsute, branching. Flowers white. Kay 
flowers nearly or quite without ligules. Pappus tawny. Peduncles 
and scales hirsute. Leaves linear, sparsely serrate, 5-Y cm, long, 
1 mm. wide. Difi'ers from the preceding species also in the lower, 
more stragglingly branched stems, and larger heads. 

Conyza Cllilensis^ Spreng., Nov. Prov., 1818, p. 14. 

Luque (343); Asuncion (628); Pilcomayo River (1514). Decem- 
ber-January. 

Heads much larger than in either of the 2 preceding species, 
1-lJ cm. high, 1 cm. broad. Stems striate, and with the leaves and 
peduncles closely white hirsute, 7-10 dm. high. Leaves oblong- 
linear or obovate, more or less serrate and scabrous on both sides, 
4-8 cm. long and 5 mm. to 2^ cm. wide, the lowest usually obovate, 
the uppermost linear. Ray flow^ers without ligules. Heads in small 
terminal corymbs, 20 or less in number. 

Conyza triplinervia, Less., Linnsea, 1831, p. 137. 

Yilla Rica (497). January. 

A suS"ruticose, glabrous species, 3-6 dm. high. Heads small, in 
large terminal panicled corymbs. Stems and leaves more or less 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 141 

viscous. Cauline leaves ovate-oblong, sharply serrate, 3-nerved, 
petiolate, 6-12 cm. long. 

Baccharis coguata, D.C., Prod., v, 413. 

Yilla Morra near Asuncion (775). May. 

Suffruticose, about 6 dm. high, glabrous. Heads small, clustered 
on short lateral branches, 12-25 flowered. Flowers white. Leaves 
obovate-cuneate, 1-2^ cm. long, 8-20 mm. broad, rigid, coarsely 
toothed, glabrous. 

Bacctiaris dracunciilifolia, D.C., 1. c, 421. 

Luque (318). December. 

A shrub sometimes reaching a height of 2 m. or more. Bushy 
branched. Leaves numerous, sessile, linear-lanceolate, sparsely 
serrate, 2-3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. or more broad. Flowers thread- 
like, greenish in hue. Heads crowded, numerous, on short downy 
peduncles. Pubescent among the inflorescence. 

Baccliaris genistilloides, Pers., Syn., 11, 425. 

Caballero (437); between Asuncion and San Lorenzo (723). 
January. 

A curious plant occurring on the open campo. It has the stems 
broadly or narrowly 2-3 winged, and the leaves reduced to scales 
at the joints of the wings. Flov^ers spiked in interrupted verticils. 
The leafless-looking stems and branches lend a gaunt, weird aspect 
to the plant. 

Baccliaris juncea, Desf., Cat. Hort. Paris, 1829, p. 183? 
Pilcomayo River (1516). March. 

Baccliaris nana, D. Don., Mart. Fl. Bras., vl, pt. 3, 56. 

Asuncion (647). April. 

A slender species, shrubby, 3-5 dm. high, scurfy above. Leaves 
linear-oblanceolate, 1-2|^ cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, sparsely serrate 
above. Heads about 5 mm. high, pedicellate, axillary, scattered ; 
scales 4 or 5 rows, obtuse or abruptly acute, ciliolate, membranous 
on the margins. A strict dry-looking plant, occurring in open 
grounds and old fields. 



142 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Baccbaris notosergila, Gris., Symb. Flor. Arg., 183. 

Pilcomayo River (1009). April. 

Called by our Guarani peons Escoba de los Indios, or Indian 
broom, because it serves admirably for making small brooms or 
brushes. A dry, sage-like plant, about 6 dm. high, very branching 
and bushy. Shrubby, with a terete, slate-colored stem. Leaves 
square, sharp-angled phyllodia, without blades. Corolla very small, 
the tube green below and whitish above, with minute lobes, buried 
in the abundant silky-capillary pappus. Yery common on the cam- 
pos at the Pilcomayo Falls. 

BaccliaTis oxyodonta^ D.C., 1. c, 404. 
B. triplinervia, D.C., 1. c. 

Asuncion (135) ; Pilcomayo River (1515). November-May. 

6-9 dm. high, angular, glabrous or somewhat pubescent among 
the inflorescence, both stem and leaves very viscous. Leaves alter- 
nate, long-petioled, 3-nerved, acute at either end, entire or sparsely 
serrulate, 4-10 cm. long, 6-15 mm. broad, black glandular spotted 
on both sides. Heads about 6 mm. long, in small terminal corymbs ; 
scales in about 3 rows, acute, 1-nerved ; pappus tawny. This plant 
grows in low wettish grounds around Asuncion, and also occurs in 
the great laguna on the Pilcomayo River. 

Baccliaris Platensis, Spreng., Syst., iii, 165. 

Pilcomayo River (1022). May. 

Stem shrubby, strict, branching, glabrous below, pubescent above, 
striate, angular, about 9 dm. high. Leaves 5-10 cm. long, 1 mm. 
to 2 cm. wide, opposite, oblanceolate, puberulent, serrate above, 
1-nerved or the lowest 3-nerved, abruptly acute at the apex and 
sloping at the base into a short petiole. Heads not quite 1 cm. 
high, glomerate at the ends of the branches and projecting divari- 
cately; scales in 4 or 5 rows, obtuse, ciliolate. Common on the 
campo at the Pilcomayo Falls. 

Baccharis sessiliflora, Valil., Symb., iii, 97. 

Luque (1517). 

Baccliaris subopposita^ D.C., 1. c, 413. 

Asuncion (647 a); Pilcomayo River (1518 and 941). February- 
April. 

It is possible that these numbers represent different species. The 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 143 

leaves of 1518 are nearly entire, many of them subopposite ; those 
of 941 are sharply dentate and but few of them subopposite; while 
the leaves of 647 a are opposite or alternate, entire or 1-5 dentate 
on each side, the upper ones linear. The plants are all much 
branched, the branches rising at a sharp angle. Stem branches 
and leaves covered with a granular scurf, or in 1518 lepidote. 
Heads sessile or pedicelled, 15-20 flowered ; scales somewhat 
spreading, subacute or obtuse, ciliolate, white membranous on the 
margins. 

Baccliaris trinervis, Pers., Syn., ii, 423. 

Pilcomayo River (1011). April. 

One of the most common species in South America, found in 
many parts of Brazil, and spreading from Ecquador across the high 
lands of Bolivia, through Paraguay to the Argentine Republic. 
The leaves are large, lanceolate, entire, glabrous, shortly petioled 
and strongly 3-nerved. 

Plucliea quitoc, D.C., 1. c, 450. 

Asuncion (619). March. 

Flowers pale purple, in large terminal cymes, exhaling an agree- 
able aromatic odor. Stems about 6 dm. high, strict, winged by the 
decurrent leaves. Common in marshy grounds. 

Tessaria integrifolia, R. and P., Syst., 213. 
T, mucronata, D.C., Prod., v, 456. 

Near Asuncion (383). January. 

A small tree 5-8 m. in height, occurring in clumps in the low- 
lands of the Chaco, opposite Asuncion. As described in Benth. and 
Hook. Gen. PI., the flower of Tessaria does not accord precisely 
with my specimens. All the outer flowers of the head are abortive. 
The central flower only is perfect, large, solitary, surrounded by 
setaceous chaff. All are apparently destitute of pappus. Achenium 
somewhat 4-gonous and top-shaped. Corolla with 5 large, purple, 
mucronate lobes, which are united around the staminate column, 
enclosing them and the style. Style single, just protruding through 
the opening of the corolla and ending in a club-shaped stigmatic tip. 
Branches brownish in color. Bark smooth. Leaves oblanceolate, 
canescent on both sides. 



J 44 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

The gentleman on whose farm these trees grow told me that his 
cattle w^ere extravagantly fond of the leaves and young branches, 
and made desperate efforts to pull them down. 

Pterocaulon angustifoliiim, D.C., 1. c, 454. 

Luque (314). December. = Balansa 834 a. 

According to Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI., only 13 species of Ptei'o- 
caulon are known, t of which are Australian and the other 6 inhabi- 
tants of North and South America. Four of these are included in 
this list of Paraguay plants. The most interesting of them, per- 
haps, is no. 192, P. virgatum, D.C. This grows on the open campo 
both in Central Paraguay and on the Pilcomayo. The heads are 
in long, narrow, terminal spikes 10-25 cm. long, or in interrupted 
verticils, on long, nearly naked peduncles. Leaves few, linear, 
5-10 cm. in length, dark green on the upper surface, revolute and 
white woolly beneath, decurrent in long green wings upon the stem. 
Between the wings, the stem is white wooll}^ like the under surface 
of the leaves. 

By the side of this on the campo are two other species, P. capi- 
tatum (no. 958 b) and P. alopecuroideum (no. 958 a), the latter 
with elliptical leaves about 2|- cm. long, and densely white woolly 
below, the heads in short, compact, terminal spikes. All the species 
are very peculiar in appearance, and at once attract attention by 
their forlorn, starved looks among the luxuriant growths of South 
America. 

Pterocaulon capitatum (H. and A.), Britton. 
Pluchea capitata, H. and A. 

Pilcomayo River (958b). March. = Balansa 838. 

Pterocaulon Tirgatum (L.), D.C, 1. c, 454. 
Pilcomayo River (958); Asuncion (192). 

Pterocaulon alopecuroideum (Sw.), D.C, 1. c. 
Pilcomayo River (958a). March. 

Acliyrocline satureoides (Lam.), D.C, Prod., vi, 220. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (354). December. 

While resembling Gnaphalium in general appearance, this genus 
is distinguished by its small heads, containing 5-8 flowers, and with 
8-12 involucral scales, which close tightly over the flowers. The 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 145 

species here noted has scattered leaves, the largest of which are 8 
cm. long and IJ cm. broad. The heads are densely crowded in 
small terminal corymbs, of a glistening golden tint. 

Gnaphalium ctieiranthifoliuiu, Lam., Encyc, 11, 752. 

Trinidad (793). October. 
Giiaphalium Iiidicum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1200. 

Pilcomayo River (1519). January. 
Gnaplialium purpiireiim, L., L c. 

Asuncion (32 and 32 a). October-November. 
Gnaphalium spicatum, Lam., Encyc, ii, 757. 

Caballero (602). January. 

Of the species of Gnaphalium here noted, no. 793 is the most 
striking. It grows 4-9 dm. high, with a glandular, webby-haired 
stem, crowded, oblanceolate leaves 8-10 cm. long, and a densely 
crowded corymb of large heads. It reminded me in looks of an 
overgrown Anaphalis margaritacea. No. 32 is very common in 
open grounds both in Paraguay and the Argentine Republic. No. 
602 is a slender, erect species, 3-6 dm. high, very silvery-white on 
the stem and leaves. Flowers in small clusters at the ends of nearly 
erect branches, the scales pale brown in tint. 

Acanthospermum liispidum, D.C., Prod., v, 522. 

Asuncion (162). November. 

We may well be thankful that of the 2 only known species (or 4 
according to DeCandolle) of Acanthospermum, both of which are 
South American, but one (A. xanthioides) has found its way into 
our country. The sharp, 4-spined achenia, produced in great abund- 
ance, are very annoying. The bare-footed natives of Paraguay 
suffer very seriously from them sometimes, for wounds from thorns 
are dangerous things in a climate where even a scratch is liable to 
produce gangrene. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia^ L., Sp. PL, 988. 

Asuncion (133). November. 

Xantltiuni spinosum, L,, Sp. PL, 987. 

Asuncion (46). November. 

Aknals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Feb. 1893.— 10 



146 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Xaiitliitiiii Canadense, Miller, Diet. Ed., 8. 
Asuncion (80*1). 

Enliydra Anagallis, Gard. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot., viii, 409. 

Asuncion (79). November-February. 

As none of this marsh-loving family are known in this country, 
readers of these notes may be interested to learn something about 
them. A succulent, spreading plant, growing abundantly in miry 
places along the borders of the Paraguay River at Asuncion, the 
stems hollow, rooting at the nodes, and sometimes running 3-6 dm 
Flowers inconspicuous, in sessile, axillary heads, subtended by large 
foliaceous bracts. Involucral scales 4, large, whitish-green, often 
closing over the flowers so as to completely hide them. Ray flowers 
in 3 rows, white, pistillate, fertile, 3-toothed. Flowers of the disk 
perfect, the corolla greenish-white, the stamens and style exserted ; 
stamens black; stigma small, feathery, not appendaged. Pappus 
none. Aehenia smooth. Receptacle chaffy, the chaff large, very 
hair}^ and closely investing the flowers. As the native Paraguayans 
are great herb doctors, firmly persuaded that every known plant has 
its medicinal virtues, they prize a tea made by steeping the foliage 
of this plant as a remedy for various disorders of the bowels. 

l^Clipta alba (L.), Hassk., PI. Jav. Ear., 528. 
Asuncion (T4). November. 

H'ulffia Ibaccata (L. f.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 373. 

Between Pirayu and Jaguaron (6t0). April. 

A rough, hirsute plant, found in deep woods. The flowers are 
in small globular heads, the most conspicuous thing about them 
being the yellow paleae, which are stiff, rough-pubescent, rising in 
a sharp point above the aehenia when in fruit so as to present a 
bristly appearance to the head. 

BlainTillea "biaristata, D. C, Prod., v, 492. 

Caballero (601). January. = Balansa 185. 

This genus is distinguished by having heterogamous flowers, 
those of the ray obscurely or distinctly ligulate. Receptacle chaffy. 
Aehenia subcompressed or triquetrous. Pappus of 2-3 bristles con- 
nate at the base. The species here noted is a weak plant 3-6 dm. 
high. Leaves opposite, ovate, acute at either end, sharply ser- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 147 

rate, hispidulous. Heads terminal or lateral, sessile or peduncled. 
Flowers pale yellow. Pappus of 2 very short, unequal bristles. 

Stemmodontia torachycarpa (Baker), Morong. 
Wedelia hrachycarpa Baker in Mart, Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 3, 181. 

Asuncion (52 and 819). October. = Balansa 855. 

A rough hairy, branching plant 6-9 dm. high, with good sized, 
solitary heads on peduncles longer than the leaves. My specimens 
differ from the type in having petioles 1-8 mm. long. Leaves ovate 
or lanceolate, opposite, 3-nerved, serrate, 2-J-5 cm. long. Rays 8, 
yellow. Pappus horny, cupulate. Achenia densely papillose. 
Abundant in the neighborhood of Asuncion, both in low grounds 
and uplands. 

We are using the name Stemmodontia, Cass., for this genus, be- 
cause Wedelia, Jacq.(l760), is a homonym of Wedelia, Loefl. (1758), 
as pointed out by 0. Kuntze. 

Aspilia reflexa. Baker, 1. c, 196. 

Asuncion (1520). November. = Balansa 853. 
Aspilia setosa, G-riseb., Symb. Flor. Arg., 192. 

Asuncion (464). January. 
Aspilia silpliioideSj Baker, 1. c, 197. Ex descr. 

Asuncion (216). December. 

The Aspilias are hirsute plants, with large, solitary, yellow- 
flowered heads on long peduncles, reminding one in general of 
many of our smaller Helianthi. No. 1520 has showy flowers 2^ 
cm. high, 4 cm. in diameter when expanded ; rays 9-12 ; pappus of 
2 scales. Stems 4-5 dm. high, branching, decumbent. Leaves 
sessile, serrate, hispidulous, 5-10 cm. long. No. 464 is smaller, 
only 3 dm. high, with a softer pubescence. Its leaves are entire 
or remotely serrulate, linear-lanceolate, sessile, somewhat obscurely 
3-nerved, the largest 10-12 cm. long and 1^-2 cm. wide. Rays 10, 
golden-yellow, 2-toothed, about 2 cm. long. No. 216 has heads 
much smaller than in the preceding species, being only 1^ cm. high, 
and 2^ cm. when expanded. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, petioled, 
3-nerved, serrate, the blades 6-10 cm. long, l^-S^ cm. wide. Pappus 
of 1 or 2 long projecting bristles. Achenia 5 mm. long, flattish, 
4-angled, hairy, narrowing to the base, with a smooth, shining, 
callous base, somewhat pitted or ridged on the faces. Whole plant 
very rough, growing to a height of 9 dm. 



148 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

£cliillOCepliallllll latifolitim, Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot., 
vii, 295. 

Pilcomayo Riv^er (1054). June. = Balansa 857. 

Somewhat like the Wulffia above described. Heads smaller, 
g-lobular, with yellow rays, burr-like in aspect when in fruit, the 
paleae pointed by a weak yellow spine. Leaves ovate or deltoid- 
ovate, opposite, dentate, the blades 5-8 cm. long, on petioles 1^-2^ 
cm. in length. 

Verljesina Ariiottii^ Baker, 1. c, 215. 

Near Trinidad (845). November. = Gibert 1043. 

A handsome plant, with large, solitary, sulphur-yellow heads, on 
naked peduncles 7-22 cm. long. Stems rough, often much branched, 
3-6 dm. high. Leaves alternate, serrate, sessile, 3-5 cm. long, 6 
mm. to 2 cm. broad. Rays about 12, often with a black line along 
the margins. Heads 2-2 J cm. high. Pappus of 3 awns. Recep- 
tacle with chaff longer than the achenia. 

Verlbesina encelioides (Cav.), A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. A., i, pt. 2, 288. 

Verbesina australis, Baker, 1. c. 

Asuncion (98). November. 

Much branched, 3-6 dm. high, with many showy heads of deep 
yellow flowers. Heads 2 cm. high, 2^ cm. in diameter when ex- 
panded. Leaves alternate or the lower opposite or subopposite, 
petioled, incisely serrate, acute or acuminate, cuneate or sometimes 
auriculate at base, white tomentose beneath, dark above, 3-8 cm. 
long, 2-4 cm. wide at base. 

Verliesina sordescens, D.C., Prod., v, 613. 

Asuncion (628 a). March. = Balansa 860 a. 

Stems pubescent, much branched, 6-12 dm. high. Flowers 
smaller than in the preceding species, in large terminal corymbs, 
the peduncles 1-3 cm. long. Heads 1-1 -| cm. high. Rays about 
10, light yellow, striped. Leaves alternate or the lower opposite, 
sessile, dentate, the teeth callous, 7-15 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide. In 
dry open grounds. 

Spilantlies stolonifera, D.C., 1. c, 621. 

Asuncion (89). = Balansa 789 and 790. 

This pretty little yellow-flowered composite, from 8 to 20 cm. in 
height, covers all the flats along the river-side near Asuncion. It 



Plants Collected in Pay^aguay. 149 

blossoms from November to April, and, in fact, even in July, in the 
depth of winter, specimens in flower could be obtained by careful 
search among the grass. Stems often creeping and rooting. 

Bidens pilosa, L., Sp. PL, 832. 

Asuncion (208); Pilcomayo River (959). November-March. 

This plant fills the waste grounds and old fields around the city, 
and is as great a nuisance as our own Spanish Needles. I found 
specimens on the Pilcomayo River banks nearly 3 m. in height. 
This was distributed as B. leucantha, Willd. 

Isostigma Vailiana, Britton, n. sp. 

Perennial, glabrous, stem prostrate or ascending, 10-15 cm. long. Leaves 
coriaceous, narrowly cuneate at the base, laciniately 3-7 toothed at the apex, 
4-7 cm. long, 8-12 mm. wide ; peduncles erect, usually single and terminal, 
sometimes with an additional one or two lateral ones, 10-20 cm. high ; heads 
discoid, 1-1^ cm. broad ; involucre campanulate ; scales in 3 rows, ovate, 
obtusish ; flowers purple ; corolla rather deeply 4-lobed ; achenia flat, linear, 
slightly narrowed below, with two divergent, subulate awns at the apex ; 
paleae linear, membranaceous, nearly as long as the achenia. 

Limpio (734). May. Differs from other species of the genus in 
its 4-lobed corolla, all the described ones having 5-toothed corollas. 

This rare plant, with large handsome dark purple heads, is named 
in honor of Miss Anna Murray Yail, by whose kindly assistance 
the work of arranging my Paraguay collection has been greatly 
facilitated. 

Calea clematidea, Baker, 1. c, 262. 
Asuncion (766). July. = Balansa 845. 

Calea uniflora, Less., Linnsea, 1830, p. 159. 

Caballero (514). January. = Balansa 812. 

This genus, which does not occur in the United States, is distin- 
guished by having sagittate anthers, chaffy receptacles, and narrow, 
angled achenia crowned with a pappus of 5-20 chaflF-like scales. 
No. 766 is very branching, the stems sufi*ruticose, 4 or 5 dm. high. 
Leaves opposite, ovate, crenate-dentate, with truncate or subcordate 
base, pubescent, rugose beneath, the blades 3-4 cm. long, 1^-2 cm. 
wide, on short downy petioles. Flowers yellow in numerous small 
heads. Scales of the involucre broad, obtuse, appressed, imbricated, 
yellowish-green, striped, in 3 or 4 rows. Rays 4, with 3 or 4 teeth, 



150 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

clawed. Pappus of many lanceolate, ciliate scales twice as long as 
the densely hispid achenia, No. 514 has much larger heads, soli- 
tary, on naked peduncles 8-20 cm. long. Rays numerous, 2 cm. 
long, light yellow, striped, entire or somewhat eroded at the tip. 
Pappus of about 15 linear-lanceolate, ciliate or lacerate scales, 5 mm. 
long, twice as long as the hispid achenia. 
Both species grow in open grounds. 

Poropliyllum ruderale (Sw.), Cass. Diet., xliii, 56. 
Porophyllum ellipdcum, Cass., 1. c. 

Caballero (475). Asuncion (651). January-April. 

Similar in most respects to no. 889, but the leaves are elliptical, 
long petioled, glaucous, 4-5 cm. long, 2 cm. wide or less. Achenia 
subulate, thickly clothed with short, upwardly pointing hairs. Pap- 
pus minutely hispid upwardly 

I have seen no description of the curious marginal markings of 
the leaves. They are apparently crenate, but in reality have a wavy 
outline caused by indentures or depressions, which have below them, 
sunk in the surface of the leaf, a brownish gland corresponding in 
curvature with the indenture. 

Foroptiylluiu lanceolatum, D.C, Prod., v, 649. 

Pilcomayo River (889). January. 

Stems rigid, striate, much branched, 6-9 dm. high. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, alternate, entire, sessile or the lower shortly 
petioled, much attenuated at the base, 2^-5 cm. long, 5 mm. broad. 
Heads 2 cm. high, solitary, on peduncles 4-Y cm. long. Scales in 
a single series, linear, marked by 2 rows of dark sunken glands. 
These scales are so closely coalescent when growing as to appear 
but one tipped with 5 small lobes, but they separate in drying. 
Achenia linear, minutely striate, 8 mm. long. Scales, corollas, 
anthers, styles, and achenia all dark purple, causing the whole head 
to look almost black. An ill-smelling plant. 

Tagetes glandulifera, Sclirank., PL Rar. Monac, ii, t. 54. 

Pirayu (671). = Balansa 912. 

Certainly one of the most curiously constructed plants that I had 
the pleasure of examining in Paraguay. It grows in masses from 
2 to 2i m. high on the borders of woods. Leaves pinnate, the leaf- 
lets crenate, with yellow, often lunate glands beneath the crena- 
tures, and 1-2 teeth in the marginal space between them, so that the 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 151 

marf^in may be called compound, crenate and serrate. Stipules of 
3-branched hairs, the same kind of hairs running up the petiole to 
some distance, and often dichotomously branching into 3 or 5 divi- 
sions. Involucre slender, cylindrical, 15 mm. long, consisting appa- 
rently of only one scale, the parts so completely coalescing that no 
lines of junction can be seen, leaving only 5 small lobes at the apex 
to mark their number. On this involucre are 5 rows of elongated 
yellow glands. The plant seems to have a gre&t fancy for the num- 
ber 5, there being often 5 branches to the stipular hairs, 5 lobes and 
5 rows of glands on the involucre, 5 flowers in the head, 5 pappus 
scales, 5 corolla lobes, and 5 stamens. 
Flowering from October to April. 

Tagetes patula, L., Sp. PL, 887. 

Asuncion (81). November. 

The French Marigold. This is not a native of Paraguay, but it 
sometimes escapes from gardens and grows spontaneously. 

Soliva anthem id if olia, R. Br. Obs. Comp., 101. 
La Plata, Arg. Republic (23). October. 

Soliva sessilis, R. and P., Prod. Fl. Per., 113, t. 24. 
La Plata, Arg. Republic (24). 

Erecbtliites hieracifolia (L.), Raf. in D.C. Prod., vi, 294. 

Asuncion (812); Pilcomayo River (1521). 

The Fire-weed is found growing not only in its ordinary situations, 
but often in the streets, in the very heart of the city of Asuncion. 

£rec1itliites valerianaefolia (Wolf.), D.C, 1. c, 295. 

Caballero (439). January. 

With beautiful rosy-tinted, fleecy pappus. Leaves pinnate. Far 
handsomer than the rough fire-weed of our country. 

Senecio Bentliami, Griseb., Symb. Fl. Arg., 206. 

Caballero (411); Pilcomayo River (848). November-February. 

A very handsome flower. The heads large, rays crimson in color, 
reflexed in full flower, tips of the corolla lobes reddish, and the pro- 
jecting staminate column and stigma yellow, thus giving a wonder- 
ful brilliancy of color to the flowers. It often climbs among trees 
upon which it leans to the height of 3 m. or more. 



152 Plants Collected m Paraguay. 

Seiiecio Hiialtata, D.C., 1. c, 417. 
Buenos Aires (10). October. 

Chaptalia integrifolia (Cass.), Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras , vi, pt. 3, 377. 
Asuncion (tlO). May-July. 

Chaptalia nutans (L.), Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer., Bot., ii, 255. 

Asuncion (747). June. 

This and no. 710 are quite similar and very interesting plants. 
They grow in the shade of trees on borders of forests and thickets. 
The large radical leaves, green above, white tomentose beneath, lie 
in a tuft upon the ground, and the scape produces a large, solitary 
flower at the summit. Ray flowers whitish, threadlike, fertile, with 
a long exserted style and double stigma. Disk flowers with a long 
filamentous tube, so slender as to appear like a bristle of the pappus. 
Pappus copious, soft, fleecy, white or bronze-tinted. No. 747 has 
lyrate-pinnatifid, more or less denticulate leaves, while those of 710 
are entire or sparsely denticulate. The heads are at first nodding, 
and erect in fruit. 

Trixis diTaricata (H. B. K.), Spreng., Syst., iii, 501. 

Asuncion (768). January-July. 

Stems suflfruticose, slender, sometimes growing to a height of 
3 m., leaning on shrubs for support. Branches divaricate. Leaves 
alternate, narrow-lanceolate, entire, nearly glabrous above and white 
woolly beneath, auriculate, 2-15 cm. long, 5 mm. to 3 cm. wide. 
Inflorescence in very long (20-40 cm.), terminal, loose panicles. 
Heads 7-10 mm. high. Flowers all tubular, white. Scales in 2 
series, the outer few and small, inner about 8, pubescent, ciliate. 
About 12 flowers in the heads. Pappus white. 

Trixis OCliroleuca (Cass.), H. and A. in Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag., i, 33. 

Asuncion (842); Pilcomayo River (1010). November-April. 
= Balansa 788. 

Stem very slender, 20-30 cm. high. Leaves mostly in a radical 
tuft, obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, 4-12 cm. long, 1-3 cm. 
wide, unequally dentate, sloping into a short petiole. Cauline leaves 
much smaller, oblong, sessile, acute, sometimes cuspidate. Flowers 
in terminal corymbs, the branches erect, much divided, the ultimate 
peduncles 2-3 cm. long. Heads about 1 cm. high. Scales 1-seriate, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 153 

pubescent, with a purple, almost black tuft of hairs at the apex. 
Corolla white, bilabiate, the exterior lip much the largest and 
3-toothed. The heads are numerous and very pretty. 

Trixis verliasciforiiiis. Less., Linusea, 1830, p. 29. 

Villa Rica (491). January. = Balansa t27. 

A stout yellow-flowered, shrubby ish plant, 4 or 5 feet high, 
occurring in open grounds at Villa Rica. Flowers exceedingly 
numerous, very fragrant. Pappus copious, of deep copper-colored 
bristles. Lobes of the corolla of the same color. A show}^, con- 
spicuous species. 

Jungia floribuuda. Less., L c, 38. 

Luque (306). December. 

A coarse plant 12-24 dm. high. Stem stout, pubescent. Leaves 
alternate, orbicular-cordate, deeply 5-8 lobed, palmately veined, 
nearly glabrous above, velvety pubescent beneath, on petioles 
10-12 cm. long, the largest blades over 20 cm. long, and the same 
in breadth. Stipules large, roundish, broader than long, cordate 
or slightly lobed at base, dentate or angular. Flowers in large, 
spreading, many-forked panicles. Heads 8-12 mm. high, contain- 
ing about 12 flowers. There are only about 5 small, pubescent 
involucral scales in one row. What seem to be an inner series of 
larger scales are really the outer row of palese, as they all enwrap 
a flower. These are oblong, pubescent, 3 or more nerved, ciliate, 
t or 8 mm. in length. Each flower is closely invested by a rigid 
palea. Corolla white, bilabiate, the exterior lip larger, 3-toothed, 
the interior 2-parted. Achenia ribbed, slightly beaked, very slen- 
der, pubescent, 5 mm. long. Bristles of the pappus plumose. 

Hypochaeris lutea (Veil.), Britton. 
Penanthes liitea, VelL, Flor. Flum., 350, viii, t. 91. 
Hijpochceiis Brasiliensis, Griseb., Symb. Flor. Arg., 217. 

Asuncion (799 and 843). October-November. 

Stem slender, striate, pilose with scattered, spreading hairs, 20-30 
cm high. Leaves mostly in a radical tuft, pinnatifid or dentate, 
the largest 5-6 cm. long, 1-1-^ cm. broad. Cauline leaves few, 
linear-lanceolate, clasping, hastate. Inflorescence loosely panicled 
Heads solitary, 1^-2 cm. high; ultimate peduncles 3-10 cm. long. 
Scales biseriate, each with a white webby margin and green centre, 
the outer shorter. Corollas yellow or nearly white, ligulate, the 



154 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

ligule bilabiate, one lip with 3 and one with 2 small teeth. Paleae 
membranaceous, glabrous, acuminate, longer than the achenia, 
Achenia T or 8 mm. long, muricate, long-beaked. Pappus white or 
tawny, plumose. This plant has a milky juice, and the roots are 
ver}^ thick and large. The roots are sometimes used as chicory. 

Soiiclius oleraceus, L., Sp. PI., 794. 

Asuncion (193). November. 

Picrosia longifolia, Don., Trans. Lin. Soc, xvi, 183. 

Asuncion (146); Pilcomayo River (1522). November-May. 
= Balansa 861, and Mandon 28t. 

Picrosia differs from Hypochderis in having entire leaves, the in- 
volucral scales in one series, naked receptacles, beaks of the achenia 
very long and filiform, and the ligules nearly equally 5-toothed. 
The species here noted has weak, glabrous stems and heads solitary 
on long, naked peduncles. The heads when fully mature are 3 cm. 
long, subtended by several small bracts. Achenia fusiform, 14 rib- 
bed, with a beak 5-8 mm. long. Pappus plumose, tawny. Ligules 
conspicuous, pure white. Juice milky. Leaves linear-lanceolate 
or oblanceolate, 10-30 cm. long, the radical with extremely long, 
slender petioles, and the cauline sessile and hastate. It often occurs 
in the streets of Asuncion, creeping from under the curbstones of 
the sidewalks, so weak that it can scarcely keep itself erect. I found 
it on the banks of the Pilcomayo with stems nearly 12 dm. long, 
reclining on the ground at full length. It is called chicory by the 
natives, and the roots used like those of no. 146 as a substitute for 
coffee. 

CAMPANULACEiE. 
Lobelia Xalapensis, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., iii, 315. 

Caballero (443). January. 

20-30 cm. high. Small blue flowers in terminal racemes. Stem 
and branches slender, glabrous. Leaves alternate, ovate-deltoid, 
subcordate or truncate at base, irregularly crenate-dentate, 1-2 cm. 
long, 8-15 mm. broad, shortly petioled. Branches naked for 7-10 
cm. at the summit. 

Ifalilenbergia linarioides (Lam.), A. D. C, Mon. Camp., 158. 

Gran Chaco, near Asuncion (1523); Pilcomayo River (919). 
February -= Balansa 2149. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 155 

Found in fruit only. Stems very slender, glabrous, much and 
strag-gingly branched, 4|^-6 dm. high. Leaves alternate, sparse, 
linear, sessile, acute, 3-15 mm. long. Pods many-nerved, 7 or 8 
mm. long, on bracted pedicels 1-2 cm. long and crowned by 5 rigid, 
persistent .sepals. Seeds brown, shining, nearly orbicular, | mm. 
long. 

PLUMBAGINE^. 
Plumlbago scandens, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 215. 

Asuncion (691). May. 

My specimens exhibited no tendency to climb, but were erect, 
9-12 dm. high. A shrubby plant with alternate, oblong-lanceolate, 
entire, shining leaves, the largest 8-10 cm. long, 6 cm. wide, on 
short wing-margined petioles. Flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx 
tube 1 cm. long, shortly 3-4 lobed at the apex, with 5 green lines 
down the sides, alternating with white membranaceous nerves, beset 
with short, upright hairs each tipped by a small globular gland. 
Corolla white or slightly purplish, with a slender tube 2 cm. long ; 
lobes 5, rotate, oblong. Stamens 4, much exserted ; anthers blue. 
Capsule closely invested by the persistent, glandular calyx. 

PRIMULACEJE. 
Anagallis coerulea, Schreb. Spic. Fl. Lips., 5. 
Buenos Aires (17). October. 

Samolus floribundiis, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., ii, 181. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (925). February. 

The plant which is so common in our country, and which has 
usually been mistaken for 8. Valerandi, L. The Pilcomayo, on 
which it occurs, is a stream of brackish or, when low, of saline 
water. 

MYRSINE^. 

Myrsine Ouyaneiisis (Aublet), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 402. 
Myrsirie floribunda, R. Br. 

Asuncion (757). June. 

A shrub or small tree with grayish, somewhat corrugated bark, 
3-6 m. high Found only in fruit. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous, 



156 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

alternate, entire, obovate, rounded and emarginate at the apex, the 
largest 8 cm. long, 2 cm. broad, sloping into a short petiole. Berries 
purplish, globular, 3-5 mm. in diameter, on pedicels 1-3 mm. long, 
containing a single, large bony seed. The leaves are clustered at 
the ends of the branches. I found the trees covered with flocks of 
birds feeding upon the fruit. 

SAPOTACE^. 

Clirysopliylliiin Martiainim, A. D.C., Prod., viii, 161. 

C. ehenaceum, Mart., var. pedunculatwn, Miq. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vii, 100. 

Asuncion (TOl and 101 a). 

A shrub or small tree 4-5 m. high. Young branches ferruginous- 
downy. Leaves thick, evergreen, glabrous (at least when old), 
alternate, entire, elliptical, rounded or often emarginate at the apex. 
On some trees all or nearly all the leaves are from 15 to 30 mm. 
long and IJ- to 2 cm. wide, on others they vary from 3 to 4 cm. long 
and IJ to 2^ cm. wide. Petioles 2-3 mm. long, canaliculate above. 
Flowers small, in small clusters along the branches, on pubescent 
pedicels 2-4 mm. long. Calyx lobes rounded, pubescent, 5. Petals 
white, twice as long as the calyx. Fruit not seen. The flowering 
branches are mostly short and lateral 

Chrysophylliim niayteiioides, Mart, in A. D.C., 1. c. 

Asuncion (841). May. = Gibert no, 8. 

A tree very similar in appearance to no. tOl. Leaves rather 
more numerous, but quite similar, the largest collected 2-J cm. long, 
8 mm. broad. Petioles 3-4 mm. long. Pedicels 3-5 mm. long, at 
least in fruit. Flowers not seen. Fruit a black, edible, sweet 
berry, about the size of a huckleberry^ containing a single hard, 
brownish globular seed which has a large lunate, dark-bordered 
scar at the base, 

Miquel states in Flora Brasiliensis that this species has a longer 
style than that of C. Martianum, and that the ovules are pendulous 
from the top of the cells instead of ascending from the base as in 
that. 

Sideroxylon reticiilatum, Britton, n. sp. 

A glabrous shrub, 5-7 metres high, the branches densely leafy. Leaves 
coriaceous, short-petioled, obovate, rounded or obtuse at the apex, narrowed 
at the base, 6-10 cm. long, 2-4 cm., wide, entire, dark green both sides, finely 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 157 

reticulate veined ; flowers dioecious, solitary, axillary, white, about 3 mm. 
long ; stamens 5 ; staminodia 5 ; fruit oval or pyriform, as large as a plum, 
the flesh greenish-yellow, sweet, containing 1-4, compressed, shining seeds 
about 15 mm. long and 6 mm. wide. 

Asuncion (839). Same as Balansa's 2389 and 2391, Gibert's no. 
46 from Asuncion, and Gardner's 1977 from Brazil. Near S. Mas- 
tichodendron. Possibly the same as Lucuma loMrifolia, A. D.C. 
Called Aguay, but not the Argentine plant so known. 

I found much of this growing along the course of the river Pilco- 
mayo, where it becomes a tree from 8 to 13 m. in height, with 
leaves in some cases 26 cm. long and 3 cm. wide. The fruit is often 
sold in the market at Asuncion, and is much valued. The flesh, 
though sweet, is somewhat gummy, and may be sucked a long while 
in the mouth before dissolving. I was informed by physicians in 
Asuncion that the bark is used medicinally as a stimulant and for 
strengthening. The native name Aguay is pronounced something 
like Arguaoo. Fruits in January. The wild hog of the country 
or Peccary is quite fond of it, as we found droves of them under 
the trees devouring the fallen plums. 

OLEACE^. 
Jasminum grandiflorum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 9. 

Asuncion (640). April. 

This lovely Jasmine is often cultivated in gardens at Asuncion, 
w^here it is a great favorite. It also runs wild, and climbs over 
hedges and fence rows. The flow^er is large, deliciously fragrant, 
pure white, or in the unopened bud sometimes pink or reddish-pur- 
ple. Leaves pinnate. 

Jasminum reToliitum, Sims, Bot. Mag., 1. 1731. 

Asuncion (836). November. 

A shrub 3-7 dm. in height, often cultivated in Asuncion gardens, 
where it is known as Jasmina. Leaves pinnate, but the leaflets 
are larger than in no. 640. The flowers are yellow, and slightly 
fragrant. I did not see it wild. Probably not a native of the 
country, as it is credited in D.C. Prod, to Nepaul. 

Jasminum Samliac (L.), Ait., Hort. Kew, i, 8. 

Asuncion (148); Pilcomayo River (1524). October-February. 
A shrub from 1 to 3 dm. in height, bearing a pretty, pure white, 



158 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

sweet-scented flower. From 2 to 7 flowers in a cluster on a com- 
mon peduncle. This species has large, ovate, opposite, simple 
leaves. It is both cultivated in flower-gardens and runs wild in 
the country. I found it not only in the vicinity of Asuncion, but 
far up on the Pilcomayo. 

APOCYNACE^. 

Thevetia neriifolia, Juss. ex Steud. ; D.C., Prod., viii, 43. 

Asuncion (642). April-May. 

A shrub or small tree, 3-7 m. high, with milky juice and long, 
linear, glabrous, coriaceous leaves. The flowers are large and 
showy, bright yellow, on filiform, drooping peduncles. The twin 
ovaries become in fruit perfectly united so as to form a 2 or 4-celled 
triangular drupe, containing a thick, hard pulp or aril. This is 
suspended on a long, slender, drooping stalk, soon dropping off. 
It is sometimes cultivated along the borders of walks in gardens, 
where it makes a pretty object. It is the "Cerbera Thevetia^^ of 
Parodi's catalogue, named by him "San Francisco de los Uagas.^^ 

TlicTetia Paraguayeiisis, Britton, u. sp. 

Twigs and pedicels densely velvety-pubescent. Leaves oblanceolate, thick, 
obtuse and cuspidate at the apex, narrowed at the base, glabrate above, 
densely puberulent beneath, 6-10 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide; petioles 3-4 ram. 
long ; flowers racemose or corymbose ; pedicels ascending, 1^-3 cm. long ; calyx 
lobes lanceolate, acuminate, 7-8 mm. long, puberulent ; corolla ampliate, 
about 4 cm. long, the limb longer than the tube ; follicles ovoid, 3 cm. long, 
about ]^ cm. thick ; seeds flat, 1^ cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 2-pointed. 

Gran Chaco, near Asuncion (381). Nearest to T. cuneifolia, 
D.C., of Mexico. January-February. = Balansa 1356. 

A shrub not so tall as 642, but with flowers much like that. The 
stigma is large, umbella-shaped, looking to me like an open parasol 
under the anthers. I did not see it in cultivation. 

Aspidosperma Queliraclio-lilaiicOjSchlecht., Bot. Zeit., xix, 136. 

Pilcomayo River (900). 

This is a large tree with hard white wood and light-colored bark, 
much valued as timber. It has small elliptical, coriaceous, shining 
leaves, tipped with a w^eak spine. It is abundant in Paraguay, but 
I was unable to obtain it in flower or fruit. It is popularly known 
as Quebracho bianco. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 150 

Tinea rosea^ L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 305. 

Asuncion (802). 

Frequently cultivated in flower gardens at Asuncion, and often 
escaping upon the roadsides. A shrub 6-15 dm. high, with a showy 
rose-colored flower, blossoming all the year round. 

Taliernaeniontana australis, Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 
1, 84. Ex descr. 

Trinidad (273). December-January. = Balansa 1358. 

A small tree 6-8 m. in height, very interesting on man}^ accounts. 
It has a milky juice, and smooth, light-colored bark Flowers rather 
small, as white as snow, fragrant, the tube of the corolla of a yel- 
lowish tint, 5-angled, bulging outwardly near the centre, the snowy 
lobes large, rounded at apex, oblique at base, and curving around 
each other convolutely from left to right like a boy's paper wind- 
mill. Ovary of 2 closely united carpels, forming in fruit 2 follicles, 
firmly attached at the base. Follicles large, very milky when young, 
one-celled, with a thick rind which is rough on the outside with 
koobby protuberances. Seeds when young wiih an egg-shaped, 
pellucid, striped body on one side, and a crumpled body looking 
like the meat of an English walnut on the other side. In fruit the 
follicles dehisce laterally in 2 valves, spreading wide open, the 
crumpled body spoken of above becoming a red aril, which finally 
drops off, leaving in the shell many dark seeds which resemble the 
coffee berry in appearance. The people show their appreciation of 
this handsome tree by planting it in their flower-gardens. The 
Guarani name is Gurupicay . The viscous, milky juice is said to 
yield caoutchouc, and is used as a bird lime. The wood is light 
and sometimes employed as a substitute for cork. Parodi states 
that the juice is used by quacks on wounds and as a remedy for 
snake-bites. He thinks that it may serve as a substitute for 
Aconite and Phus Toxicodendron, and is good as a corrosive for 
warts. 

Forsteronia Brasiliensis, A. D.C., Prod., viii, 436. 

Asuncion (712); Pilcomayo River (1525). February-May. 
= Balansa 1369. 

A liana climbing without tendrils over bushes and trees, the main 
trunk somewhat spiny, the branches long and withe-like. Flowers 
small, light yellow, in terminal spikes. Follicles twin, united at 



160 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

base, divaricate, cylindrical, 10-20 cm. long, moniliform, 2-5 in a 
cluster. Seeds far apart, 8-15 in a follicle, elliptical, about 1 cm. 
in length, striate, with a beautiful, tawny silky plume of hairs at 
the summit, which spreads wide open when loosened. Juice not 
milky. Found in Central Paraguay, and far up on the Pilcomayo. 

Forsteronia piiliescens, A. D.C., 1. c. 

Asuncion (810). October. 

Differs from no. ^2 in having the young branches and leaves 
fuscous-pubescent, larger leaves (the largest 9 cm. long, 3J cm. 
broad), longer petioles (10 or 12 mm.), and very fragrant white 
flowers in terminal compound spikes 6-10 cm. long. 

Ecliites trifida, Jacq., Hist. Stirp. Amer., 31, t. 24. 

Near Asuncion (380) ; Pilcomayo Kiver (895). January. 
= Balansa 1372. 

A liana similar in general appearance to no. 712, but with very 
different flowers and follicles. Corolla light purple, 2 cm. high, 
with 5 broad lobes, which lap over each other dextrorsely and curl 
downwards. Follicles cylindrical, not moniliform, tapering to a 
long sharp point, 25 cm. in length. Juice milky. Seeds clothed with 
very long, tawny, plumose hairs. Twining over shrubs 2J-3 m. 

Macrosiplionia longiflora (Desf.), Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras., 
vi, pt. 1, 140. Ex descr. 

Between Yiila Rica and Escoba (420). January. 

Macrosiplionia Terticillata, Muell. Arg., 1. c, 141. Ex descr. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (420 a). January. 

These two species of Macrosiplionia grow on the open campo 
near Escoba, and are very peculiar and beautiful. Stems 20-30 cm. 
high. Flowers large, purple, solitary, on long terminal peduncles. 
The leaves in no. 420 ovate and opposite, in 420 a linear and verti- 
cillate, green above and white woolly beneath. Fruit long, some- 
what moniliform follicles. Seeds covered with long, tawny, plumose 
hairs, which spread wide open when loosened. Tube of flowers 
campanulate, lobes several, very broad and spreading, with a 
crimped border. The dried specimens give a very poor appearance 
of the flower when fresh. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. IGl 

ASCLEPIADE^. 

Araujia grandiflora (Mart, et Zucc), Morong. 
Schubertia grandiflora, Mart, et Zucc, Nov. Gen., i, 57. 

Asuncion (654) ; Pilcomayo River (654 a). January-April. 
= Balansa 1338, and Martius' Herb. Flor. Bras., 279. 

A beautiful vine climbing over trees and shrubs 10 m. or more. 
Stem beset with tawny bristles, and that and the leaves discharg- 
ing a copious milky secretion when wounded. Flowers in large 
clusters, the corolla white, showy, and fragrant, 4 cm. in length. 
Fruit a very large and heavy follicle 10-15 cm. in length, and 
covered with spiny protuberances. 

Araujia sericifera, Brot., Trans. Lin. Soc, xii, 62. 

Asuncion (77t). May. = Balansa 1332. 

Differs much from 654, though climbing and copiously milky like 
that. Whole vine, except the upper surface of the leaves, hoary 
with close white down. Flowers small, white, not conspicuous. 
Follicles as large as those of 654, but smooth and hoary white. 

Araujia Stormiana, Morong, n. sp. 

Climbing high upon trees. Stems terete, strong, canescent. Leaves oppo- 
site, very green and glabrous above, white tomentose beneath, hastate, the 
lobes obtuse, or sometimes merely dilated at the base, oblong-lanceolate above, 
the largest 16 cm. long, 6 cm. broad across the basal lobes, 2^ cm. broad at 
the middle; petioles 1^-2|^ cm. long. Calyx lobes green, pubescent, oblong, 
obtuse, erect, about half as long as the corolla. Corolla 5-7 mm. high, 5-lobed, 
the lobes greenish-yellow, glabrous above, a little pubescent below, spreading 
rotately in anthesis, 5 mm. long. Corona 5-lobed, the lobes 2-toothed, the 
teeth projecting against the gynostegium, hairy at the base inside and usually 
filled with a honey secretion. Apex of the stigma 2-horned. Fruit not seen. 
The flowers are in axillary clusters on slender pedicels 5-8 mm. long. 

This plant occurs with no. 1043 near the Pilcomayo Falls (1044). 
May. Named in honor of Prof. 0. J. Storm, who commanded our 
Pilcomayo expedition. 

Gothofreda oblongifolia, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem not climbing, erect, white pubescent. Leaves opposite, oblong, rounded 
at base or semi-cordate, abruptly acute or cuspidate at the apex, pubescent on 
both sides, midrib prominent beneath, the blades 3-5 cm. long, 1-2^ cm. wide, 
on petioles 2-7 mm. long. Flowers on axillary peduncles 2-3^ cm. long, 8-12 
in the umbel ; pedicels pubescent, 4-7 mm. long. Calyx very deeply 5-parted, 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Feb. 1893.— 11 



162 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

the lobes erect, linear, acute, pubescent, not quite as long as the tube of the 
corolla, 1 or 2 glandular in each axil. Corolla about 7 mm. high, greenish, 
pubescent, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, pubescent at the junction with the 
stamineal crown inside, at length reflexed. Segments of the crown connate 
with the throat and the gynostegium, light purple on the back and almost 
violet-tinted on the face, J as long as the corolla lobes. Caudicle not dilated, 
the teeth erect and very short. Apex of the stigma entire, longer than the 
corolla lobes. Fruit not seen. 

A half shrubby plant, 4-6 dm. high, with milky juice, growing- 
in waste grounds at Asuncion (110). November. 

Ootliofreda eriantlia (Dcsne.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 420. 
Orypetalum erianthum, Dcsne., D.C., Prod., viii, 584. 

Asuncion (655). April. = Balansa 1335. 

Clambering over low bushes in thickets, and producing a great 
number of intertwisting branches. Flowers small, white, fragrant, 
in axillary clusters. Tube of corolla short, lobes long, linear, 
spreading. Stigma produced into 2 long, strap-shaped appendages. 
Stem, leaves, pedicels, calyx, and corolla all densely villous or 
woolly. Fruit a large conical, smoothish follicle. This plant, like 
many other Asclepiadaceous species, is an insect-catcher. On one 
occasion I found a large moth completely imprisoned by a flower, 
and struggling desperately to get loose, but in vain. It had thrust 
its proboscis into the corolla in search of nectar and was unable to 
withdraw it, although a powerful insect — in fact, as large as one of 
the smaller humming-birds, and for that reason called the humming- 
bird moth. 

Ootliofreda gracilis, Morong, n. sp. 

A slender vine climbing over bushes and shrubs. All the parts except the 
petals grayish tomentose. Leaves opposite, cordate, acuminate, H-4 cm. 
long, 6 mm, to 2 cm. wide, on petioles 3-15 mm. long. Flowers greenish- 
white, axillary, in 2s, on peduncles 5 or 6 mm. long; pedicels 8-15 mm. long. 
Sepals 5, green, erect, subulate, with 1 or more glands in each axil, about 4 
mm. long ; corolla so deeply lobed as to appear of 5 separate petals, the lobes 
erect, oblong, obtuse at the apex, 10 or 12 mm. long, 2-3 mm. in breadth, 
glabrous on both sides. Scales of the crown barely adnate at the base with 
tlie corolla lobes, 5 or 6 mm. long, bifid lialf-way up, the divisions beautifully 
fringed. Caudicles scarcely dilated, slightly gibbous ; the gland oval, very 
short. Gynostegium truncate, with 5 bluntish lobes at the top. This vine is 
much branched, twining densely upon itself. Fruit not seen. 

Occurring at El Obraje de Pedro Gill on the Pilcomayo River 
(866). January. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 163 

Asclepias campestris, Dosne., 1. c, 566. 

Luque (333). December. 

The petals of this species are greenish in the centre and white on 
the margins, thrice as long as the sepals, Teflexed. Corona purplish 
in tint. Leaves entire, opposite, glabrous, elliptical, 6-8 cm, long, 
2-3 cm. wide, nearly or quite sessile. Flowers 20 or more in the 
umbel. Fruit not seen. 

Asclepias CurassaTica, L., Sp. PL, 215. 

Asuncion (47). November. 

A beautiful species, reminding one of our A. tuberosa, which it 
much resembles in the color of its flowers. Common in copses 
around Asuncion. Flowers in small umbels, petals red and the 
hoods and gynostegium bright orange. It flowers nearly the whole 
season from November to April. Fruit a follicle much like that of 
A. incarnata. 

Asclepias mellodora, St. Hil., PI. Rem. Bres., 227. 

Caballero (603). January. 

A low species with white flowers in large umbels. On the rail- 
road track at Caballero and on the campo in the vicinity. The 
leaves are numerous, lanceolate, opposite, entire, slightly pubes- 
cent, acuminate, rounded at base, 10-12 cm. long, 1-3 cm. wide, 
nearly or quite sessile. Umbels numerous and very conspicuous 
when in flower. Follicles very similar to those of no. 47. 

Ditassa bumilis, Morong, n. sp. 

Many-branched from the base, suffruticose, from thick, ligneous roots. 
Stems very slender, 8-15 cm. high, grayish pubescent. Leaves opposite, 
entire, ovate, acute or acuminate and mucronate at the apex, truncate or 
more or less cordate at base, sparsely hispid on either side, hispid ciliate and 
more or less recurved on the margins, the pairs decussate, slightly overlapping 
each other, 6-15 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; petioles about 2 mm. long. Flowers 
white, 4 or 5 mm. high, in small umbels, 2-4 in the umbel, axillary or supra- 
axillary; peduncles 2-5 mm. long; pedicels 5 or 6 mm. long. Sepals subu- 
late, somewhat longer than the tube of the corolla, hispid. Corolla deeply 
5-parted, the lobes lanceolate, acuminate, 3 or 4 mm. long, hispid outside, 
glabrous within. Scales of the corona much longer than the gynostegium, 
muticous, the inner and outer ones about the same length. Apex of the 
stigma protuberant. The sepals are more or less but not conspicuously 
glandular in the axils. Pollinia as long as the glands ; caudicles minute. 
Sepals and corolla lobes erect. 



164 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

This little plant occurs on the Gran Campo among grass. 
Near Luqiie (336). December. = Balansa 1375. 

JVforrenia odorata, Lind., Bot. Reg., t., 1838. 

Asuncion (134); Pilcomayo River (1043). November-May. 
= Mandon, Bolivia, 355, and Balansa 1341. 

A noble vine climbing over shrubs and trees, found in thickets 
throughout the country. Flowers w^hite, very fragrant Inside of 
the corolla is an erect 5-lobed corona, the truncate lobes 2 toothed, 
projecting in a flap over the gynostegium. Stem and leaves canes- 
cent, copiously milky. Leaves opposite, cordate or hastate, abruptly 
curving into a long acute point, the largest 10 cm. in length. Fruit 
an immense ovate follicle, sometimes 10 cm. long and 7 cm. broad 
at the base. Seeds black, somewhat angled and tuberculate, linear, 
6 mm. long, surmounted by a soft white silky coma 4-5 cm. long. 
This plant is often cultivated in gardens at Asuncion, and the 
abundant coma is used for making pillows, for which purpose it is 
well fitted, as it is as soft as eider down. 

Iloulinia Fliimiiiensis^ Dcsne., 1. c, 517. 

Asuncion (183); Pilcomayo Riv'er (1037). November-May. 

Stem glabrous below, pubescent above and on the inflorescence. 
Leaves deeply cordate, ovate, abruptly acute, glabrous, 5-7 cm. 
long, 3-5 cm. broad. Flowers in axillary clusters, 8-20 in the 
cluster ; pedicels 1-1^ cm. long. Sepals erect, greenish in the 
middle, white on the edges, obtuse, not half as long as the corolla. 
Corolla lobes pointed, white without, dark purple or with purple 
lines in the middle of the interior and yellowish on the margins, 6 
or 7 mm. long. Corona of 5 scales, inflexed at the top in a spoon- 
like projection. Stigma truncate. Fruit a smooth ovate pod 6-8 
cm. long, 3-4 cm. broad at the base. This plant on the Pilcomayo 
was growing in the water of the great laguna, twining about shrubs 
that rose above the surface. At Asuncion it was in thickets. 
Probably the laguna was an overflow of water, though we did not 
remain there long enough to determine that. 

Sarcostemma Bonariense, H. and A., Jour. Bot., 1834, p. 296. 

Asuncion (681). April. = Balansa 136; collected also by Gibert. 

Stems climbing over high bushes and trees, glabrous except on 

the young shoots. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acute and mucronate 



Hants Collected in Paraguay. 165 

at the apex, pubescent when young, becoming glabrate, the largest 
6 cm, long by 2 cm. wide. Flowers creamy white, in umbellate 
clusters, 6-20 in the umbel, on peduncles as long as or longer than 
the leaves. Pedicels lJ-2 cm. long. Peduncles, pedicels, calyx, and 
corolla sericeous-pubescent. Corolla lobes ovate, obtuse, ciliate, 5 
or 6 mm. long. Inner scales of the crown as high as the gynoste- 
gium, the exterior ones nearly entire. Stigma apiculate, the apex 
shortly bifid. Fruit a large ovate follicle, 6-8 em. long, sometimes 
2, united at the base. The flowers are very fragrant, and much 
frequented by wasps and other insects. 

Sarcostemma Mfidum, Fourn. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 4, 235. Ex 
descr. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (1526). January. 

Climbing high Stems mostly glabrous, the young shoots pubes- 
cent. Leaves oval, narrowed and rounded at the base, or the lowest 
cordate, obtuse, and strongly mucronate at the apex, glabrous above, 
more or less pubescent below, 4-5 cm. long, 1-2|- cm. broad ; petioles 
silky pubescent, 3-6 mm. long. Internodes 6-12 cm. long. Flowers 
white, in axillary umbels. Peduncles robust, 8-10 cm. long, 10-20 
flowered. Pedicels about 2 cm. long, pubescent. Calyx and corolla 
silky pubescent, lobes of the former ovate, obtuse, surpassing the 
corolla tube, of the latter ovate, 5 or 6 mm. long and woolly ciliate 
as well as pubescent. Inner scales of the crown surpassing the 
gynostegium, the outer a mere border nearly entire or sinuous. 
Stigma conoidal, with a short bifid beak. Fruit a large ovate fol- 
licle like that of no. 681.' 

Sarcostemma carpopliylloides, Morong, n. sp. 

A very slender vine twining 2-5 m. or more over shrubs. Stems striate, 
very glabrous, much branched, the main stem below squarish, often brownish 
in color. Leaves delicate, opposite, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 
entire, 4r-6 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, sloping acuminately into a capillary, 
channelled petiole 3-5 mm. long. Internodes 5-10 cm. long. Flowers white, 
few, in small axillary clusters, 2-4 in a cluster, 3 or 4 mm. high, and 5 mm. 
in diameter when expanded. Peduncles not over ]0 mm. long. Calyx deeply 
5-parted, greenish-yellow, the lobes obtuse, pubescent without, minutely 
glandular in the axils, 1-lj mm. long. Corolla deeply 5 parted, lobes erect, 
oblong, obtuse, slightl}'- pubescent at the base within, about 3 mm. long. 
Scales of the corona pure white, adnate to the gynostegium, the inner cylin- 
drical, higher than the gynostegium, the outer much smaller, 10 cuneate-lobed. 
Stigma truncate or slightly conoidal. Follicles very slender, silky downy, 



166 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

acuminately pointed at the apex, 3-6 cm. long, easily mistaken for leaves. 
Seeds flat, wing-margined, oblong, narrowing towards the base, papillose, 5 
or 6 mm. long ; coma white, plumose, 2-3 cm. long. 

Pilcomayo Falls, Pilcomayo River (1004). April. 

Exolobus patens, Four, in Mart. Fl. Bras., vi, pt. 4, 318, t. 94. Ex 
descr. 

Pilcomayo River (1051). June. 

A branching liana, in deep woods, running 10 or 12 m. over large 
trees, the stem 10-20 mm. in diameter. Flowers olivaceous in 
color, rotate, 2J cm. in diameter when expanded ; petals acuminate, 
and 3 or 4 times as long as the ciliate sepals. The stigma is sur- 
mounted by a beautiful 5-pointed star. Follicle ovate, glabrous, 
10-12 cm long, 6-8 cm. in diameter at the base, ridged by 4 sharp 
longitudinal wings, with a partial, broader wing between two of the 
others, the edges of all of them revolute. Seeds flat, obcuneate, 
*r mm. long, with thick winged margins, the attached plume very 
long and silky. 

LOGANIACEJE. 
Spigelia Humlioldtiana, C. and S., Linnsea, 1833, p. 200. 

Pilcomayo River (966). March. 

A low plant occurring in deep woods. The corolla is white, the 
flowers in terminal spikes 3-5 cm. long, two spikes together. Leaves 
verticillate, in 4s, the lowest smaller and opposite. 

Buddleia tubiflora, Benth. in D.C. Prod., X, 433. 

La Plata, Arg. Republic, and Asuncion (33). = Balansa 1018. 

Buddleia Brasiliensis^ Jacq. ex Spreng., System., i, 430. 

Pilcomayo River (1521). = Balansa 1019. 

This differs from the species common around Asuncion (B. tuhi- 
Jiora) in having the leaves more or less petioled, much smaller and 
axillary cymes, and a much smaller corolla. Both have handsome 
orange-colored flowers. B. tuhiflora is used medicinally as an 
emollient by the Paraguayans. They flower from October to May, 
and sometimes grow to a height of 2 or 3 m. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 167 

GENTIANEJE. 
Limnantbeiiiuini Huiiil>oldtiaiiuin, Griseb., Grent., 347. 

Near Asuncion (713). 

A beautiful aquatic, common in pools northeast of Asuncion, 
flowering from January to May. Leaves almost as large as those 
of Casfalia odorata, and often 2 or 3. Corolla white, beautifully 
fringed on the margins of the lobes, yellow inside below the lobes. 
Anthers black on the back and edges of the cells. Stigma large 
with 2 erect, crimped lobes. Ovary large, pointed, violet-colored. 

HYDROPHYLLACE^. 
Hydrolea spinosa, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 328. 

Asuncion (228). December-January. 

A coarse herb 6-9 dm. high, with many of the short lower 
branches euding in a sharp thorn. Flowers a bright blue. The 
whole plant covered with unequal glandular hairs, which adhere 
strongly to the drying-paper. Occurs in wet grounds. 

BORAGINE^. 
Cordia glabrata, A. D.C. Prod., ix, 473. 

Asuncion (792). October. 

A tree 8-13 m. high, with smooth bark, looking something like a 
poplar. Leaves large, round-ovate, thick, glabrous, shining above, 
lighter-colored beneath. Flowers a light purple, showy, in terminal 
corymbs. 

Cordia taermaniiiaefolia, Cham., Linnaea, 1829, p. 484. 

Asuncion (156); Pilcomayo River (987). November-April. 

Yery different from the preceding species. A straggling, rough 
hairy shrub 15-24 dm. high. Leaves alternate, ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, serrate, lighter colored above, hispid on both sides, acute, 
4-6 cm. long, 2-4 cm. broad, on short petioles. Flowers glomerate 
in small cymes; corolla very small, obscurely 5-lobed, yellowish- 
white, veined with a delicate lilac outside. Calyx hispid. Fruit 
oval, about 5 mm. long, when fully ripe turning red, and the 2 cells 
hardening into an apparently single seed. 



168 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Tournefortia psilostacliya, H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Sp., iii, 78. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (1041). May. = Balansa 2045. 

A shrub about 12 dm. high, with long virgate branches rising 
from near the base. Flowers in panicled secund spikes, small, 
greenish-yellow. Drupes yellow when ripe. 

Tournefortia Salzmaniii, D.C., Prod., ix, 524. 

Asuncion (800). October. 

Similar in inflorescence to no. 1041, but this has 2 rows of secund 
spikes on the branches of the panicle, while that has only one row. 
A twining shrub, climbing 2-3 m. upon trees, with a velvety ful- 
vous tomentum on the leaves beneath, white pubescent above. Stem 
also fulvous-tomentose. In thickets. 

Heliotropiiim CurassaTicum, L., Sp. PL, 130. 

Asuncion (790); Pilcomayo River (1058). October-June. 

This Heliotropium with scirpoid racemes of bluish-white flowers 
sprang up abundantly on the muddy flats of the Paraguay after 
the subsidence of a freshet, and also occurred on the borders of a 
saline pool on the banks of the Pilcomayo known as Laguna de las 
Palmas. 

Heliotropium Indicuni, L., Sp. PL, 130. 

Asuncion (56). November-January. 

This plant occurs abundantly in the streets and waste grounds of 
the city, becoming an unsightly weed. 

Heliotropium leiocarpum, Morong, n. sp. 

Suffruticose, 3-6 dm. high. Stems glandular, fuscous-tomentose, much 
branched. Leaves opposite, subopposite or occasionally alternate, more or 
less glandular downy and pubescent or sometimes strigose on both sides, 
ovate, entire, or somewhat crenate or wavy on the margins, obtuse at the 
apex, rounded or subcordate at the base ; blades 3-10 cm. long, 1^-5 cm. 
wide; petioles 3-5 cm. long. Flowering racemes 3 or 4 together, 3-7 cm. 
long. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, the lobes subulate, glandular hairy, half as long 
as the corolla. Corolla bright blue, with a yellow eye at the base inside, very 
hairy in the throat, the tube spreading into a 5 crimped lobed border, 5 or 6 
mm. high. Fruit depressed globose, smooth, glabrous, about 3 mm. long and 
a little wider, slightly longer than the persistent sepals, deeply furrowed on 
2 sides, the lobes not divaricate or toothed at the top, splitting into 2 carpels, 
each 1-seeded, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 169 

This plant is aiore robust, with much more showy flowers than 
no. 56, and is common in waste grounds and copses about Asuncion 
(634 and 786). April-August. = Balansa 2031 and 2039. These 
were distributed as H. Indicum, L. 

Heliotropium iniiiidatiiiii, Sw., Flor. Ind. Occ, i, 343. 
Asuncion (77); Gran Chaco (77 a). November-January. 

Heliotropium persicariaefoliiim (D.C.), Britton. 

Heliophytum persicaricefolium, D.C., Prod., ix, 556. 

Caballero (409); Asuncion (754). January-June. 

This shrub sometimes attains a height of 2 m. Flowers small, 
white, in elongated bifid spikes. In open grounds, roadsides near 
San Lorenzo and Caballero. 

Heliotropium fruticosum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 187. Ex descr. 

Pilcomayo River (1528). January. = Balansa 2035. 

Fruticose. Stems slender, branching, appressed-hispid. Flower- 
ing branches opposite, 15-25 cm. long, covered with small bracts for 
their whole length. Spikes at their summit, short, solitary, more 
or less scirpoid. Flowers comparatively large, white Calyx lobes 
unequal, oblong-lanceolate, about equal to the tube of the corolla, 
pubescent. Fruit pubescent, without a beak, splitting into 4 nut- 
lets, each of which has a large pit on its face. 

CONYOLYULACE^. 

Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl.), R. and S., Syst., iv, 228. 

Asuncion (699). 

A very pretty species, with slender stems and lilac flowers, twin- 
ing over bushes and small shrubs. Common in Paraguay, and 
blossoming from November to May. 

Ipomcea argyreia (Chois.), Meisn. in Mart. Fl. Bras., vii, 246. 

Caballero (583 and 583 a). January. 

One of the shrubby Ipomoeas, of which several species occur in 
the country. This grows on the railroad track near Caballero, and 
is from 9 to 12 dm. in height. Leaves alternate, entire, oblong, 
obtuse or acute, mucronate. Corolla large, rose-colored. 



170 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Iponicea Assumptionis, Britton, n. sp. 

Section Strophipomoea. Pubescent, twining, 1-2 m. long, stems terete ; 
leaves slender-petioled, thick, hastate, entire-margined, obtuse and mucronu- 
late at the apex, 6-9 cm. long, the basal lobes spreading or reflexed ; pedun- 
cles shorter than the petioles, axillary, 1-2-flowered ; flowers purple, 2 bracted, 
the bracts ovate, aristate ; pedicels 5-15 mm. long, slender, bracted at the 
base ; corolla purple, 3-4 cm. broad, tubular-funnel-form, the limb nearly 2 
cm. broad ; calyx-lobes aristate. 

Gran Chaco, near Asuncion (584). =: Balansa 1060. January- 
February. 

Ipomoea amnicola, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem slender, terete, striate, glabrous, twining. Leaves glabrous, entire, 
cordate-ovate, the sinus large, basal lobes rounded and sometimes divaricate, 
running to a bluntly acuminate, mucronate apex, the largest blades 7 cm. 
long, ^^ cm. broad ; petioles 3-6 cm. long. Peduncles about 2 cm. long, 
usually bearing 3 flowers on pedicels 1-1^ cm. long, both peduncles and pedi- 
cels thick. Flowers funnel-form. Calyx of 5 rounded, entire, nearly or quite 
equal, coriaceous, mucronate sepals, their edges becoming membranaceous, 4 
or 5 mm. long. Corolla lilac, with purplish stripes outside and a deep purple 
interior base, obscurely 5-lobed, 2-2|^ cm. long, about as broad across the 
mouth when expanded. Stamens and style included. Pod conical, 8-11 mm. 
long, about half as broad, 2-celled, usually containing 2 fuscous-pubescent 
seeds. 

This species resembles 7. coccinea, L., but diflfers decidedly in the 
shape and lack of horns on the sepals, the color and shape of the 
corolla, inclusion of the stamens and styles, as well as in other 
characters. Growing in thickets and hanging over the banks of 
the Pilcomayo, usually running over bushes (974). March-April. 

Ipomoea Batatas (L.), Lam. Encyc, vi, 14? 
Asuncion (103). November. 

Ipomoea Bona-nox, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 228. 

Asuncion (269). December-April. 

Ipomoea fistlllosa. Mart. ; Chois. in D.C., Prod., ix, 349. 

Asuncion (80). November-March. 

A stout shrub, growing on the lowlands on the banks of the 
Paraguay at Asuncion, 15-24 dm. in height. Many stems spring 
from the same root. Wood soft, with a large pith, and secreting a 
scanty milky juice. Flowers terminal, solitary or in small clusters. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 171 

Corolla very large and showy, a light purple or rose color .with- 
out, and darker within. Capsules large, ovate, the 4 valves thick, 
brownish, opening wide in dehiscence, and containing 2-4 3-sided 
seeds, which are thickly clothed with a long fuscous wool. 

Ipomoea JVIartiiiicensis (Jacq.), Mey. Esseq., 98. 

Gran Chaco, near Asuncion (362). December-January. 

Procumbent or twining, with w^hite flowers but little over 2 cm. 
long. It reminded me at the time of collection of our Convolvulus 
arvensis. The leaves, however, are elliptical instead of being sagit- 
tate. 

Ipomcea lHorongii, Britton, n. sp. 

Erect or ascending, minutely puberulent at least abov^e, 0.5 m. or more long. 
Stems angled ; leaves petioled, the lower large, sometimes 2 dm. long and 
nearly as broad, 3-lobed to the middle or beyond, the lobes lanceolate, acute 
or acuminate, entire or very nearly so, mucronulate ; upper leaves ovate, 
entire or lobed ; flowers corymbose, numerous ; ultimate pedicels short ; calyx- 
lobes ovate, obtusish, 4-6 mm. long; corolla funnel-form (blue?), abruptly 
narrowed within the calyx, 6-7 cm. long, 4-5 cm. broad at the summit. 

Luque (303). Perhaps the Mio-Mio, of Parodi, Contrib. PI. Par., 
i, 16. 

One of the shrubby Ipomoeas, growing 9-12 dm. in height, vary- 
ing much in different localities. The flowers are large, rose-tinted, 
purple at the base within ; the tube covered with white, appressed 
hairs. The corolla is sometimes 8 cm. in length, and nearly as 
much in diameter when expanded. It occurs in open grounds at 
Asuncion and near the railroad track at Luque, flowering from 
December to May. 

Ipomoea tricliocarpa. Ell., Bot. S. Car. and Georgia, i, 258. 
/. commutata, R. and S., Syst., iv, 228. 

Asuncion (253). December. 

Ipomoea tulierculata (Desr.), R. and S., 1. c, 208. 

Asuncion (237). = Balansa 1059. 

Taken altogether the handsomest Morning-glory of the country. 
It grows everywhere in the woods, climbing over trees 10 m. or 
more in height, and hanging out a rich profusion of lovely flowers, 
which open at sunrise and continue open for half the day. The 
leaves are palmately 5-lobed, the 2 lower lobes divided, very gla- 



172 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

brous and of a dark glossy green, on long petioles. Corolla 5-t cm. 
long, funnel-form, a light bluish-purple without, and a deep, dark 
purple at the base within. Capsule depressed-globose, 2-celled, 
4-seeded ; seeds black, trigonous, puberulent, the hilum marked 
with a deep scar. Specific name from the stem, which is white and 
warty. Blossoms from December to May. 

Ipomoea umbellata (L.), Mejer, 1. c, 99. 

Asuncion (649). April. 

Procumbent or twining over bushes, the stem purplish or dark 
green, covered with a close stiff down. Juice milky. Leaves 
cordate-sagittate, large, downy. Flowers a light yellow, umbel- 
late, 20 or more in an umbel, on peduncles 8-15 cm. long. Corolla 
trumpet-shaped, with scarcely any lobes, about 3 cm. long. Cap- 
sules globular, Y or 8 mm. high, 4-seeded ; seeds fuscous with 
minute pubescence on the surface and silky pubescence on the 
angles. 

Jacquemontia Blanchetii, Moric, PI. Nouv. Amer., 41, t. 27. 

Asuncion (638 and 687). April-May. 

Twining over herbs and shrubs, with pretty little, bright blue, 
campanulate flowers, in umbels of 5-20, on long peduncles. Com- 
mon in thickets. 

Jacqiiemontia Paraguayensis, Britton, n. sp. 

Erect, branching, at least 0.5 m. high, densely and finely brownish-pubes- 
cent throughout. Stems and branches terete ; leaves short-petioled, oblong, 
obtuse and mucronate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the base, entire, 3-4 
cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide ; peduncles axillary, shorter than the leaves, umbel- 
lately 2-5 flowered ; pedicels 3-5 mm. long ; calyx-lobes all alike, ovate- 
oblong, acute, about as long as the pedicels ; corolla white, narrowly funnel- 
form or nearly tubular, 10-12 mm. long ; capsule ovoid, glabrous, shorter 
than the calyx. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (594). January. 

Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.), Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.,474. 

Asuncion (679). April. 

Trailing on the ground for several metres in old cultivated fields. 
Stem pildse with long, appressed white hairs. Flowers in dense, 
fuscous-woolly heads, on peduncles 8-12 cm. long. Sepals 5, 
clothed with long hairs, nearly equalling the corolla. Corolla tubu- 
lar, light blue, white-blotched, slightly projected beyond the calyx. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 173 

ETOlvlllllS sericeilS, Sw., Prod. Flor. Ind. Occ, 55. 

Luque (340). October-January. 

A little herb spreading flat on the ground for some 10 cm. or 
more, branching numerously from the base. Flowers small, in 
leafy racemes or scattered along the stem, bright white, the corolla 
spreading wide open, and looking as much like a pearl shirt button 
as anything to which 1 could liken it. Common in the hard soil of 
the railroad track near Luque. 

£to1tu1us mucronatus, Sw. ex Wickstr., Guadal., 62. 

Pilcomayo River (1020). May. 

A small creeping plant, with terete, hairy, branching stem, grow- 
ing among undershrubs on the borders of the campo at the Falls of 
the Pilcomayo. Leaves sparse, alternate, simple, entire, elliptical, 
mucronulate, 2-2J cm. long, on petioles 3 or 4 mm. long. Flowers 
small, solitary, axillary, on pedicels 8 mm. to ^^ cm. long, jointed 
about half-way up, with 2 small bracts at the joint. Sepals 5, oval, 
green, ciliate, about half the length of the corolla. Corolla white, 
campanulate, with 5 broad lobes of very delicate texture, 7 mm. 
high. This plant is so hidden by the shrubbery that it is easily 
overlooked. 

CllSCUta trichostyla, Engelm., Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., i, 495. 

Asuncion (259). November-December. 

The only Guscuta that I found in Paraguay. This was growing 
upon Solidago polyglossa. Flowers small, white, crowded in small, 
glomerated cymes. The capsule which Dr. Engelman did not see 
is yellow, the crust thin, depressed-globose, 5 mm. wide, 3 mm. high, 
not half covered by the persistent sepals, with a central aperture 1 
mm. in diameter ; seeds about 2 mm. long, minutely downy, flat- 
tened or obscurely 3-angled. 

SOLANACE^. 

Solanum aridum, Moroug, n. sp. 

Stem shrubby, terete, 3 dm. to 1 m. in height, sparsely branched, armed 
with straight acicular prickles, or sometimes unarmed or armed only at the 
base, glabrous below and stellately downy at the summit, usually leafless 
below. Leaves simple, alternate, oblong or ovate, obtuse, entire or with large 
teeth or occasionally lobed, pubescent, green above and white hoary below, 
most of the pubescence stellate ; blade 3-5 cm. long and 1-2 cm. broad ; 
petioles pubescent, 5-10 mm. long. Flowers solitary, axillary, on pedicels 



174 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

about 1^ cm. long, thickening and elongating to 4 cm. in fruit. Calyx stell- 
ately pubescent, | as long as corolla, the lobes nearly subulate, much longer 
than the tube. Corolla sulphur-yellow, plicate, deeply cleft, pubescent out- 
side, 2 cm. in diameter when expanded. Calyx and corolla usually 5-lobed, 
occasionally 4-lobed. Filaments very short ; anthers nearly 1 cm. long, the 
pores minute, looking upwards. Stigma green, capitate. Ovary 2-celled. 
Fruit very large, glabrous, yellow, 2-celled, globular, 1^3 cm. in diameter. 

The plant grows in dry or rocky places on the campo, and has a 
parched, dried appearance. 

Falls of the Pilcomayo (lOOt). April-May. 

Solanum atropurpureum, Schrank, Syll. PL Nov., 200. 

Pilcomayo River (871). January. 

Stem shrubby, erect, beset with long, white or yellowish down- 
wardly pointed spines. Leaves large, green, deeply 5-7 lobed. 
Flowers small, yellowish-white. Berry blotched white and green, 
8-10 cm. in diameter. 

Solanum 'boerhaaTiaefoliuin, Sendtn. in Mart. Fl. Bras., xiii, pt, 
1, 48. 

Between Pirayu and Jaguaron (34). April. 

Stem shrubby, without spines, climbing on trees 3-5 m., very 
leafy. Flowers in cymes on capillary peduncles, white or very light 
blue. Berries black, about the size of those of S. nigrum. 

Solannm Brittonianuiu, Morong, n. sp. 

A shrubby, unarmed, glabrous plant. Stem erect below, twining at the top 
over the limbs of shrubs, 6-8 feet high, strongly flattened, angled. Leaves 
lanceolate, glabrous, entire, acute or somewhat obtuse, 5-10 cm. long and |— 2 
cm. broad, sloping at base into a petiole 5-20 mm. in length. Flowers in 
large, terminal, laxly panicled cymes. Calyx one-third the length of the 
corolla, the lobes ovate or rounded, somewhat mucronulate, shorter than the 
tube. Corolla lobes much shorter than the tube, ovate, puberulent on the 
outside. Filaments somewhat flattened, scarcely 1 mm. long ; anthers 6-8 
mm. long, the terminal pores introrse, oblique. Style included ; stigmas 
shortly clavate, entire or sometimes 2-lobed. 

Banks of the Pilcomayo (1531). January. 
Solaniim Caavurana, Veil., FL Flum., ii, 1. 112. 

Pilcomayo River (870). January. 

Shrubby, erect, thornless, branching, about 6 dm. high. Leaves 
large, ovate-lanceolate, twin, on short petioles. Flowers small^ 
white. Berries as large as peas, smooth, greenish. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 175 

Solanum Capsicastrum, Link., Cat. Hort. Berol. 

Asuncion (617); Pilcomayo River (1529). =^ Balansa 209T. 
January-March. 

A low shrub, 3-6 dm. high, with rough, straggling stems. 
Flowers white, not over 5 mm. in diameter when expanded. 
Stem, petioles, and leaves covered with a close, white, glandular, 
stellate pubescence. Fruit solitary along the stem, or in small 
clusters, a smooth red berry somewhat larger than a pea. Com- 
mon in thickets throughout Central Paraguay. 

Solanum graniiloso-leprosuiiifDniial., D.C., Prod,, xiii, pt. 1, 115. 

Asuncion (139). November- January. 

A tall thornless shrub, thick-stemmed, covered in all its parts 
with a hoary, scurfy, stellate pubescence. Leaves numerous, large, 
ovate-lanceolate, on long petioles, rough with stellate pubescence 
above, whitish beneath. Stipules very large, round or oval, on 
short stalks. Flowers in clusters, blue, on long peduncles. Berries 
globose, about as large as a pea. This is a very conspicuous plant 
on the borders of woodlands. The dense whitish stellate tomentum 
has a granular and scaly look, and hence the specific name. 

Solanum Handelianum, Morong. 

S. angusti/olium, Lam., lUus. no. 2343, not Miller. 

Asuncion (818). October-November. 

Here named for Prof. Pablo Handel, of the Collegio Nacional at 
Asuncion, who frequently accompanied the writer in his botanical 
excursions in Paraguay, and by his knowledge of the country and 
the languages of the people, and his friendly assistance, contributed 
much towards the collection. 

A shrubby plant, strict and erect below, twining on the limbs 
of shrubs above, 2-3 m. in height. Stem very smooth, strongly 
5-angled. Leaves few, linear or linear-lanceolate, entire, glabrous. 
Flowers blue, in terminal bractless cymes. Berries black. 

Solaniim malacoxyloii, Sendtn., 1. c, 51. 

Asuncion (181); Pilcomayo River (1530). = Balansa 2105. 
October-May. 

A tall, soft-stemmed shrub, with a large pith in the stem, grow- 
ing sometimes 3 m. in height, entirely without thorns, very erect. 
Leaves glabrous, linear-lanceolate, 10-16 cm. long, acuminate, slop- 



176 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

ing into a short petiole. Flowers light blue, in panicled cymes, on 
long drooping peduncles, showy. Berries purplish-black, smooth, 
with a bloom, somewhat larger than a pea. This plant was very 
abundant on the marshy borders of the Paraguay at Asuncion, and 
also in the water of the great laguna on the Pilcomayo River, 

Solaiiuiu mamniosuiii, L., Sp. PL, 187. 

Asuncion (102); near Luque (34Y). November-December. 

A bushy shrub, 6-12 dm. in height. Stem and lower surface of 
leaves armed with straight, whitish-yellow spines, some of them 
nearly 2 cm. in length. Leaves very large, often nearly 2 dm. long 
by 1^ dm. broad, deeply, many-lobed, stellately pubescent beneath. 
Flowers bluish-purple or almost white. Fruit large, at first blotched 
with green and light yellow, becoming yellow when mature, globu- 
lar, smooth. Some of the berries which I measured were 3 cm. in 
diameter. Common on low grounds. 

Solanum nigrum, L., Sp. PL, 186. 

Buenos Aires (9); La Plata, Arg. Republic (27); Asuncion (262). 
October-December. 

SolanuiU nudum, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., iii, 33. 

Asuncion (126). November-May. 

A shrub, or sometimes growing into a small tree 5 m. high, much 
branched, glabrous, the young shoots pubescent. Leaves alternate 
or sometimes in 4s, often geminate above, ovate-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, entire, glabrous above, downy beneath, 5-10 cm. long, 2-4 
cm. wide, sloping into a petiole 2-4 cm. long. Flowers in axillary 
clusters, the pedicels 1-2 cm. long. Calyx lobes ovate, shorter than 
the corolla tube. Corolla about 1 cm. in height, of 5 deeply parted 
segments with a greenish line down the centre and purplish on the 
sides. Berries red, as large as peas. This shrub is quite conspicu- 
ous in the thickets around Asuncion for its foliage and its clusters 
of red berries. It bears scattered spines on the branches, but gen- 
erally is unarmed on the stem. 

Solanum OOCarpum, Sendt. in Mart. Fl. Bras., x, 106. 

Pilcomayo River (885). January. 

A tall shrub, with whitish stellate-tomentose stems. Leaves 
very large, 5-7 lobed, stellate-pubescent on both sides, beset with 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. Ill 

stout spines on the midrib beneath and the winged petiole. Stem 
armed with strong, straight or hooked spines. Flowers not seen. 
Berries as large as marbles, green, covered with a yellowish tomen- 
tum. 

Solanum Pilcomayense, Morong, n. sp. 

A weak-stemmed, widely branching slirub, about 3 m. in height, supporting 
itself by the grasses and bushes among which it grows. Stem with 3 or 4 
sharp angles or ridges, on which are often minute upwardly curved teeth that 
give a cutting edge to the ridge, otherwise smooth. Branches pubescent with 
small white, appressed hairs, or nearly glabrous. Leaves alternate, ovate, 
semi-cordate, entire or with a few small lobes, pubescent, especially below, 
the largest I collected 12 cm. long by 4 cm. wide, on petioles ^2^ cm. long. 
Flowers in small cymes, white or sometimes pale purple, not over ^ cm. high. 
Calyx with 5 ovate lobes and scarcely ^ as long as the corolla. Corolla deeply 
parted, the lobes ovate, obtuse. Anthers about 4 mm. long, the pores introrse, 
oblique. Style capillary, included ; stigma capitate. Berries smooth, black, 
a little larger than those of S. nigram. 

This plant was found more or less all along the banks of the 
upper Pilcomayo, and even in the water of the great laguna where 
our voyage terminated (898). January-May. 

Solanuni raEiiiilosiini, Sendt., 1. c, 45. 

Yilla Rica (458). January. = Balansa 2119. 

A handsome unarmed shrub 12-15 dm. high, the branches and 
leaves hoary with stellate tomentum. Leaves green above, white 
beneath, ovate-lanceolate, solitary or often geminate, one of them 
smaller, 3-8 cm. long, 1-2J^ cm. wide; petioles about 5 mm. long. 
Flowers white, numerous, in small axillary cymes. Berries small, 
black. 

Solanuni sisymbriifoliiim, Lam., 111., no. 2386. 

La Plata, Arg. Republic (25); Asuncion (91); Gran Chaco(587). 

Solanum urlianum, Morong, n. sp. 

A shrub 1-3 m. in height, unarmed. Stem angular, with gray bark, smooth 
below, the young shoots downy. Leaves entire, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or 
acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, more or less pubescent on both sides, 
3-6 cm. long and 1^-2^ cm. broad. Petioles 1-2 cm. long, alate-margined 
above, pubescent. Flowers in small clusters, somewhat racemose, occasion- 
ally solitary, among the leaves at the top of the stem and branches. Pedicels 
erect or drooping, 1-2^ cm. long. Calyx pubescent, less than ^ as long as the 
corolla, with 5, often 10, subulate lobes longer than the tube, thickening and 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Feb. 1893.— 12 



178 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

persistent in fruit. Corolla blue, with white lines running down the sides, 
about 1 cm. high, with 5 broad, scarcely apparent lobes, their tips with a 
velvety tuft of hairs. Stamens much shorter than the corolla, the anthers 
thick, incurved at the apex, a little longer than the filaments, somewhat 
unequal. Style curved ; stigma capitate. Fruit a large, smooth, globular 
berry, nearly 2 cm. in diameter, with a thick, fleshy rind, 4-celled ; seeds 
compressed, turning black. 

' This plant is quite common in the streets of Asuncion on the 
borders of the sidewalks, growing to a much greater size on the 
roadsides in the outskirts of the city. 

Streets of Asuncion (141); suburbs of Asuncion (708). = Bal- 
ansa 2104. November-May. 

Solanuni Tillaricense, Morong, n. sp. 

A bushy, widely branched shrub 9-12 dm. high, all the parts, even to the 
calyx and corolla, covered with white or tawny stellate pubescence. Stem 
terete, armed with straight, acicular spines, becoming smooth and glabrous 
with age. Leaves lanceolate, somewhat obtuse, entire or occasionally a little 
lobed, lighter colored beneath, the blades -^8 cm. long by 1-3^ cm. broad, 
sloping into a petiole 1-2 cm. in length. Flowers in large terminal cymes. 
Calyx ^ the length of the corolla, deeply cleft ; lobes 5, as long as the tube, 
lanceolate-acuminate. Corolla white, 10-12 mm. high, and twice as much in 
diameter when fully expanded ; lobes as long as the tube, ovate, mucronate- 
pointed. Filaments very short ; anthers slightly puberulent, nearly 1 cm. 
long, the pores small, looking upwards. Fruit red, abundant, the berries as 
large as cherries. 

This plant covers large tracts on the open hillsides at Villa Rica, 
and is quite conspicuous with its large white flowers and red ber- 
ries (494). January. 

Solanum Tiolaefolium^ Schott, in Spreng. Syst. Veg. iv, 403. 

Pilcomayo River (920). February-March. 

A creeping plant running for 6-9 dm., the stem rooting at the 
nodes, mostly under ground, glabrous and entirely free from spines 
or prickles. Leaves, as the specific name denotes, much like those 
of Viola obliqua, cordate-ovate, on petioles 3-8 cm. long. Flowers 
solitary, on axillary pedicels 2-5 cm. long, whitish; corolla spread- 
ing rotately J-2 cm. in diameter, the 5 deeply cut lobes ciliate, 
eroded or a little fimbriate. Fruit a large oval berry, over 2 cm. 
long, yellow when ripe. 

This plant grows on the sides of steep banks on the borders of the 
Pilcomayo River, in shady places, its long stems often running under 
leaf mould and loose soil, appearing here and there above ground. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 179 

Pliysalis viscosa, L., Sp. PL, 183. 

Asuncion (115) ; Pilcomayo River (1532). November-February. 

Occurs in door-yards and waste grounds around Asuncion, as well 
as far up the Pilcomayo in uninhabited districts. Birds, monkeys, 
and insects eat the fruit with avidity. I lost a good many speci- 
mens through cockroaches, which devour all the berries that are 
not protected. It is used in Paraguay medicinally, being regarded 
by the natives as an efficacious remedy for children's complaints. 
The fruit is often sold in the city market of Asuncion. 

Capsiciiin aniiiium, L., Sp. PL, 188. 

Asuncion (696). April-May. 

Running "wild in the waste grounds about the city. A shrub 
about 15 dm. high. The fruit is conical, 4-6 cm. in length, bright 
red when ripe, very hot to the taste. It is sold in the markets of 
Asuncion, and much relished as a flavoring for soups. Many medi- 
cinal virtues are attributed to it. 

Capsicum baccatum, L., Sp. PL, 188. 

Villa Rica (388); Pilcomayo River (961). January-March. 
A shrub 6-9 dm. high. Berries yellowish or red when ripe, oval, 
sometimes 13 mm. long, intensely hot to the taste. 

Jaliorosa integrifolia, Lam., Encyc, iii, 189. 
Buenos Aires (6). October. 

Salpicbroa rhomboidea (GrilL and Hook.), Miers in Hook. Lond. 
Jour. Bot., iv, 326. 

Asuncion (707). May. 

Prutescent, 6-9 dm. high, growing in tangled masses by the 
roadsides. The flowers are small, white, nodding, with an urceo- 
late corolla. Stems square, with a dead, dry look about them, the 
young shoots and branches green, bearing 2 rows of hairs which 
are curiously curled, nearly looped upwards. The older stems are 
weak and brittle, with a corky exterior. 

liycium Tweediaillim, G-riseb., PL Lorentz, 168. 

Pilcomayo River (1006). May. 

A thorny shrub 1^-4 m. high, with many short, lateral, very 
brittle branches, sharply spinous at the apex. Flowers small, soli- 
tary, lilac. Fruit a small berry, red when ripe. 



]80 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Lyciiim morongii, Britton, n. sp. 

A glabrous shrub. Leaves ovate or oval, thick, pinnately veined, 5-7 cm. 
long, 2-3 cm. wide, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, crenulate on the 
margins, borne on petioles 3-10 mm. long ; flowers about 3 mm. long, numer- 
ous, in dense clusters at the nodes ; pedicels about 2 mm. long ; corolla 4-lobed 
to about one-fourth of its length ; stamens 4, inserted near the summit of the 
corolla-tube ; stigma capitate ; calyx 4-toothed, the teeth triangular, obtuse. 
Fruit nearly globose, 3 mm. in diameter. 

Asuncion (161). November-May. 

A straggling shrub, growing 3-4 m. high in the lowlands around 
Asuncion, and also near the road on the way to Lyrapio. The 
limbs are often flexuous, and the leaves shining on the upper sur- 
face Strong spines occur at the ends of short lateral branches. 
The blood-red pulpy disk upon which the ovary is seated becomes 
dry and membranous in fruit. Fruit a dark purple berry. 

Datura fastuosa, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 256. 

Asuncion (652). January-May. 

A favorite flower in Asuncion gardens where it sometimes grows 
to the height of 5 m. or more. Corolla light purple, very large 
and showy, double. It often escapes into waste grounds where it 
retains the double corolla, sometimes having as many as 3 corollas, 
one inside of the other. Running wild, it is very apt to have 
deformed fruit. Sometimes 2 or 3 imperfectly developed burrs 
coalesce in one. 

Datura Metel, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 256. 

Asuncion (69). October-February. 

The common Datura around Asuncion, as frequent there as is 
our D. Stramonium, here. A very beautiful flower, the corolla 
large, funnel-form, pure white and very fragrant. 

Cestruni calycinum, Willd. ; R. and S. Syst., iv, 808. 

Asuncion (227); Caballero (445). December-January. = Twee- 
die 1193 and Balansa 2092. 

A leafy shrub which sometimes grows into a small tree 5 m. or 
more in height. Flowers tubular, the corolla downy, greenish- 
yellow, 1 cm. or more in length. 

Cestruni Parqui, L'Her., Stirp., iv, 73, t. 36. 

Buenos Aires (16); Asuncion (257 and 369). November-Decem- 
ber. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 181 

Common both in the Argentine Republic and Paraguay. A very 
bushy shrub, 1-2J m. high, with clusters of pale yellow, tubular 
flowers. Fruit an oblong purple berry-like capsule. Often grown 
in gardens at Asuncion, and common in thickets about the city. 

]¥icotiana glaiica, Graham, Bot. Mag., t. 2837. 

Asuncion (38). 

Usually a shrub, but sometimes a small tree 5-7 m. in height. 
Stem and leaves glaucous, the latter ovate, acute at apex and 
rounded or cuneate at base, on petioles 3 or 4 cm. long. Flowers 
very numerous, in large, naked, terminal, drooping clusters or pani- 
cled racemes. Corolla yellow, tubular, 4 cm. long, glandular hairy 
on the outside. Fruit a thickish ovoid capsule, dehiscing in 5 valves 
at the apex. 

Common in the lowlands and on the river banks, where it is very 
conspicuous. It is often found in small forms growing upon the 
tiled roofs of houses along the gutters at Asuncion. It blossoms 
from November to February, and even longer. 

Nicotiana longiflora, Cav., Descr. PL, 106. 

Asuncion (44). November-February. 

This tobacco is very common in the suburbs of Asuncion, and 
frequently grows in the streets and waste grounds of the city itself. 
The flow^er opens at night and closes early next day. Corolla with 
a slender tube 7 or 8 cm. in length, white or bluish-white. Foliage 
viscous-pubescent. The largest leaf which I noted was about 10 
cm. long, and the largest described by DeCandoUe is 23 cm. long 
by *l^ cm. wide. 

Nicotiana longiflora, Cav., var. grandifolia, Morong, n. var. 

This form is distinguished from the type by its magnitude, unequal calyx 
lobes, and its denser pubescence. The stems are nearly twice as thick, tube 
of the corolla 9 or 10 cm. long, lobes of calyx 15 to 20 mm. long, and the 
largest leaves are 4-5 dm. in length by 1^-2 dm. in breadth. Flowers noc- 
turnal, and slightly fragrant when freshly open and wet with the morning 
dews. 

The large leaves often lie flat on the ground, and when hung in 
the sun to dry cure like those of N. riistica. I have no doubt that 
they contain nicotine enough to make a very good tobacco, as they 
have all the taste of that while green. 

Banks of the Pilcomayo (1533). February-May. 



J 82 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Petunia Tiolacea, Lindl., Bot. Reg., 1. 1626. 

Asuncion (185). August-September. 

As I always found this Petunia in the neighborhood of dwelling- 
houses and in waste grounds where house rubbish was dumped, I 
thought it probably a garden escape, but as it occurs native in 
Southern Brazil (Fl. Bras., x, 172) it may well be a native plant 
of Paraguay. 

Bouclietia anomala (Miers), Britton and Rusbj, Trans. N. Y. Acad. 

Sci., vii, 12. 

Pilcomayo River (943). February-April. 

An herb with thick tough roots, 4 or 5 dm. high, with many 
virgate, nearly naked branches. Stem, pedicels, and calyx rough 
pubescent. Leaves glabrous or pubescent, lanceolate, linear or the 
lowest spatulate, 1-5 cm. long. Flowers solitary, in a long raceme, 
opposed to a leaf or bract. Calyx J as long as the corolla, with 5 
linear lobes. Corolla about 1 cm. high, funnel-form, white, with 3 
delicate purple lines down the lobes on the outside and yellowish 
at the base inside ; lobes 5, broad. Pedicels l-lj cm. long. Fruit 
a large, oval capsule, 2-celled, many-seeded, dehiscing by 4 valves. 

8ch\irenkia Americana^ L., Sys. Nat., iii, 62. 

Asuncion (112). November-December. = Balansa 21^1. 

The Schwenkias, of which there may be 20 species, all but one 
confined to South America, were formerly classed in Scrophularinese, 
but now placed by Bentham and Hooker in Solanaceae. The species 
here noted is a frutescent plant about 6 dm. in height, with pubes- 
cent stem, leafy below, with a large terminal panicle of slender, 
naked branches. Leaves with blades 3-t cm. long, rounded or 
semi-cordate at base, on petioles 5-12 mm. in length. The flowers 
are peculiar. Calyx scarcely 3 mm. long, with 5 minute ovate 
lobes. Corolla very slender, tubular, about 10 mm. long, lurid 
purple, 5-nerved, with a thick, green, glandular border that closes 
in 4 lobes over the stigma, from the 4 corners of w^hich project 4 
clavate teeth. Fruit a globular capsule, 3 or 4 mm. in diameter, 
1-celled, many-seeded, dehiscing by 2 valves. Seeds pitted, com- 
monly hexagonal. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 183 

SCROPHULARINE^. 
Angelonia integerrima, Spreng., Syst. Cur. Post., 235. 

Asuncion (21*7). December.- = Balansa 2145. 

We have nothing resembling this genus in our country. Stem 
frutescent, 1 m. or more in height, glabrous, ascending or erect; 
Leaves opposite, entire, oblanceolate or lanceolate, acute or o})tuse 
at the apex, sessile, 5-12 cm. long. Flowers blue, in long, terminal 
racemes (3 dm. or more). Calyx of 5 small, green sepals with 
membranous edges, closely appressed and about J as long as the 
corolla, persistent in fruit. Corolla ventricose, gibbous at base, not 
quite 1 cm broad, 5-lobed, the 4 lower lobes rounded and reflexed, 
the 5th a broad, keeled hood with 2 folds on the outside at the upper 
part, which are greenish at the top and in the interior. Hood sur- 
mounted by an erect lobe crimped below and with a white projec- 
tion at base inside, prettily spotted with white and blue on the 
lower side. Stamens 4, inserted on the corolla near the base ; 
anthers with 2 divaricate cells, opening by slits at the top, their 
edges blue ; filaments blue at the base. Fruit a large, ovoid, pointed 
capsule. It is almost impossible to convey any intelligible idea of 
this curious flower by description. It is not only curious to the 
stranger from northern climes, but very beautiful. 

Stemodiacra diirantifolia (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gren. PL, 466. 

Asuncion (78). November. 

Herbaceous. Stem 3-4 dm, high, branched, the whole plant 
glandular hairy. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3s or 4s, lanceo- 
late, acute at apex, sessile, auriculate. Flowers azure blue, in long 
terminal spikes. 

Wet grounds on the river banks. 

Stemodiacra linearifolia, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem square, the angles sharp or obtuse, 4 dm. to 6 dm. high, the whole 
plant very glabrous, much branched above. Leaves opposite or occasionally 
on the inflorescence in 3s or 4s, linear, obtuse at the apex, sessile or slightly 
amplexicaul, punctate-dotted, 2-7 cm. long and 2-7 mm. broads Flowers in 
long, slender, terminal racemes, in whorls of 3, each subtended by a subfolia- 
ceous ovate bract ; pedicels scarcely 1 ram. long. Corolla blue, blotched with 
white, about 3 mm. high. Calyx with 5 subulate lobes. Style much exserted ; 
stigma thick, laterally flat. 

Pilcomayo River (1534). January. = Balansa 2162. 



184 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Stemodiacra hyptoides (C. and S.), Kuntze, 1. c. 

Near Trinidad (833). November. 

My specimens were none of them over 4 dm. high. Flowers 
much like those of no. 18, azure blue, and the plant very viscous 
glandular, but the leaves small and spatulate. 

Stemodiacra Terticillata (Miller), Kuntze, 1. c. 

Asuncion (800 a and 808); Pilcomayo River (9t2). October- 
March. 

Herbaceous, 5-25 cm. high. Corolla azure, lighter colored within, 
the throat delicately fringed. This little plant has the odor of mint 
when freshly gathered. 

In grassy grounds or in wettish places in the woods. 

JHonniera lanigera (C. and S.), Kuntze, 1. c, 463. 

Villa Rica (496). January. 

A creeping or ascending bog plant, 5-15 cm. high. Stem densely 
villous. Leaves opposite, entire, orbicular-ovate, obtuse at the 
apex, amplexicaul, 8-15 mm. long. Flowers axillary, pedicellate, 
with 2 minute bracteoles under the calyx. Corolla blue. 

monniera calycina (Forsk.), Kuntze, 1. c, 462. 

Asuncion (90); Pilcomayo River (1029). November-May. 
Growing in marshes at Asuncion, and as an aquatic, mostly sub- 
merged, in the Pilcomayo River near the Falls. 

Scoparia dulcis, L., Sp. PL, 116. 
Asuncion (97). November. 

Scoparia pinnatifida, C. and S., Linnsea, viii, 22. 
Asuncion (12). November-December. 

Teronica arveusis, L., Sp. PL, 13. 

La Plata, Arg. Republic (26). October. 

Biichnera eloiigata, Sw., Flor. Ind. Occ, 1061. 
Near Asuncion (324). December-May. 

Gerardia commuilis, C. and S., Linnsea, iii, 12. 

Asuncion (264); near Caballero (430). December-January. 
= Balansa 2152. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 185 

A shrubby, much branched plant, 3 or 4 dm. high, with large 
purple flowers, common on the campos east of Asuncion as far as 
Villa Rica. 

Gerardia genistifolia, C. and S., 1. c, 15. 

Asuncion (231); Pilcomayo River (915). December-February. 
= Balansa 2168. 

A very showy suffruticose species. Stems with many opposite, 
erect branches, 5-10 dm. high. Flowers numerous, in long terminal 
racemes, large, purple. This plant made a great display along 
the low grounds on the borders of the Pilcomayo River, where it 
occurred for miles. 

LENTIBULARIJE. 
Utrictilaria juncea, Vahl., Enum., i, 202. 
Villa Rica (581). January. = Balansa 2071 

Utriciilaria subiilata, L., Sp. PL, 18. 

Luque (332). December. = Balansa 2075, 

GESNERACEiE. 

Actiimenes tiibiflora (Hook.), Britton. 
Gloxinia tuhiflora, Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 3971. 

Pilcomayo River (865). January. 

A fine plant 6-9 dm. high. Leaves thickly clustered towards the 
base. Flowers racemed on long naked stems. Corolla white, fun- 
nel-shaped, the long tube (5-7 cm.) projecting at right angles from 
the calyx, with a short, obtuse spur projecting from the other side, 
which is filled with nectar. Fruit a conical capsule, 1-celled, con- 
taining a multitude of small oblong seeds looking like little worms. 

On the open campo, at a place known as Obraje de Pedro Gill. 

BIGNONIACE^. 

Bignonia Morongii, Britton, n. sp. 

An erect, branching, glabrous shrub. Leaves simple, cuneate-oblanceolate, 
thick, obtuse or rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base into a short 
petiole, entire, clustered at the ends of short, lateral branches, reticulate- 
veined, 3-5 cm. long, about 1 cm. wide ; flowers terminating the short lateral 



186 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

branches, solitary or in pairs, peduncled ; peduncles slender, bracted, about 
1 cm. long, lepidote ; corolla about 3 cm. long, the tube abruptly narrowed 
above the base; calyx narrowly campanulate, lepidote, 1 cm. long; pod 
linear, subulate-tipped, glabrous, terete, 8-10 cm. long, 6-7 mm. thick ; wings 
of the seed about as wide as the body. 

Trinidad (276) ; Pilcoma3^o River (868). December-January. 
Often growing into a small tree, 15 or 20 feet high, with a dark, 
wrinkled bark. Corolla bright j-ellow. 



Liique (719). May. = Gibert 1340. 

The pods of this liana are flat, sometimes 5 dm. long by 1 cm. 
wide, generally in pairs. 

Bignouia Tenusta, Ker, Bot. Reg., t. 249. 

Asuncion (745). June-July. 

A strong liana climbing by tendrils for 8 or 10 m. over trees. 
Flowers a deep yellov7, in large terminal corymbs, very showy. 
Fruit a smooth, flat, 2-edged pod, 15 cm. or more in length, and 
1-1^ cm. wide. Yery common in thickets. 

Bi^nonia Columbiana^ Morong, n. sp. 

Stem stout, glabrous, with grayish wrinkled and warty bark. Leaves ter- 
nate, a pair or several on a common stalk ; common petiole slender, pubescent, 
2-2^ cm. long ; petiolules very slender, pubescent, 1-2 cm. long, the ^middle 
one longest ; leaflets coriaceous, glabrous, oval, entire, obtuse and emarginate 
at the apex, rounded at base, 3-6 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide. Flowers not seen. 
Fruit a flat pod, thick, with a very narrow raised border, acuminately pointed 
at the apex, 20-26 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, on stout stalks 2-3 cm. long, from 
3 to 5 in a cluster. Seeds 3 cm. long, the scarious wing broader at the lower 
end, thickened along the outer side in the middle. Tendrils at the base of 
the leaf-bearing stalks. 

Climbing upon trees on the banks of the Pilcomayo (1535). 
March. 

Bignonia corymbifera, Vahl., Eel., ii, 45, 1. 17. Ex descr. 

Asuncion (166); between Yilla Rica and Escoba (480); Trini- 
dad (835). November-April. = Balansa 497 a. 

A very showy species with large panicles of rose-purple flowers. 
Stems glabrous, striate, grayish, sometimes w^hite-spotted, often 
purple tinted on young shoots, glabrous or minutely pubescent on 
the inflorescence. Variable in the size and shape of the leaves, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 181 

which arebifoliolate or trifoliolate, a simple tendril often taking the 
place of a leaflet. Leaflets always glabrous, shining- above, reticu- 
late veiny, rounded or subcordate at base, abruptly acuminate at 
the apex, oval and ovate-lanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, 2-*7 cm. broad. 
Calyx campanulate, loose, 5-8 mm. long, distantly 5 denticulate 
and 5-nerved. Corolla pubescent, 2-4 cm. long, obscurely bilabiate, 
the upper lip with 2 rounded, entire lobes, lower Avith 3 rather 
larger lobes. Style and stamens included. Fruit not seen. The 
flower buds and flowers are somewhat viscous, adhering to the 
drying-paper. 

Bignonia eximia, Morong, n. sp. 

Very glabrous in all its parts. Stem striate. Leaves opposite, bifoliolate, 
apparently ecirrhose ; petioles l|^-3 cm. long ; petiolules 4-6 mm. long. 
Leaflets entire, elliptical, narrowed at both ends, acute and mostly cuspidate 
at the apex, 2^-4 cm. broad in the middle, 6-10 cm. long, reticulate-veiny on 
both sides. Pedicels axillary, 1-flowered, 3^ mm. long. Calyx campanulate, 

4 or 5 mm. high, distantly denticulate. Corolla purple, infundibuliform, 

5 cm. high, 5 cm. or more in diameter across the mouth when expanded, 
bilabiate, upper lip 2 and the lower 3-lobed, the lobes broad. Fruit not seen. 

A very showy species, climbing tall trees. 

On the highway between Yilla Rica and Escoba (595). January. 

Biglionia, species undetermined. 

Near Trinidad (796). October. = Balansa 499. 

Jffacfadyena cynanclioides (Cham.), Morong. 
Dolichandra cynanchoides, Cham., Linusea, 1832, p. 658. 
Spathodea? Dolichandra, D.C., Prod., ix, 205. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (527) ; Lympio (732) ; Pilcomayo 
River (910). February-May. 

This genus is tendril climbing, like most of the Bignonias, but 
differs from that genus principally in having a spathaceous calyx, 
fissured on one side, with a colored involucre of 2 delicate folia- 
ceous bracts just beneath the calyx. The species here noted has 
opposite, bifoliolate leaves, with lanceolate, apiculate, coriaceous, 
shining blades. Flowers solitary or in clusters of 3-6 ; calyx and 
corolla red; corolla 4 or 5 cm. long, infundibulifom, curved; stamens 
and style exserted, presenting a very showy appearance. 



188 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

jflelloa populifolia (D.C.), Britton. 
Bignonia ]>opuli/olia, D.C., Prod., ix, 159. 

Asuncion (1536). October. 

A tendril climber, wiih large bifoliolate, rounded leaves and 
clusters of large, showy 3^ellow flowers. Calyx much inflated, 
spathaceous, the fissure oblique, running to an aristate point on 
one side. Corolla infundibuliform, with a swelling tube and flaring, 
rounded lobes, often 6 or 7 cm. in length. Stem stout, warty, the 
branches striate. This plant is very conspicuous when in flower, 
and would make a beautiful object in gardens, though the Asun- 
cionites never seem to have taken it for that purpose. 

Ciispidaria pterocarpa (Cham.), D.C., Prod., ix, 178. 

Caballero (596). January. 

A genus closely allied to Bignonia, but differing in its tetrapter- 
ous fruit, hirsute anthers, and uniformly cuspidate-lobed calyx, from 
which the generic name is derived by DeCandolle. The species 
here noted climbs over large trees without tendrils, so far as I 
could see, with bi-tri-foliolate leaves, and lax, terminal racemes of 
showy funnel-shaped, yellow flowers. It is very ambitious, like all 
the South America lianas, and climbs to the very tops of the trees, 
and throws out its clusters of conspicuous flowers above their heads. 

Adenocalymna nitidum. Mart, in D.C. Prod., ix, 200. 

Asuncion (19t). November-December. =Gibertll06. 

Stem glabrous, striate, cinereous-pubescent on the inflorescence. 
Leaves bifoliolate; petioles and petiolules about equal, canaliculate. 
Leaflets rigid, glabrous, shining above, elliptical, rounded at the 
base, acute and cuspidate at the apex, 6-12 cm. long, 3-4 cm. wide. 
Calyx marked by 2-17 black, cup-shaped glands, which also occur 
occasionally on the bracteoles. Corolla 6 or 7 cm. in length, bright 
yellow, often shading off into white towards the summit, with a 
ventricose tube and a large flaring border having 5 broad, rounded, 
subequal lobes. Fruit a heavy, drooping capsule, 2-celled, some- 
what tetragonous when young, becoming at maturity almost cylin- 
drical and very hard, 20 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, usually 2 on a 
peduncle. 

Anemopaegma flaTum^ Morong, n. sp. 

A genus very similar to Bignonia in flowers, leaves, and stems, differing in 
liaving a thick pulvinate disk, stamens and styles always included, the calyx 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 189 

always loose and campaiiulate, and usually truncate. It differs principally 
in the fruit, the capsule being broad ovate. The species here noted is a ten- 
dril-climbing shrub with ash-colored, striate, glabrous stems, hispid on the 
summits of the youngest branches. Leaves bi-tri-foliolate ; petioles 10-15 
mm. long, striate beneath, hispid and canaliculate above ; petiolules 5 or 6 
nim. long, striate and glabrous beneath, canaliculate and hispid above like 
the petioles, the hairs dense and running up the thick midrib and lowest 
nerves of the upper surface of the leaflets. Leaflets coriaceous, entire, ellip- 
tical, very glabrous except as above stated, nerves prominent beneath, nar- 
rowed at both ends, mucronate at the apex, i3-6 cm. long, 1-3 cm. wide. 
Flowers 1-3, axillary, on striate, glabrous, or slightly pubescent pedicels 8-10 
inm. long. Calyx glabrous, nerveless, or obscurely nerved at the base, loosely 
campanulate, truncate, with a membranous margin, 7 or 8 mm. long, yellowish 
in color. Corolla yellow, darker colored at base, glabrous, in fundi buli form, 
the tube slender, 4 or 5 cm. long, spreading about 2 cm. across the lobes when 
expanded, the lobes large and rounded, somewhat ringent. Fruit not seen. 

On the highway from Villa Rica to Escoba (597). Januarj^ 
= Gibertll04. 

Pitliecolol>illIll cordifoliuitl, Mart, in D.C. Prod., ix, 194. 

Asuncion (158 and 749). = Balansa 485. 

Climbing by tendrils over shrubs and trees. Stems smooth, 
hexagonal, the branches fuscous-downy. Leaves trifoliolate ; leaf- 
lets ovate or orbicular, cordate, downy. Calyx downy, truncate or 
5-dentate, scarcely \ as long as the corolla. Corolla yellow, very 
close downy, smooth and dark at the base outside, curved, trumpet- 
shaped, the lobes broad, rounded, subequal, 4 or 5 cm. long, showy. 
Fruit a large, flattish, 2-celled, 2-valved capsule, densely echinate, 
10-12 cm. long by 4 or 5 cm. broad, filled with broadly winged 
seeds, the wings silvery, delicate membranous and transparent. 
This is a fine liana, the flowers showy and the large echinate fruit 
very conspicuous. 

Flowers November-February; fruit June-August. 

Ampliilopliiuiii paniculatum, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., iii, 149. 

Between Yiila Rica and Escoba (446); Asuncion (753). 

A tendril climber distinguished by having a double calyx, the 
outer spreading, with a sub-5-lobed, reflexed border, and the inner 
appressed and bilabiate. Corolla bilabiate, with a short tube about 
2 cm. long, ventricose at the throat, upper lip galeate, bilobate, the 
lower 3-lobate. Fruit very different from that of 158, in company 
with which it grows, being a thick, subligneous, lenticular capsule, 



190 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

which is 2-celled, 2-valved, smooth or nearly so, 10-15 cm. long and 
4 or 5 cm. broad. The seeds are winged membranously as in 158, 
but yellowish in color. The valves when emptied of their contents 
look like small boats, and are used for holding beads, pins, and 
small ornamental objects. 

Flowers January and February ; fruit June-August. 

Talbeliuia araliacea (Cham.), D.C., Prod., ix, 221. 

Asuncion (740). May. 

A large tree 10-13 m. in height, with grayish bark which is 
somewhat fissured below and smooth above. Fuscous-downy on 
the young branches and inflorescence. Leaves opposite, digitate, 
the leaflets 3-5, elliptical, acute or rounded at base, obtusely acumi- 
nate at apex, shining above, lighter and prominently nerved beneath, 
the largest about 10 cm. long and 5 cm. broad. Flowers in sessile 
corymbs, bright purple, large and conspicuous. Calyx thick, pur- 
plish, obscurely 5-lobed. Corolla funnel-form, tube ventricose above, 
somewhat bilabiate, upper lip with 2 rounded lobes, lower with 3 
emarginate, rounded lobes. Sometimes the corolla is 6 cm. in length, 
spreading 3 or 4 cm. at the border, white downy outside and with 
translucent hairs within. A tree very common in the woods around 
the city, and when covered with its blossoms attracting great atten- 
tion in the forest, as it is high enough to overtop most of its com- 
panions. 

Ta'bel>uia ATellanedae, Lor., Griseb. Symb. Flor. Arg., 258. 

Pilcomayo River (901). 

One of the largest trees in Paraguay, common in the forests of 
the Pilcomayo region, growing at least 15 m. in height. It is 
popularly known as the Lapacho, and in the Argentine Kepublic 
as the Lapacho morado or Colorado. I gathered the leaves only, 
as it flowers in August, a period when I was not on the river. 
Leaves digitate ; leaflets 3-5, elliptical, abruptly acuminate, serrate, 
glabrous, the 2 middle ones the largest. Bark grayish. Wood very 
hard, bluish colored, considered a valuable timber for building pur- 
poses, nearly equalling the Quebracho Colorado in that respect. 

Tecoma ocliracea, Cham., Linnsea, vii, 653. 

Asuncion (791). October. = Balansa 3237. 
A fine tree growing in the woods near Asuncion from 10 to 13 m. 
in height, with brown bark on the trunk, silverish-gray on the 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 191 

young branches. Flowers only seen, as the leaves do not appear 
till after flowering. The flowers are bright yellow, very numerous, 
12-30 in a cluster. Calyx 5-dentate, about \ as long as the corolla, 
densely hirsute with long ochraceous hairs. Corolla trumpet-shaped, 
with 5 large, rounded, emarginate or eroded, subequal lobes, 5 or 6 
cm. in length, many-nerved and glabrous without, and clothed with 
long ochraceous hairs in the interior. Fruit not seen. The great 
masses of yellow flowers on the naked branches make a splendid 
display at the time of blossoming. 

PEDALINE.^. 
Craniolaria iiitegrifolia, Cham., Linnsea, vii, 725. 

Near Asuncion (824). November. = Gibert 1021. 

A coarse, branching herb, beset with glandular hairs which render 
it very adhesive to the drying-paper. Stem succulent. Lea"ves 
rounded-ovate and cordate, or somewhat reniform and much broader 
than long, the largest 7-10 cm. broad and 5-6 cm. long. The flower 
has a membranous spathe-like calyx. Corolla white, w^ith a slender 
tube 10-13 cm. long and a large bilabiate limb, the upper lip 2-lobed, 
lower 3-lobed, the middle lobe very large, rounded. Not seen in 
fruit. Yery much like our MaiHynia. Roadsides east of the city. 

ACANTHACE^. 
Ttiunliergia alata, Boj. in Hook. Ex. Fl., 1. 17. 

Asuncion (688). April. 

A slender vine, climbing over bushes. Leaves ovate, cordate- 
hastate at base, on alate petioles. Flowers very pretty, the tube 
of the corolla dark purple without and within, with 5 spreading 
lobes of a chrome-yellow, which are oblique to the tube. 

Hygropllila lacustris, Nees, D.C., Prod., xi, 86. 

Trinidad (272); Pilcomayo River (1537). December-January. 
Some of this was distributed as Hygrophila conferta, Nees. 

Hygropllila oMongifolia, Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras., ix, 21. 

Luque (295). December. 

Flowers light purplish-red, in many sessile axillary verticils for 
3 or 4 dm. along the upper part of the stem. Stem square with 
excavated sides and 4 sharp angles below, very hairy, 6-12 dm. 



192 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

high. Leaves oblong-elliptical, 4-15 cm. long, 1^-4 cm. broad, the 
uppermost sessile, appressed-hispid on both sides, especially on the 
veins beneath. 

Ruellia Morongii, Britton. 

Cryphiacantlms acaulis, Nees in Mart. PI. Bras., ix, 49, not Ruellia acaulis R. Br. 

Near Asuncion (323). December. 

Acaulescent, t to 10 cm. high, growing on the Gran Campo, some 
5 or 6 miles from Asuncion. Flowers 2 or 3 on a short peduncle, 
infundibuliform, lilac without, and a deep purple mingled with 
streaks of yellow within. The flowers are quite conspicuous, ap- 
pearing when growing almost as large as the plant. 



Cryphiacantlms angusti/olius, Nees in D. C. Prod., xi, 199, not Ruellia angusi- 

folia, Sw 

Caballero (461). January. 

This species has branching stems 10-12 cm. high, linear, sessile 
leaves, and flowers larger than in no. 323, otherwise much the 
same. Occurs on the railway track. 

Ruellia Balliensis (Nees), Morong. 

Dipter acanthus Bahiensis, Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras., ix, 39. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (526) ; Asuncion (659). October- 
March. 

A square-stemmed suffruticose plant 13-25 cm. high, in open 
grounds and among bushes in thickets. Stem hispidly hairy on 
the upper portion. Leaves opposite, oval or ovate, obtuse at the 
apex, more or less hispidly hair}^ and ciliate, 2-6 cm. long, 1-2 cm. 
wide, sloping into a petiole 1-^ mm. long. Flowers white or pale 
blue. Calyx divided to the base, the lobes linear or subulate, equal, 
strongly hispid ciliate, ^ or ^ as long as the corolla. Corolla 2^-3 
cm. high, somewhat 2-lipped, the lobes broad, rounded, and oblique 
to the pubescent tube. Flowers sessile, axillary, in pairs. Capsule 
obovoid, 8-10 mm. long, compressed at the base, pubescent. 

Ruellia Tweedii (Nees), T. Anderson in Herb. Kew. 
Blechum Tweedii, Nees, D.C., Prod., xi, 466. 

Pilcomayo River (967). March. = Balansa 2458. 

Many-branched from the base, the stems 6-9 dm. long, nearly 
prostrate, the ends curling over and taking root at the nodes. 
Found only in fruit. Deep, moist woods. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 193 

Ruellia lanceolata, Morong, n. sp. 

This species has a terete, white pubescent stem 3-5 dm. high. Leaves 
opposite, hirsute on both sides, the hairs often stellate, the veins prominent 
and white, lanceolate, acute at the apex and sloping at base into a petiole 
|-2 cm. long, the blade 4-8 cm. long and 1^-3 cm. broad. Flowers in sessile, 
axillary verticils, 1-3 on a peduncle, many bracted, the bracts and calyx lobes 
similar, strongly nerved, linear-acuminate. Calyx very deeply 5-parted, ^ as 
long as the corolla tube, with the bracts hoary hirsute. Corolla purple, 4 cm. 
long, the tube puberulent outside and very hairy within, longer than the 
lobes ; lobes 4, subequal or slightly 2-lipped, the upper lip entire, the lower 
8-lobed, middle lobe longest. Stamens 4, didynamous, 2 perfect ; anther 
2-celled, one of the cells abortive ; filaments long, decurrent on the corolla 
tube below their insertion. Capsule flattish, 4-sided, 1^ cm. long, glabrous, 
olive-colored, 3 or 4 seeded by abortion. 

A somewhat erratic member of the genus. Lobes of the corolla 
certainly 4. The abortive anther cell looks as if it were a spur at 
the base of the other. 

In thickets between Pirayu and Jaguaron (66T). April. 

Ruellia ccerulea, Morong, n. sp. 

Suffruticose, 3-4 dm. high, glabrous. Stem square, striate, somewhat 
swollen at the nodes, with opposite branches. Leaves thick, opposite, ovate 
or lance-oblong, simple, entire, obtuse at the apex, sloping or abruptly 
rounded into a short petiole, 3-8 cm. long and 1-2 cm. broad. Flowers in 
small terminal panicles, one or two on a pedicel ; a pair of linear, acute, 
keeled bracts at the base of each branch of the panicle, 4-5 mm. long. Calyx 
persistent, 6-7 mm. long, with 5 rigid subulate lobes longer than the tube. 
Corolla infundibuliform, with 5 large, spreading, equal lobes, minutely 
puberulent, 2^ cm. high, of a beautiful blue color, striped inside with deeper 
blue lines. Stamens on the corolla tube, didynamous, included; filaments 
short. Style as long as the stamens ; stigma 2-lobed, one lobe flat and much 
larger than the other. Capsule 2-celled, many-seeded, slightly 4 sided, 
pointed and somewhat dilated towards the apex, turning brown when mature, 
2 cm. long. 

Common on the campo at the Falls of the Pilcomayo (1013). 
March-May. 

Justicia duitietoruill, Morong, n. sp. 

stem slender and weak, terete, striate, covered with scattered minute, 
appressed hairs, about 5 dm. high. Leaves few, opposite, entire, lanceolate- 
acuminate, under the flowers lance-linear, cuneate at base, hairy like the 
stem or glabrate, 5-10 cm. long and ^-3 cm. broad. Flowers sessile, or 2 or 3 
on a short, thick peduncle, in opposite leaf axils. Bracts and calyx lobes 
about equal, linear-lanceolate, very sharp-pointed, 1-nerved, pubescent, the 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Mar. 1893.— 13 



194 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

margins white membranous. Calyx not ^ as long as the corolla tube, deeply 
5-parted. Corolla rose-purple, the tube slender, a little ampliate at the 
throat, smooth or slightly pubescent, ringent, the upper lip entire, the lower 
3-lobed. Stamens 2, included or slightly exserted, on the corolla tube. Anther 
cells discrete, the one above the other. Capsule somewhat 4-sided, obconic, 
downy, 2-celled, 4-seeded ; seeds subglobose. 

Found in thickets, somewhat supported by bushes. Banks of the 
Pilcomayo River (1538). January. == Gibert no. 41. 

Stenandriiim trinerve, Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras., ix, 75. 

Between Paragua and Luque (854); Caballero (507). December. 
— Balansa 246t. 

Acaulescent. Scape 5 or 6 cm. high. Flowers in short terminal 
spikes, with leafy bracts at the base of the spikes and flowers. 
Corolla about 1 cm. long, purple, with shades of deeper purple and 
yellow on the interior of the lobes. Fruit a 2-celled capsule, each 
cell with several flat, very hairy seeds. A pretty little plant grow- 
ing in dry grassy soil on the railway track. 

Beloporone ramulosa, Morong, n. sp. 

Suffruticose. Stems terete or squarish, swollen at the nodes, below glabrous 
or pubescent in lines, above pubescent, furnished with many erect, virgate 
branches, 7-10 dm. high. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, entire, acute, 
sloping at base into a petiole 3-20 mm. long, the uppermost passing into bracts 
and sessile, pubescent or lineolate or both, 2-10 cm. long, 1-3 cm. wide. 
Flowers mainly at the top of the branches in solitary, opposite, axillary 
spikes, the spikes about 2 cm. long. Bracts ovate, 1-1^ cm. long, mucronate 
or cuspidate, hirsute, ciliate, attenuate at base. Bracteoles a little shorter 
than the calyx lobes. Calyx divided to the base, the segments linear, acumi- 
nate, 5 as long as the corolla. Corolla 3 cm. long, deep red, downy outside, 
bilabiate, the upper lip entire, the lower with a long middle lobe slightly 
spreading on the sides into 2 lateral lobes. Stamens 2, exserted, the anthers 
discrete, one cell above and one lower, the cells appendaged below. Style 
longer than the stamens ; stigma erect, flat. 

In thickets. Asuncion (706). May. = Balansa 3296. 

Beloporone AmlierstiaB, Nees, 1. c, 139. 

Asuncion (200 a). December-April. 

Stems frutescent, terete, glabrate or lepidote, very leafy, 6 dm. to 
2 m. high. Leaves ovate, pubescent, sometimes lepidote above 
Noticeable for its bright red narrow tubular, bilabiate corollas 2 
or 3 cm. long, w^hich make it conspicuous in woodlands. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 195 

Dianthera obtusifolia (Nees), Morong. 
Rhi/toglossa obtusifolia Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras., ix, 120. 

Caballero (435) ; Pilcomayo River (1031). January-May. 

Herbaceous. Stem angular, 4 dm. to 1^ m. high. Flowers 
bluish-purple, with a short tube and broad flaring lobes. The plant 
varies very much. The leaves are seldom obtuse in my specimens, 
but generally linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 4-10 cm. long and ^-^^ 
cm. broad. The specimens from Caballero grew on the railroad 
track, and are very glabrous, while those from the Pilcomayo grew 
in muddy places by the river-side, and are hispid hairy, sometimes 
even spiny, on the angles of the stem. The leaves of the latter are 
pellucid punctate, those of the former opaque. The flowers from 
the Pilcomayo were decidedly blue in color, while in the other they 
were of a rosy-purplish tinge. Perhaps several species are included 
in these forms. 

Biapedium PoUlianum (Nees), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 485. 

Asuncion (200). December-April. 

A showy plant, even more noticeable for its bright red flowers 
than no. 200 a, as the leaves are fewer, the internodes longer, and 
the flowers more numerous. The corolla is very slender, 2-lipped, 
2J-3J cm. long, 3 times as long as the linear, acuminate lobes of the 
calyx ; lower lip with 3 very short lobes. All the parts, even the 
corolla, are densely pubescent. Growing with no. 200 a, and about 
the same height. 

I>iapediuii] TT«^eediaiiuni (Nees), Kuntze, 1. c. ? 
Pilcomayo River (1539). May. 

VERBENACE^. 
Lantana Camara, L., Sp. PL, 627. 

Luque (344). December. 
Lantana lilacina, Desf., Cat. Hort. Par., Ed. 3, 392. 

Asuncion (50). November. 
Lantana trifolia, L., Sp. PL, 626. 

Caballero (599). January. 

Of these Lantanas, the mos tcommon is L. lilacina, with nume- 
rous heads of lilac flowers, bearing a berry which is blue when ripe. 



196 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

The most showy is L. Gamara with flowers of orange and yellow. 
L. trifolia is a coarse, rank plant, the leaves usually opposite, but 
sometimes in 3s, with rather small heads of lilac flowers on very 
long peduncles. They blossom from November to April. 

Lippia angustifolia, Cham., Linnsea, vii, 377. 

Pilcomayo River (860). January-April. 

Stems square, 6-12 dm. high, appressed-hairy. Internodes long. 
Leaves opposite, narrowly lanceolate, appressed-hairy, serrate, 
sessile or shortly petioled, 6-10 cm. long, 1-1^ cm. wide. Heads 
small, on axillary peduncles. The small flowers are nearly con- 
cealed by the cuspidate-acuminate bracts. Corolla yellow, turning 
orange with age. Common on the campo among tall grass. 

L<ippia canescens, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., ii, 263. 

Pilcomayo River (905 and 1048). February-May. 

A small prostrate shrub, with heads of purple flowers, and small 
obovate, serrulate leaves, running on the ground for 6 dm. or more. 
The heads are conical or cylindrical, 1-3 cm. long, on peduncles 3-4 
cm. in length. 

Lippia nodiflora (L.), Mx., Fl. Bor. Am., ii, 15. 

Asuncion (163). November. 
Liippia turiieraefolia, Cham., Linnaea, vii, 217. 

Luque (.575). December. 
L.ippia urticoides, Steud. Nomencl. ex Schauer, in D.C., Prod., xi, 573. 

Asuncion (242). December. 

A shrub with light gray bark, 3-6 m. high. Leaves ovate, obtuse 
at apex, rounded or subcuneate at base, very rough like shagreen 
above, downy and lighter colored beneath. Flowers white, very 
fragrant, in axillary or terminal racemes or spikes, densely and 
spirally arranged on the axis. Racemes numerous, often 10-15 
cm. long. Branches and peduncles white pubescent, the branches 
4-gonous. Calyx and minute pedicel woolly. This shrub is thickly 
covered with the flowering racemes when in blossom, and makes a 
great display on the lowlands at Asuncion where it occurs. 

Liippia ReCOlletaB, Morong, n. sp. 

Suffruticose. Stem nearly simple, or with 1 or 2 long branches from near 
the base, terete below, tetragonous and deeply grooved above, densely papil- 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 197 

lose-hispid, 3-6 dm. high, springing from thick ligneous roots. Leaves oppo- 
site, ovate or lanceolate-ovate, strongly crenate-serrate, acute or obtuse at the 
apex, sloping at base into a petiole 5-15 mm. long, densely hispid on both 
sides, about 7-nerved on each side, scarcely penninerved, the blades 3-7 cm. 
long, l^-2j cm. wide. Flowers in dense globular or ovate heads, the heads 
solitary, axillary, on hispid peduncles 3-5 mm. long. Bracts imbricated, 
cuspidate-acuminate, densely hirsute-ciliate and hispid, 2-3 mm. broad, 
4 mm. long, nearly hiding the flowers. Calyx membranaceous, compressed, 
bifid, puberulent, dividing and falling off with the seeds at maturity. Corolla 
yellow, ampliate, 2-lipped, upper lip entire, lower lip 3-lobed, downy on either 
side under the lobes, about 3 mm. long, only the lobes showing under the 
acumen of the bracts. Seeds flattened-globose, 1|- mm. long, pubescent, split- 
ting at maturity into 2 hemispherical nutlets. 

The plant has a strong mint-like odor, and abounds in the neigh- 
borhood of the Recolleta, a well-known cemetery about 2 miles from 
Asuncion (62). October-November. 

Valerianodes Jamaicense (L.), Med. ThiL Bot., i, 177. 

Asuncion (108). November. 

Common in the waste grounds of the city. The numerous long, 
slender spikes (12-33 cm.) give it a very striking look, although it 
is such a common weed that everybody at Asuncion wondered to 
see me gather it. 

Verbena Bonarieiisis, L., Sp. PL, 20. 

Asuncion (173) ; Pilcomayo River (1540). November-April. 

Verlbena Peruviana (L.), Brittou. 

Erinus Peruvianus, L., Sp. PL, 630. 

Verbena chamcedrifolia, .Juss., Ann. Mus., vii, 73. 

Asuncion (51). = Balansa 1024. 

This scarlet-flowered, trailing Vej^bena seems to grow all over 
Paraguay, and nearly all the year round. I found it not only in 
copses about Asuncion, but also in the streets of the city, and far 
up on the Pilcomayo River. It was equally common a hundred 
miles east of Asuncion. The stems sometimes climb up among 
bushes for 6 dm. or more. 

Verbena disseeta, Willd. ; Spreng. Syst. Veg., ii, 750. 

Asuncion (219). December-January. = Balansa 1025. 

A trailing Verbena with bright lilac flowers and dissected leaves. 
Not quite so common as no. 51, but still frequently found around 
Asuncion and by the side of the railway as far as Luque. 



198 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Verbena intermedia, Gill, and Hook, in Hook. Bot. Misc., i, 166. 

Pilcoinayo River (1014). April. 

Many stems from the same root, very slender and much-branched, 
erect, 4-5^ dm. high, the upper parts naked. Flowers blue, scarcely 
3 mm. high, in terminal spikes not over 3 mm. wide and 5-15 cm. 
long. Leaves small, linear, serrate, and confined mostly to the lower 
part of the stems, or soon dropping off, giving a naked, dry look to 
the plant. The stems are tetragonous and rough to the touch. 

VerlJena iitoralis, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., ii, 276. 

Asuncion (128). November-December. 

A tall, rough, square-stemmed weed, with long cylindrical spikes 
of b^ue flowers, common in fields. Leaves few, linear, sharply ser- 
rate. The upper parts of the stem and branches naked. The spikes 
are sometimes 12 or 14 cm. long. 

Verbena venosa. Gill, and Hook., 1. c, 167. 
Asuncion (1541). November. 

Verbena Moron gii, Britton, n. sp. 

Ascending, branched, 30 cna. or more high, the branches sparsely pubes- 
ent, sharply 4-angled. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate, acuminate at the 
apex, narrowed at the base, sharply serrate or the upper entire, pubescent 
with short, rigid, subulate hairs on the upper surface, glabrous or very nearly 
so beneath, 5-7 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide ; tiowers in dense, oblong, terminal, 
peduncled heads ; corolla 1.5 cm. long, the tube narrow, somewhat enlarged 
above, the limb spreading ; bracts linear-lanceolate, acuminate, striate, very 
ciliate, about as long as the corolla tube. 

Caballero (600). January. 

This plant sometimes reaches twice the height given in the 
description. Flowers lilac or purple. It grows on the railroad 
track in company with no. 599. 

Citliarexyluna myrianttium^ Cham., Linnsea, vii, 117. 

Asuncion (830). November. = Balansa 2090. 

A tree from 3 to 10 m. in height, with smooth gray bark. Leaves 
glabrous, shining on the upper surface, elliptical, bearing 2 green, 
thick, wart-like glands at the base of the blade, the largest 14 cm. 
long by 6 cm. broad. Flowers white, in long, secund, drooping 
racemes. It bears a drupe about as large as a cherry. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 190 

Titex cymosa, Bert, in Spreng. Syst. Veg., ii, 757. 

Asuncion (797). October. = Balansa 1022. 

A tree with grayish, rather smooth bark, 3 to 10 m. in height. 
Flowers in panicles at the summit of the previous year's branches. 
Corolla blue, with a yellow^ eye in the centre. Leaves digitate ; 
leaflets 3-5. Quite showy when in blossom, as the flowers appear 
on young shoots before the new leaves. The Guarani name for this 
tree is Taryma guazu, commonly called Taruma. It is common 
in the waste grounds of Asuncion and in the woods about the city. 

Clerodendron fragrans. Vent., Jard. Malm., t. 70. 

Asuncion (615). February-March. 

I saw this plant frequently in the neighborhood of dwelling- 
houses, and think it must be a garden escape, although everybody 
declared that it was wild. I am confirmed in this opinion by the 
fact that all the flowers are double, the stamens being converted 
into petals, and showing no appearance of anthers. It is herba- 
ceous, growing from 1 to 2 m. in height, with large clusters of 
white and violet flowers. No fragrance was noticed in the flowers. 

LABIATJE. 

Ocimiiin micrantliiiiii, Willd., Enum., 630. 

Caballero (470); Pilcomayo River (965). January-March. 

Peltodon longipes, St. Hil. in Benth. Lali., 63. 

Between Escoba and Caballero (421). January. 

Only 4 spgcies of this genus are known, all of them occurring in 
Brazil and the neighboring countries. The one here noted is a 
small, trailing plant w^ith opposite, round-ovate, obtuse, crenate 
leaves. Flowers in small heads on very long peduncles, the corolla 
dark purple. It grows in hard soil on the railway track near 
Caballero. 

Hyptis "brevipes, Poit., Ann. Mus., vii, 465. 

Asuncion (T5). November-December. 

Herbaceous. Stem stout, square, 4-6 dm. high, rough hairy on 
the angles. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, sloping at 
base into a short petiole, black dotted, sparsely hairy, the hairs 
long, appressed, jointed. Flowers light purple spotted, the upper 



200 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

lip nearly white, in globular heads, the heads in opposite leaf axils, 
on short peduncles, bristly with the lanceolate bracts and calyx 
teeth. Common on the river-side. 

Hyptis cinerea, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem rather slender, tetragonous, deeply grooved in the centre and sulcate 
on the sides, cinereous-pubescent below and densely and closely hispid above, 
with many opposite, erect, strict branches, 6-15 dm. high. Leaves narrowly 
lanceolate, 6-10 cm. long, 5-15 mm. wide, acuminate, unequally and sharply 
serrate, pellucid-dotted, cinereous pubescent on both sides, sloping into a 
winged petiole 10-20 cm. long. Jnternodes on the stem 5-15 cm. long. Heads 
few, solitary, axillary, globular, 8-10 mm. in diameter, on peduncles 10-15 
mm. long. Bracts equalling the heads or shorter, lanceolate, hispid. Calyx 
campanulate, 5 mm. long, glabrous between the nerves, ciliate on the margins ; 
teeth longer than the tube, hispid. Corolla when in flower much exserted 
beyond the calyx, about 1 cm. long, spotted white and purple. Receptacle 
villous. 

Approaches H. hrevipes, but the leaves in that are glabrate and 
black spotted, ovate, the bracts ciliate and broader, the flowers 
scarcely surpassing the calyx, and the stems not grooved as in this. 

Luque (304); Pilcomayo River (924). November-February. 
= Balansa 1006 a. 

Hyptis dumetorum^ Morong, n. sp. 

Stems 9-12 dm. high, tetragonous, the angles obtuse, densely white villous, 
even woolly towards the top, strict, sparsely branching. Heads globose, soli- 
tary, in opposite leaf axils, the largest 10-14 mm. in diameter ; peduncles 
pubescent, 8-20 mm. long. Bracts subulate, villous, shorter than the heads. 
Calyx slightly inflated in the middle, sparingly pubescent, 10-nerved, reticu- 
late-veiny, elongated and strongly recurved in fruit, naked in the interior, 
the fruiting 6 or 7 mm. long ; teeth straight, 3 times shorter than the tube, 
equal, pubescent. Corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx, purplish in tint. 
Receptacle woolly. Seeds oval. Leaves ovate, rounded or truncate at the 
base, unequally dentate, densely fuscous-villous, rugose veiny and almost 
woolly beneath, the lowest on short petioles, the uppermost sessile; blades 
5-7 cm. long, 3-5 cm. broad at the base, the uppermost becoming sessile bracts 
1-2 cm. long. 

This species seems to approach B. recurvata, Poit,, but that as 
described has naked receptacles, leaves always petioled, smaller 
heads and longer peduncles. 

A conspicuous plant in thickets around Asuncion (633). March- 
April. = Balansa 1009. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 201 

Hyptis gracilipes, Bdttoii, n. sp. 

Erect, slender, 35 cm. or more high, much branched, the stems and branches 
puberulent. Leaves oblong, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, serru- 
late or the upper entire, pubescent beneath, puberulent above, the upper 
1.5-2 cm. long; lower leaves not seen; branches of the panicle slender, 
elongated; pedicels 1-flowered, filiform, 1^-2 cm. long ; flowers minute, the 
corolla tube apparently not exceeding the calyx ; calyx campanulate, minutely 
puberulent, reticulate veined, at length 2.5 mm. long, its teeth ovate, obtuse; 
nutlets oblong, smooth. 

Near Asuncion (lU a). Related to H. Salzmanni, Benth. May. 

Hyptis lappacea, Benth., Lab., 103. 

Asuncion (^5 b); Gran Chaco (585). November-February. 

Stem simple, square, strict, rough, 4-6 dm. high. Leaves oppo- 
site, lanceolate, hispid, irregularly serrate, acuminate at both ends, 
petiolate, 6-12 cm. long, 8-20 mm. broad. Internodes ^-10 cm. 
long. Flowers white, in solitary, globular heads 8-12 mm. in 
diameter, on peduncles 5-20 mm. long, axillary below, glomerate 
above. Bracts lanceolate, acuminate, hispidulous, equalling the 
head. Calyx lobes rough-aw^ned. The numerous heads have a 
very burr-like aspect. 

Hyptis spicata, Poit., Ann. Mus., vii, 474. 

Asuncion (48 and VH). November-May. 

Much more slender than no. 75 b, the heads very small and 
arranged racemosely at the tops of the stems and branches, on 
capillary peduncles 2-4 mm. long. 

Hyptis suaveolens, Poit., 1. c, 472. 

Asuncion (368). November. 

Stems square, the angles armed with minute downwardly hooked 
prickles, growing 4 or 5 dm. high. Leaves rough with minute 
hirsute hairs, ovate, acute, serrate, cuneate at base, on petioles 1-2 
cm. long. Flowers in small axillary heads, the corolla small, pur- 
ple. Open grounds. 

Hyptis vestita, Benth., Lab., 114. 

Caballero (592). January. = Balansa 9t8. 
Whole plant covered with a white or tawny, scurfy tomentum. 
Flowers in close terminal spikes. Corolla purple. Stem 4-6 dm. 



202 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

high. Leaves petiolate, broadly ovate, unequally crenate-dentate, 
fuscous above, whitish beneath, rugose-veiny. Open grounds. 

SalTia cardiopliylla, Benth., Lab., 721. 

Asuncion (65); Pilcomayo River (1542). November-June, 
Stem 4-6 dm. high, glabrous or downy. Leaves broad deltoid, 
obtuse or acute, truncate or cordate at the base, dentate. Flowers 
light blue, 3-6 in the verticil. The plant has a strong aromatic 
odor. 

Salvia rigida, Benth., Lab., 269. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (415). January. r=r Balansa 990. 

This species has an erect, hirsute stem, 3-6 dm. high. Leaves 
crowded, downy, elliptical, acute at the apex, sessile, somewhat 
auriculate at the base, 2J-4 cm. long and l-I^ cm. broad. Flowers 
white, in long terminal racemes, the pedicels 2 or 3 mm. long. 
Growing on the open campo. 

Scutellaria rumicifolia, H. B. K., Nov. Gen. ii, 324. 

Asuncion (58 and 826). October-January. 

A small, much branched plant, 1^-2 dm. high. Flowers 3 or 4 
mm. high, the corolla violet and white, the lower lip purple spotted. 
The flowers are very numerous, in long terminal racemes. Grow- 
ing in grassy grounds on the outskirts of the city and even in the- 
streets. On the edges of the sidewalk near my house I found 
plenty of it. 

Leonurus Sibiricus, L., Sp. PL, 584. 

Asuncion (769). November-July. 

This species, which occurs occasionally as a waif in our country, 
is quite common in the waste grounds of Asuncion. There it 
grows in large patches, 8-12 dm. in height. 

Teucrium inflatuiu, Sw., Flor. Ind. Occ, ii, 1003. 

Asuncion (It 9). November-December. 

This plant occurs abundantly on the low grounds near the river 
at Asuncion. It is a coarse-leaved, pubescent species, 4-6 dm. high. 
Flowers crowded in terminal spikes. Calyx inflated, very downy. 
Corolla a light purple. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 203 

PLANTAGINE^. 
Plaiita^o tomentosa, Lam., Encyc, v, 377. 

Asuncion (160); Pilcomayo Kiver (880). November-January. 
= Balansa 3185. 

Common in the waste grounds of Asuncion, where it rises 15-20 
cm. high, but on the borders of the Pilcomayo I found leaves some- 
times 30 cm. long, and scapes from 60 to 70 cm. high, the spike 
alone being from 30 to 35 cm. in length. Leaves ovate or oblanceo- 
late ; both they and the scapes from the same roots very numerous. 
Seeds in my specimens 3 and 4 in a pod. 

NYCTAGINEJE. 
Mirabilis Jalapa, L., Sp. PL, 177. 

Asuncion (622). February-April. 

Commonly cultivated in gardens at Asuncion, but not unfre- 
quently running wild. The color of the flowers varies from deep 
red to purple, purple blotched and nearly white. 

BoerhaaTia decumtoens, VahL, Enum., i, 64. 

Asuncion (93). November-December. 

This occurs abundantly in the streets of Asuncion, on the edges 
of the sidewalks and in w^aste places. Indeed, I never found it 
outside of the city. A straggling, much-branched plant. Leaves 
broad ovate, acute at apex, rounded, truncate or semicordate at 
base, on a petiole about as long as the leaf, in pairs, one of them 
larger than the other, glabrous, lepidote, the larger 2-3 cm. long 
and the smaller l-lj cm. Flowers in naked, terminal panicles, the 
pedicels capillary. Flowers minute, greenish beloAv, bright red 
above, 5-lobed, each lobe with a mucro rising from the centre of a 
notch. Fruit an obconic, 5-angled, 1-celled, 1-seeded capsule, 3 mm. 
long, lined with viscid appressed hairs. It w^as long before I 
could make out the character of these flowers, they are so minute, 
and they drop off the stems so easily, but the bright red speck was 
sufficiently conspicuous. 

BougainTillea glall>ra, Chois. in D.C., Prod., xiii, pt. 2, 437. 

Asuncion (367). 

A fine shrub 2|-4 dm. high Stem and branches armed at 
irregular intervals with slightly curved spines. Leaves simple. 



204 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

entire, alternate, shining, elliptical or oval, acuminate at apex and 
sloping at base into a petiole about 1 cm. in length. Flowers very 
showy, numerous, in terminal clusters. The showy part of the 
flower consists of a large involucre of 3 ovate, purple bracts, 4 cm. 
long and 3 cm. wide. The real flowers inside of these bracts are 
quite inconspicuous, one attached to each involucral bract. This 
shrub makes a beautiful ornament in the gardens of Asuncion, 
blossoming profusely all the year round. It is a native of Brazil 
and said to grow wild in Paraguay, but I doubt it, at least at any 
noticeable distance from the Brazilian border. 

Reictienliacliia liirsuta, Spreng., Syst. Veg., i, 94. 

Asuncion (167). November-March. 

A small tree 5-8 m. in height, placed by Sprengel and Choisy in 
this Order, but somewhat anomalous, and thought By Hooker to 
constitute a new family. Leaves thick, obovate, acute at both 
ends, green above, hoary with a white stellate tomentum beneath. 
Branches, peduncles, and exterior of the corolla covered with the 
same tomentum. Flowers in axillary clusters along the branches, 
2-10 or more in a cluster, apetalous, tubular, 10 or 12 mm. long. 
Perianth with 4 small lobes, unequal, rotate in anthesis, yellowish 
above. Stamens 2, inserted on a disk beneath the ovary. Ovary 
1-celled, 1-ovuled. Stigma penicillate. Fruit with a single flattish, 
black and shining seed in the persistent perianth. This grows on 
the borders of thickets and is also planted on the borders of fields. 

Pisonia comliretifolia, Mart. Fl. Bras., xiv, pt. 2, 360. 

Asuncion (686); Pilcomayo Kiver (999). April-June. 

A fine tree 10-20 m. high, 1 m. or more in diameter at the base, 
with brown or grayish, furrowed or shaggy bark on the trunk, 
downy on young branches and on the inflorescence. The limbs are 
nearly horizontal ; the flowering twigs erect and crowded, giving 
to the tree the look of a flat topped head with several tiers of pro- 
jecting branches below. Leaves numerous, opposite or scattered, 
glabrous, a little revolute, oval or obovate, obtuse at the apex, 
sloping at base into a petiole 1-2 cm. long, the largest blades 7 cm. 
long and 3j cm. wide. Flowers creamy-white and very fragrant, 
in large panicled cymes at the summit of the branches. They are 
polygamo-dioecious. Bracteoles at the base of the corolla 5, minute, 
caducous. Perianth epigynous, normally of 5 segments, but often 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 205 

varying to 6, T, or 10, the segments ovate, 4 or 5 mm. long, spread- 
ing wide open in anthesis. Perfect flowers with well developed 
stamens, as many in number as the perianth segments and alter- 
nate with them. Style protruding through a fringe of hairs upon 
the summit of the ovary, and divided at the apex into 2 or 3 stig- 
matic portions. Ovary inferior, with 2 long'l-ovuled cells. 1 am 
more particular to describe the structure of these flowers because 
there is a good deal of confusion in the characters of Pisonia as 
given in the books, at least judging from my specimens. This tree 
is known among the natives as Palo bianco because both the wood 
and flowers are white. 

ILLECEBRACE^. 

Pentacaena ramosissima (D.C.), H. and A. in Hook. Bot. Misc., iii, 
338. 

Between Paraguay and Luque (858). December. 

Creeping, many-branched from the base, with numerous small 
crowded, subulate, spiny-pointed leaves, 2^ dm. high. Perianth 
segments in fruit 5 sharp spines. The plant reminds me in general 
appearance of our Scleranthua annuus. Grrowing in hard soil on 
the railway track. 

AMARANTACE^. 
Iresine celosioides, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1456. 
Asuncion (144). November-January. 

Kokera paniculata (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI., 542. 

Asuncion (146). June. 

A slender-stemmed, branching herb, 8-12 dm. high, with naked 
racemes of flowers in small opposite or alternate clusters along the 
rachis. Flower axis rising from leaf axils, sometimes nearly 30 cm. 
long. Roadsides. 

Amarantus chlorostachySjWilld., Hist. Amarant., xxxii, 1. 10, f. 19. 

Caballero (442); Pilcomayo River (980 and 1062). January- 
June. 

This was found growing on the campos of the Pilcomayo River, 
frequently attaining a height of more than 3 m., with great panicles 
of spikes, some of them 5 dm. in length. 



206 Plants Collected in Paraguay, 

Amarantus Tiridis, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1405. 

Asuncion (335); Pilcomayo River (1018). = Balansa 1968. 
The common Pigweed of the country, frequent in cultivated and 
waste grounds. To be seen the year round. 

Pfaffia glaiica (Maft.), Spreng. Sjst. Veg. Cur. Post., 107. 

Pilcomayo River (1066); Asuncion (140). November-June. 
= Balansa 1959. 

Herbaceous. Stems widely branching, 8-12 dm. high, smooth 
below, downy on the inflorescence. Flowers in large loose panicled 
clusters, the clusters small and often on long naked peduncles. 
Perianth small, the segments 'white, the head composed of nume- 
rous, crowded, sessile flowers. Leaves linear or lanceolate, hoary 
with a close tomentum. The whole plant has a glaucous tint, and 
the long, widely branched, naked panicle of the inflorescence, with 
the small terminal flower heads, give it a peculiar appearance. 

Pfaffia ItlZtllaeflora (Mart.), Dietr. Syn. PL, 1, 868. 
Asuncion (144 a and 184). oSTovember. 

Mogiptianes rosea, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem erect, brandling, 20-40 cm. liigli, striate, strigose-pubescent, rising 
from large, fleshy or tuberous roots. Leaves opposite, ovate, entire, sessile, or 
the lowest pair on petioles about 3 mm. long, acute and mucronate, strigose- 
pubescent, the hairs jointed, midnerve below prominent ; the largest 5 or 6 
cm. long by 3-3^ cm. wide. Heads naked, nearly globose ajL first, becoming 
cylindrical, 1-2 cm. long. Flowers rose-colored. Bracts membranous, ovate, 
cuspidate, the upper margins dentate or fimbriate, keeled, the keel more or less 
pubescent, about 2 mm. long. Perianth segments acute, strongly 3-nerved, 
slightly pubescent, 5 mm. long. Filaments capillary, as long as or longer 
than the stamineal tube ; anthers ovate. Staminodea broad and flat, surpass- 
ing the stamens, lacerate at the apex. Ovary oblong ; style minute ; stigma 
globular, obscurely lobed. Seeds cylindrical, shining, 3 mm. long. 

This pretty flower occurs in open grounds around Asuncion, its 
rose-colored, long-peduncled heads at once attracting attention (221). 
== Balansa 1948. December-January. 

Telantliera ficoidea (L.), Mart. Nov. Gen., ii, 52. 

Pilcomayo River (922). February. 

Corresponding very well to this species as described in PL Bras,, 
V, pt. 1, 171. The segments of the perianth, however, are 5 mm. 
in length, with 3 strong, fuscous nerves, pubescent between the 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 207 

nerves and on the margins nearly to the apex. The plant is herba- 
ceous, with a slender, widely branching* stem, which is glabrous 
below and pubescent at the summit. Flowers white, in small 
sessile, axillary heads. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, mucronulate, 
very glabrous, sloping at the base into petioles 5-10 mm. long, 
comparatively few, separated by long internodes. Seeds flat. 

Telaiitliera phyloxeroides (Mart.), Moq., D.C. Prod., xiii, pt. 2, 362. 

Asuncion (168). November. 

A weak-stemmed herb in moist grounds, prostrate below and 
rooting at the nodes, the ascending portion 2-5 dm. high. Flowers 
silvery-white, in terminal heads, on peduncles 2-t cm. long, very 
handsome. Heads globular or becoming cylindrical with age, 1-2 
cm. long. Leaves glabrous, narrow lanceolate, mucronulate, nar- 
rowed at the base and sessile, 4-8 cm. long. The stems are glabrous 
below, fringed with 2 lines of hairs on the uppermost internodes. 
They are also somewhat swollen and ruddy at the nodes. 

Alternanthera pilosa^ Moq., 1. c, 357. Ex descr. 

Asuncion (40). November-February. 

A creeping plant with numerous small sessile heads of white 
flowers in the axils of the leaves, the stems often rooting at the 
nodes and running for 10 cm. or more upon the ground. It is 
much branched, and appears as if in mats. The heads are entirely 
free from spines, globular or ovoid, 5-9 mm, in length. Leaves 
spatulate or obovate, the largest blades 2-3 cm. long and 8-10 mm. 
wide, sloping into a short petiole, scantily pilose beneath. The 
stems are pilose on the young branches, especially at the axils of 
the leaves and under the heads where they are almost woolly. 
Very common along the edges of the sidewalks in Asuncion and 
in the suburbs. 

Some of this was distributed as A. Achyrantha. 

Alternanthera pungens, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., ii, 306. 
A. echinata, Sw. in Rees Cyc, Snppl. no. 10. 

Asuncion (39). November-February. 

This plant is prostrate, spreading on the ground for 3 dm. or 
more, rooting at the nodes, very branching in all directions It is 
a much larger species than no. 40, though similar in habit, with 
longer stems and larger leaves, but unlike that it has echinate 
heads, the bracts and 2 of the perianth segments being armed with 



208 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

long spines. Perianth with segments 6 or 7 mm. long. Heads 
silvery-white, densely woolly at the base. It occurs with no. 40. 

Alternantliera Cliacoeiisis, Morong, n. sp. 

Stem decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes, compressed, striate, pilose, 
thickened and woolly at the nodes, the young shoots woolly, 3-5 dm. high, 
much branched. Leaves 2-6 cm. long, 8-20 mm. wide, opposite, entire, 
glabrous above, appressed-pilose beneath, pellucidly lined, obovate, acute 
and cuspidate at the apex, sloping into a petiole 5-15 mm. long, or the upper- 
most sessile. Heads sessile, axillary, about 5 mm. in diameter, not spinous. 
Sepals silvery white, oblong, obtuse, glabrous, equal, 1-nerved, sometimes 
obscurely tricostate at the base, about 3 mm. long. Bracts shorter. Stamens 
3, much longer than the pistil ; staminodes entire. 

This species approaches both A. sessilis and A. paronycJiioides, 
but differs from them in being ascending, in having obtuse and 
1-nerved sepals and compressed and more woolly stems. The 
leaves, as in those species, are often in pairs of unequal size. 

In the Chaco territory, Pilcomayo River (1587). February. 

Cromplirena decuinliens, Jacq., Hort. Schoenbr., t. 482. 

Asuncion (42, 73, and 73^). October-January. 

A very pretty and interesting species, quite common in open 
places about Asuncion, and in the streets of the city. Stems erect, 
bushy-branched from the base and spreading, lanate, the long white 
hairs appressed. Heads terminal, subtended by a pair of leaves, 
at first ovate, elongating with age, woolly-haired under the bracts 
and perianth segments. The most common is no. 42, with silvery- 
white heads. No. 73 has purple heads. No. 73j is a rare variety, 
with yellow heads, 1-2^ dm. high, with long, fleshy roots. 

Gompltrena pereniiis, L., Sp. PL, 224. 

Pilcomayo Kiver (923). February. 

Herbaceous. Stem strigose-hairy, trichotomously branched. 
Perigonium tipped with yellow at the summit, all the sepals and 
bracts otherwise silvery-white and woolly at the base. The 2 
lateral bracts crested and keeled on the back. Heads globular, on 
long naked peduncles, each head subtended by 1-2 broad, ovate, 
mucronate, strigose-hirsute bracts. Sometimes the peduncles are 
as much as 30 cm. in length, and bear 1 or 2 lateral heads as well 
as the terminal one. Leaves very few, mostly confined to the lower 
part of the stem, sessile, strigosely hairy, pellucid punctate, the 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 209 

largest I collected 6 cm. long- and 2 cm. broad. The absence of 
leaves from the upper part of the stem gives the plant a very strag- 
gling, naked appearance. When the lateral heads occur they are 
in pairs, and frequently run together so as to appear but one. A 
head that I measured was nearly 2 cm. in diameter. 

We first named this G. pidchella, Mart., but we are indebted to 
Mr. N. E. Brown, of Kew, for a revision of the determination. 

Froelicliia laiiata, Moq., 1. c, 422. 

Pilcomayo River (850). December. = Balansa 194*7. 

Herbaceous, with slender, scapose stems, several rising from the 
same root, 25-35 cm. high. Nearly all the leaves are in a radical 
tuft, 1 or 2 occurring upon the lower part of the stems. They are 
oblanceolate, acute at the apex, sloping into a long. petiole, glabrous 
and opaquely dotted above, lanate beneath, 3-9 cm. long and 8-10 
mm. wide at the summit. Scapes more or less lanate. -Flowers in 
terminal spikes, the lower remote ; perianth scarious-bracted and 
its segments very woolly as in all the species. On the campo near 
the railroad between Luque and Paragua, 12 or 15 miles northeast 
of Asuncion. 

chenopodiace.f:. 

Clienopodium antlielmiiiticiiiii, L., Sp. PL, 220. 

Pilcomayo River (909 and 1543). January-February. 

Our Guarani peons on the Pilcomayo River attributed great 
medicinal virtue to the Roman Wormwood, which grows profusely 
along the banks. I frequently saw them gathering the spikes and 
stripping the flowers and fruit into tin cups for the purpose of 
steeping them into tea. 

Chenopodium glaucum, L., Sp. PL, 220. 

Pilcomayo River (918). January-February. 

Ctienopodium T^iveedii, Moq., D.,C. Prod., xiii, pt. 2, 63. 
Pilcomayo River (1005). April. 

Salicornia Oaudicliaudiana, Moq., L c, 145. 

Pilcomayo River (881). January. 

Fond of salt soil like all its relations, as it was growing only on 
the borders of a saline pool at the Laguna de las Palmas. 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Mar. 1893.— 14 



210 rianfs Cdlected in Partguay. 

Boiissengaiiltia baselloides, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., vii, 196. 

Asuncion (623); Pilcoinayo River (994). March-April. 

A very slender vine twining- over bushes and shrubs. The 
flowers are greenish- white, sometimes a dark maroon color, minute, 
spreading rotately in anthesis, in numerous, very slender axillary 
racemes, the racemes solitar}^ or panicled. Leaves alternate, entire, 
glabrous, pointed at the apex, subcordate, petioled, the largest 
blades collected 6 cm. long by nearly as broad at the base. 

PHYTOLACCACE.^. 
Kiviiia liumilis^ L., Sp. PL, 121. 

Asuncion (263 and 748); Pilcoraayo River (1544). December- 
June. 

Petiveria alliacea, L., Sp. PL, 342. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (530); Asuncion (T70); Pilco- 
inayo River (948). January-May. 

This plant, also occurring in South Florida, has a curious provi- 
sion for the dissemination of its seed which is worthy of notice. 
The linear-cuneate achenium has at the blunt apex 4-6 little knees 
from which project as many weak spines, at first somewhat erect, 
afterwards hardening and becoming reflexed and appressed, \ as 
long as the achenium, or some 3 or 4 mm. in length. As the fruit 
is easily drawn out of the enveloping sepals and these spines readily 
catch upon passing animals, an excellent means of dispersion is 
afforded. 

Microtea debilis, Sw., Prod., 53. 
Caballero (4tl). January. 

Seguiera Paragiiayeiisis, Morong, n. sp. 

A tree 14-17 m. or more in height, witli a rather slender trunk and dark 
gray bark, the branches smooth and witli lighter colored bark. Found only 
in fruit. Leaves oval, entire, coriaceous, glabrous, obscurely but hardly 
reticulate-veined, the margins with a callous edge, emarginate and mucronate, 
rounded at the base, the largest blades collected 6 cm. long and 4 cm. wide ; 
petiole about 1 cm. long. Stipules tuberculiform or a minute stiaiglit spine. 
Samara 2-2^ cm. long, thickened at the base and expanding into an obtuse 
wing 8-10 mm. broad, the wing angled, thickened and nearly straight on the 
upper side, and very thin, cristate and curved on the lower side, nerved on 
the faces, the nerves sloping towards the lower margin and often branching. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 211 

Seeds round, flattened, with a black membranaceous testa, 4 mm. long. Fruit 
in axillary or terminal and panicled racemes, on capillary pedicels 5-8 mm. 
long. 

Roadsides east of Asuncion (690). May. 

Seglliera COriacea, Benth., Trans. Lin. Soc, xviii, 235. Ex descr. 

Asuncion (645 and 660). April. 

A half-climbing shrub, diffusely branched at the summit, 2^-3 
dm. high, striate, glabrous below, the young branches and inflores- 
cence tomentose. The samara, which has not been described, is 
2-21 cm. long, the wing narrow at the lower part and much ex- 
panded above, rounded at the apex and 10-12 mm. broad, many and 
closely nerved on the faces. Seeds round, flattened, reddish colored, 
5 mm. long. The stipules are straight, stout thorns, thick at the 
base, often 2 cm. long. The branches of the panicle are also fre- 
quently subtended by a thorn. It has ample panicles of white 
flowers, and produces samaras profusely. Common in thickets. 

POLYGONACEJ^. 

Polygonum pimctatum, Ell., Bot. S. C. and Greorg., i, 455. 
P. acre, H. B. K., Nov. Gen,, ii, 179, not Lam. 

Asuncion (88); Pilcomayo River (1033). November-May. 
Abundant in the lowlands on the river-side at Asuncion, and also 
occurring in the waters of the great laguna on the Pilcomayo River. 

Polygonum acuminatum, H. B. K., 1. c, 178, var. microstemon, 

Meisn. in Mart. Fl. Bras., v. 14, t. 4, f. 2. 

Pilcomayo River (1060). June. 

Leaves of this species are linear-lanceolate, some of them over 20 
cm. long, appressed-pubescent on both sides, sessile or subsessile. 
Fruit lenticular, black and shining. Ochrese long and setosely ciliate, 
the bristles nearly 1 cm. long. Stem terete, perfectly glabrous, except 
at the top, where it is hairy. Spikes thick, cylindrical. Flowers white. 

Polygonum liispidum, H. B. K., 1. c, 178. 

Pilcomayo River (1026). May. 

This species differs from no. 1060 in having a very hispid stem, 
ovate or lanceolate, acuminate and black punctate-dotted leaves, 
and the ochrege hypocrateriform, with shorter cilise. The spikes 
are thick and cylindrical, red like those of our Prince's Feather ; 



212 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

flowers rose-tinged ; seeds flattish, almost oval, dark colored, not so 
smooth or shining as in P. acuminatum. Many of the stem hairs 
are glandular. 

Not only on the banks, but often growing in the water. It was 
plentiful in the great laguna. 

MulilenlieclLia sagittaefolia, Meisn., D.C. Prod., xiv, 148. 

Pilcomayo River (1038). May. 

A twining plant with glabrous stems and numerous long, loose 
spikes of small, greenish-white flowers, the spikes solitary, leafless, 
6-15 cm. in length. Leaves with small capillary auricles or sub- 
hastate at the base, the highest linear, lowest oblong or cordate- 
ovate. Style short, trifid ; stigmas fimbriate. Fruit glabrous, 
obtusely 3-angled. The sepals turn red in fruit. 

The plant from which my specimens were gathered was growing 
on the top of an old palm stump which stood in the water of the 
great laguna on the Pilcomayo River, and at its root was nesting a 
colony of small red ants. How they got there through such an 
expanse of water was a mystery. 

Coccolotoa Paraguayensis, Lindau in Eng. Bot. Jahr., xiii, 218. 

Asuncion (19Y a). November-April. = Balansa 2000. 

My specimens differ a little in some points from those of Balansa 
as described by Lindau. A shrub 1-2 m. in height, canescent; the 
branches glabrous, striate, rising at aii angle more or less acute. 
Leaves of a tawny color, elliptical, coriaceous, entire, obtuse at the 
apex, narrowed and subcordate at the base, 5-10 cm. long and 2-4 
cm. wide, strongly reticulate-venose, the veins prominent beneath, 
the lateral curving just before reaching the margin and running for 
some distance along the edge. Petioles about 1 cm. long, glabrous, 
canaliculate. Flowers white, alternate, in slender axillary racemes 
5-10 cm. long, the rachis angular; pedicels. 1|- mm. long. Ochreae 
caducous. Ochreolae scarcely 2 mm. long, lax, cup-shaped, bilobed. 
Bracts 1 mm. long, acute, decurrent. Fruit obtusely 3-angled, 
conical, truncate at base, 5 mm. long and 5 mm. broad, rather 
loosely invested by the persistent sepals. Seeds fuscous, shining, 
smooth. 

Coccolotoa spinescens, Morong, n. sp. 

A small tree with silvery gray bark, glabrous, 5-7 m. high, the young 
branches striate. Quite thorny, the thorns consisting of the sharp, indurated 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 213 

ends of the short branches or branchlets. Branches at right angles to the 
stem. Leaves coriaceous, veined and colored like 197 a, bat sometimes oval 
as well as elliptical, small, oiily 2-2^ cm. long and 1-1^ cm. broad, rounded 
or barely subcordate at tjie base, obtuse at the apex, on nearly capillary, 
downy, plane petioles 2-4 cm. long. Flowers minute, greenish-yellow, alter- 
nate, in nearly capillary racemes 3-4 cm. long, the rachis sharply angled, 
pedicels 1 mm. long. Ochrese caducous. Ochreolse and bracts as in no. 197 a, 
bat scarcely ^ mm. long. Perianth segments reflexed. Style short, 3-divided, 
curling downwards over the ovary : stigmas 3, capitate. Fruit ovoid, attenu- 
ate at both ends, 5 mm. long and 3-4 mm. in diameter, obtusely 3-angled, the 
persistent enclosing sepals closely appressed. Seeds black, shining. 

Deep woods on the banks of the Pilcomayo River (882). January. 

Coccoloba micropliylla, Morong, n. sp. 

A small tree, much branched, with dark, rugose bark, 5-8 m. high, glabrous, 
the young branches striate and lighter colored. Leaves oblong-elliptical, 
coriaceous, glabrous, dark green, obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base, on 
glabrous, canaliculate petioles 5 or 6 mm. long, the blades 3-9 cm. long and 
1^-2^ cm. broad. Flowers white, in axillary racemes 5-8 cm. long, not over 
5 mm. high, commonly 2 contained in the same ochreola, mostly crowded on 
all sides of the rachis ; pedicels 2-3 mm. long. Ochrese about 5 mm. long. 
Ochreolas 3-lobed, 2 mm. long. Bracts obtuse. Styles 3, erect ; stigmas 3, 
capitate. Fruit ovoid, obtusely 3-angled, 5-8 mm. long. 

This, like the preceding" species, grows in dense thickets on the 
banks of the Pilcomayo (899). = Balansa 2059. January. 

AKISTOLOCHIACEiE. 
Aristoloctiia Giberti, Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 5345. 

Near Luque (714). May. 

A very handsome climbing- vine, clambering over trees. The 
large round-cordate, glaucous leaves are on petioles 3-5 cm. long, 
having rounded, foliaceous, sessile stipules in their axils. The 
flowers are solitary, conspicuous for their shape and color. The 2 
projecting lobes stand out of the inflated body at right angles, 
giving the flower the look of a duck or swan swimming in the 
water. For this reason it is popularly called patito, or little duck. 
Flowers greenish, striped or spotted with purple. The pods are 
cylindrical, 4 cm. long, 2 cm. in diameter, truncate at both ends, 
filled with thin, flat, obovate seeds. 



"214 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

PIPERACEJE. 

Named by M. Casimir DeCandolIe. 

Piper fiilvescenSj C. D.C., ined. 

Asuncion (160). June. 

A rather succulent, much branched suffruteseent plant, growing- 
in large clumps in swampy places. Stem glabrous, angular, 1-2 m. 
high. The cylindrical spikes are numerous, 5 to 10 cm. long. 
Flowers white. Leaves succulent, alternate, broadly cordate-ovate, 
abruptly acute at the apex, palmately veined, the blades some of 
them 20 cm. long and nearly as broad ; petioles 1-5 cm. long. 

Piper Gaudicliaudianiiiii, Kimth.^ D.C. Prod., xvi, pt. 1, 277. 

Asuncion (705). May. 

A shrub 3-4 m. high, with greenish, downy, brittle stems, swollen 
at the nodes. Leaves minutely pellucid-punctate, lanceolate, obtusely 
acuminate, rough on the upper surface, 10-12 cm. long and 4 or 5 
cm. broad, on short thick petioles. The lateral nerves, 3-5 on a 
side, arise from the midrib, sunken above and downy and prominent 
beneath. The rat-tail spikes are 8-10 cm. in length. Flowers 
androgynous, the staminate and pistillate mixed in various ways 
on the same spike. Woods at Yilla Morra near Asunciosi. 

Piper medium^ .Jacq., Icon. Rar., i, 2, t. 8. 

Asuncion (692). May. 

Much like the preceding species in appearance, but differs m 
having broad elliptical leaves, which are 5-7 nerved from the base, 
10-12 cm. long, 6 or 7 cm. broad, and glabrous on both sides. 
Spikes thicker. In thickets with no 705. 

i'eperoiiiia Barbarana, C. D.C, Mem. Soe. Pbjs., xxvii, 1. 11. 

Caballero (393). January. 

A small, branching, succulent plant, 15-25 cm. high. Spikes of 
minute flowers 10-12 cm. long. Growing in damp woods. 

Peperomia nummularisefolia, H. B. K., Nov. Gfen., i, 66. 

Caballero (392). January. 

A delicate vine, climbing by rootlets upon old trees. Leaves 
small, orbicular, 5 mm. in diameter, diaphanous. Flowers in slen- 
der spikes. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 215 

Peperomia pseudo-Dindygulensis, C. D.C., I. c, 1. 1. 

Pilcomayo River (955). March. 

A low succulent plant 20-30 cm. high, witli downy stems and 
leaves. Spikes very slender, 4-8 cm. long, ver}^ numerous. This 
plant has a white rootstock, fibrously rooting at the joints, and with 
buds here and there from which new plants spring, running for a 
long distance under the leaves. It grows in deep woods under the 
shade of large trees. It differs from the preceding species in having 
a thicker and downy stem, elliptical, downy, 3 nerved leaves, slop- 
ing at the base, 3-7 cm. long, while no. 393 is smooth throughout, 
stems and leaves diaphanous, the leaves rounded and 5 nerved, 
lj-2^ cm. long. 

Peperomia radicaiis, C. D.C., 1. c, t. 2. 

Pilcomayo River (1545). March. 

Growing with 955 and much like that. It differs in being much 
smaller, the stems rising from an erect rhizome, leaves elliptical or 
oval, H-2^ mm. long and 6-12 mm. broad, and with stems and 
leaves more densely villous. 

LAURINEJE. 

Ocotea acutifolia (Nees), Mez., Jahr. Bot. Kiin. Bot. Cxart. Berl., v, 340. 

Near Asuncion (758). elune. 

A small tree 3-7 m. in height, with grayish bark, glabrous, the 
young branches and inflorescence downy, with a yellowish-green 
tint. Leaves shining green above, lighter and slightly downy 
beneath, entire, elliptical, obtusely pointed at the apex and sloping 
at the base into a petiole 12-18 mm. long, the largest blades col- 
lected 10-16 cm. long and 4-6 cm. broad. Flowers in large, loose 
terminal panicles, light yellow, or yellowish-green, fragrant. 

Growing by water-courses or in damp woods. 

Ocotea laxiflora (Meissn.), Mez., I. c, 370. 

Asuncion (152). November. 

A shrub 3 or 4 m. in height, with yellowish-green branches. 
Flowers much like those of no. 758, but in more branched and 
laxer axillary panicles. Leaves glabrous, coriaceous, and shining 
as in that, but smaller, oblong-elliptical, the blades 7-10 cm. long 
and 2-2| cm. broad, the lateral nerves scarcely visible. Thickets. 



216 Vlants Collected in Paraguay. 

LORANTHACE^. 

Lorantlms COrdatllS, Hoffmans. in Schultes Syst. vii^ 128. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (352). December. 

A parasite growing in large bunches upon Lhplacienia rigida, 
Benth. Leaves thick, opposite, coriaceous, lanceolate, obtuse, cor- 
date-amplexicaul. Flowers in terminal clusters, dark red, tubular, 
5 cm. long, the tube short, splitting into 6 linear lobes above, at 
length much longer than the tube. Stamens 6 on the corolla, and 
about as long, and the}^ with the style exserted in anthesis. A 
singular and very handsome species. The host is sometimes called 
the Timbo, but is not the true Timbo, which is Enterolohium con- 
tor tisiliquum. 

Ptioradendron acinacifolium, Mart. Fl. Bras., v, pt. 2, 117. 

Pilcomayo River (1546). March, 

A species which is distinguished by its oblong berries, 4-6 mm. 
in length. The leaves are obovate or often shaped like a cimeter, 
whence the specific name. 

Parasitic on the Quebracho Colorado. ' 

Phoradendrou Perottetii (D. C), Eich. in Mart. Fl. Bras., v, pt. 2, 
112. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (358) ; Pilcomayo River (954). 
Decern ber-March. 

A large mistletoe which occurs in the Gran Chaco opposite Asun- 
cion on Piptadenia and on the Pilcomayo River on the Quebracho 
Colorado. It has very large, thick, elliptical leaves; the flowers 
arranged in jointed spikes along the stems. 

Plioradendron riibriim (L.), Griseb. Flor. Brit. W. Ind., 314. 

Asuncion (618). March. 

Found only in fruit. Parasitic on Lycium Morongii. Leaves 
linear-oblanceolate, 3-8 cm. long and 1-1|- cm. wide, sessile or 
minutely petioled. Berries red, pulpy, mucilaginous. 

Phoradendrou obovatifoliiim, Morong, n. sp. 

Branches alternate or sometimes opposite, tetragonous, striate, anoipital, 
strongly flattened beneath the nodes ; older stem becoming free from strise? 
and more or less terete. Leaves opposite, obovate, sometimes orbicular- 
obovate, rounded, obtuse, and mucronate, sometimes slightly emai-ginate at 



Flants Collected in Paraguay. 21 T 

the apex, narrowing and with the margins recurved at the base ; the blades 
12-17 mm. long, 8-15 mm. broad, 3-nerved, the nerves obscure or obsolete 
above, the midrib prominent below for the whole length of the blade, and the 
lateral nerves distinct or obscure; petiole 1-3 mm. long, ancipital with the 
decurrent midrib. Spikes solitary, axillary, 8-12 mm. long, bearing 3-4 
verticils of flowers, the flowers 3 or 4 pistillate and 1 or 2 smaller staminate 
in a verticil. Berries ovoid, verrucose, about 2 mm. long. The cataphyllary 
sheaths slightly bifid, the teeth obtuse and ciliolate ; bracteal sheaths nearly 
or quite truncate, not ciliolate. 

This species is apparently closely related to P. Ottonis, Eichler 
(Flor. Bras., v, pt. 2, 119), but differs from it in several particulars, 
and still more from P. emarginatam^ Mart., with which Eichler 
associates P. Ottonis. 

Growing with no. 358 upon Piptadenia in the Gran Chaco, 
opposite Asuncion (1582). December. 

EUPHORBIACE^. 
Euphorbia heteropliylla, L., Sp. PL, 453. 

Pilcomayo River (867 and 1547). January. 

Growing on the carapo at a wood-cutting station on the lower 
Pilcomayo, known as Obraje de Pedro Gill. Broad oval-shaped 
leaves. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima (Graham), Willd. ; Boiss. in D.C. Prod., 

XV, pt. 2, 71. 

Asuncion (742). 

This fine plant is cultivated largely in the flower-gardens of 
Paraguay. I do not think, however, that it grows wild in the 
country. It is a native of Mexico and Central America. It is 
conspicuous for the large showy red floral leaves, and sometimes 
grows 2-^ m. high. It flowers nearly the entire year round. 

Euphorbia serpens, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., ii, 41. 

Pilcomayo River (8«1). January. = Balansa 1686. 

Euphorbia thyniifolia, L., Sp. PL, 454. 

Asuncion (64). November. 

A small spreading, prostrate plant, growing in grassy grounds. 
Leaves opposite, oblong, obtuse, nearly or quite equilateral at the 
base, 1-nerved, glabrous or puberulent, 5-7 ram. long; petioles 
about 1 mm. long. Flowers minute ; glands 4, small, concave. 



218 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

stipitate. Capsules pubescent, about 1 mm. long ; seeds in my 
specimens tetragonous, with even sides and no furrows of any kind. 

i:upliorl>ia liypericifolia, L., Sp. PL, 454. 

Asuncion (372); Pilcomayo River (93^). November-February. 

The plants vary considerably. The stems and capsules, generally 
o-labrous, are sometimes pubescent. Leaves occasionally linear, 
falcate, acute and entire, but usually they are well marked, and 
the seeds are entirely of this species. The plant often grows in the 
streets of Asuncion as well as in the suburbs. On the campo along 
the Pilcomayo it sometimes attains a height of 1 or 1^ metres. 

PtiyllanttlllS orbiculatllS, L. C. Richard, Act. Soc. Par. 1792, p. 113. 

Asuncion (678). April. 

Growing in old cultivated fields. Stem erect, slender, 15-20 cm. 
high. Juice watery, not milky as in Euphorbia. Flowers white, 
minute, axillary; pedicels in fruit reflexed and 2 mm. long. Leaves 
orbicular, alternate, glabrous, about 1 cm. in diameter. Capsules 
depressed-globose, smooth, 6-seeded ; seeds pitted on the convex 
back. 

Phyllantliiis Cliacoensis, Morong, n. sp. 

A tree 8-12 m. high, with crooked, straggling limbs, which begin near the 
ground and are often much crowded and hoiizontal, 3-4 dm. in diameter at 
the base, with much broken, shaggy gray bark; the wood very hard. Leaves 
pinnate, with 5 or 6 subopposite leaflets, the leaflets oval or nearly orbicular, 
entire, coriaceous, glabrous, shining, slightly cordate at base, 2-7 cm. long and 
2-3^ cm. wide, nearly sessile. Flowers monoecious, about 2 mm. high, and on 
a pedicel of the same length, all on the old wood and appearing before the new 
leaves, in very slender racemes, which are usually densely crowded, and from 
3 to 6 em." long. Grlauds of the disk wanting. Perianth segments normally'' 
4, purple and white or sometimes greenish, obovate, fringed at the apex. 
Staminate flowers normally with 4 free stamens opposite the segments. 
These, however, vary very much, and they and the perianth segments are 4, 
and 7 in number, the segments separate or sometimes partly united. Pis- 
tillate flowers with a 2- or 3-celled ovary, each cell 2-ovuled. Style short, 
2-divided, each division splitting into 2-4 stigmas, which curl downwards 
over the ovary. Fruit a small bluish, 2 celled drupe, which, when dry, has a 
thick corky putamen, oval, 5 or 6 mm. long. 

In the Gran Chaco, opposite Asuncion (355). =^ Balansa 1712, 
and Fendler Panama 140 and 323. September-January. 



Plants Collected in Paragumj. 219 

Jatropha Titifolia, Mill., Diet. 

Trinidad (794). October. = Balansa 1720. 

Soft stemmed, suffruticose, with copious milliy juice, -J-1 m. high. 
Stem and lower surface of leaves beset with straight, transparent, 
1-2 celled spines, which are about 1 cm. long, pulvinate at the base. 
Leaves alternate, palmatelv 3-5 nerved, the nerves prominent 
beneath, 5-7 lobed, the lobes cut-incised and spiny at the apex, on 
white spiny petioles 5-8 cm. long, the blades 8-14 cm. long and 
about as wide. The upper surface of the leaf smooth, green, white 
spotted. Flowers white, tube shorter than the 5 spreading lobes. 
At first the perianth is greenish below and spiny, afterwards be- 
coming pure white and glabrous, large (2-2-|- cm high). Stamens 
numerous, in a column as if Malvaceous, with several series, one 
above the other. Style 2-divided, each division with several thread- 
like stigmas. Ovary spiny. 

This very spinous plant is rather a dangerous thing to handle, 
notwithstanding its clusters of handsome flowers, for its needle- like 
spines can inflict a severe and smarting wound. 

Jatroplia gossypiifolia, L., var. breviloba, Morong, n. var. 

Differs from the type as described in Fl. Bras, in having the leaves shortly 
3-5 lobed, the ovary and exterior of the perianth lacinise, and all parts of the 
plant, including the inflorescence, glabrous. 

I append a fuller account of this species than has ever been given. 
It is usually a shrub 2-3 m. high, but sometimes when used as a 
shade tree, as it often is in Asuncion, it attains a height of 5-7 m. 
Leaves broad-ovate or orbicular in outline, palmately veined and 
subcordate, acute-aristate at the apex and on the sharp lobes. The 
stipules are peculiar, being setose, dichotomously divided, each 
branch tipped with a small round gland, often 1 cm. or more in 
length. The margins of the leaves, bracts, and lacinise are setace- 
ously ciliate and tipped with glands. Flowers in small terminal 
cymes, monoecious; staminate flowers with 5 petals yellow^ish-green 
on the margins, brownish-red in the middle, purple-striped below on 
the outside, spreading in anthesis, 5 mm. long; stamens 8, united 
below, dimorphous, 5 short and 3 long, the shorter ones shedding 
their pollen before the others open. Styles 3, united below, persis- 
tent, with 3 capitate stigmas. Fruit 1^ cm. long by 1 cm. broad, 
truncate at the apex. Seeds flattened-cylindrical, boat-shaped on 
one face and angled on the other, glabrous, brownish in color, with 



220 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

a large lobed caruncle at the lower end. When cut the stem exudes 
a copious watery milk. 

One of the most striking plants on the lowlands near the river 
at Asuncion (71). November-December. = Balansa 1718. 

Croton glandulosiis, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1425. 

Asuncion (113). 

Common in waste grounds, and flowering from November to June. 

Croton lolbatiis, L., Sp. PL, 1005. 

Pilcomayo River (939). February. 

Herbaceous. Stems glabrous, dichotomously branched, 4-6 dm. 
high. Leaves 3-5 lobed. Petioles 1-4 cm. long, with numerous 
minute glands at the summit. 

Croton migrans, Casar., Nov. Stirp. Bras., Dec, 88. 

Caballero (518). January. = Balansa 1650. 

A shrub about 3 m. high, with dark lepidote stem, much branched. 
Leaves scattered, numerous, dark green and glabrous above, silver}^ 
white lepidote below from base to apex, the minute scales dark, 
eiliate, with closely appressed, radiating silky white- hairs; petioles 
3 or 4 mm. long; the blades linear, 2^-4 cm. long and 2-4 mm. 
wide, keeled beneath, and with no appearance of lateral nerves. 
Racemes 2-4 cm. long, mostly staminate above, with 2-4 pistillate 
flowers below. Staminate flower 2 mm. high ; stamens 9. Pisti- 
late flower a little larger; styles 5. Fruit globular, 3 or 4 mm. 
long ; seeds black, shining, lenticular. 

Growing in swampy grounds. 

Croton rliamnifolius, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., ii, 75. 

Caballero (503). January. 

A shrub 3-7 m. high, with a tawny-haired stem. Leaves lanceo- 
late, with tawny, stellate tomentum beneath, dark green and soon 
glabrate above, the lateral nerves distinct, blades 3-6 cm. long and 
1-2 or more cm. wide; petioles 3-5 mm. long. Flowers in terminal 
racemes, 5-14 cm. long, the staminate above and pistillate below. 
Stamens about 15. Fruit globose, about 5 mm. long, stellate- 
tomentulose ; seeds smooth, fuscous, flattish on one side. The 
whole inflorescence covered bv a hoarv, stellate tomentulum. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 221 

Crotoii Urucuraiia, BailL, Obs. Bot., iv, 325. 

Asuncion (218) ; Yilla Rica (612). December-February. 

A shrubby plant 1-3 m. high, covered in all its parts, except the 
upper surface of the leaves, with stellate, hoary toraentum. Leaves 
broadly cordate-ovate, acuminate, entire or minutely and remotely 
denticulate, 6-18 cm, long and 4-12 cm. broad at the base; petioles 
4-6 cm. in length. Flowers greenish-white, in long (20 or more 
cm.) terminal racemes. Stamens upwards of 15, much exserted. 
Capsule 4^ mm. long and 5J mm. broad, containing 3 shining 
black seeds which are angled and furrowed longitudinally on the 
sides. The leaves of this plant are strongly aromatic when bruised. 

Crotoii vulnerarius, Baillon, 1. c, 328. 

Asuncion (1548). June. 

A shrub similar to nos. 218 and 612. Leaves not so large, denti- 
culate. Racemes shorter (10-12 cm.). Seeds very different, being 
nearly flat, several ribbed on both sides and yellowish-brown in 
color, not shining. 

Crotoii sparsiflorus, Morong, n. sp. 

A low slirnb ^-1 m. in height. Stem fuscous, branching irregularly, angu- 
lar, lepidote, the scales deeply cut by 15-20 appressed radiating hairs. Leaves 
dark green, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, cuneate at base, 
serrate, penni-nerved, smooth above, sparsely lepidote beneath, with 2 patelli- 
form glands | mm. broad at the base ; blades 3-6 cm. long and 1-3 cm. wide ; 
petioles 1-2 cm. long. Stipules mere subulate points, caducous. Flowers in 
slender terminal racemes, 6-12 cm. long, the flowers continuous, pistillate 
below and staminate above, the pistillate much fewer. Staminate flowers 
scattered along the rachis, about 2 mm. high, the perianth segments 5, the 
outer ovate and glabrous, the interior white and smaller, woolly at base inside ; 
stamens about 13. Perianth segments of the pistillate flower lanceolate, 
ciliate ; inner segments none ; ovary tomentose ; styles 3, each 2-divided. 
Capsule angular-globose, 5 or 6 mm. long and 4 mm. broad, sparsely lepidote; 
seeds flattened-cylindrical, obtusely 2-angled, with a furrow on one side, trun- 
cate at either end, glabrous, slightly mamillate-asperous, shining, 5 mm. long, 
the caruncle conspicuous. The young branches and petioles are densely white 
lepidote. 

This plant is common in the waste grounds and streets of Asun- 
cion, and also occurs on the campos along the Pilcomayo River. 

Asuncion (43); Pilcomayo River (940). November-March. 
= Baknsa 1732 and Gibert 97. 



222 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Julocroton Gardlieri, MuelL, Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras., xi, pt. 2, 27G. 

Asuncion (349); Pilcomayo Riv^er (lOlV). December-April. 
= Gardner 2724, and Balansa 1646. 

Shrubby, ^-1 m. high, glabrous below and stellately pubescent 
above and on the branches. Leaves crowded at the summit of the 
stem and branches, alternate, subopposite or sometimes in 3s, 
obovate, entire, palmately 3-5 nerved, minutely pubescent on both 
sides with stellate scales, pellucid-punctate, the largest blades col- 
lected 8 cm. long and 5 cm. wide ; petioles 1-3 cm. long. Stipules 
setaceous, hairy. Flowers in dense terminal clusters, sessile, or 
the staminate on a short spike and nearly hidden by the crowded 
floral leaves. The stem and leaves have a grayish tint. 

Julocroton Brittonianiiin, Morong, n. sp. 

A slirub 5-10 dm. high. Stem branched, pubescent below, stellately tomen- 
tose above and on the branches. Foliage light colored, with a yellowish tinge. 
Leaves alternate or occasionally subopposite, ovate, acute at the apex, obtuse 
at the base, 3-5-nerved, serrate towards the apex, pubescent above and stell- 
ately tomentose beneath, 3-5 cm. long, 1-3 cm. broad; petioles stellately 
tomentose, 1-2^ cm. long ; stipules setaceous, hairy, caducous. Inflorescence 
densely tomentose, many of the hairs long and stellately tipped. Flowers in- 
conspicuous, in loose terminal clusters, monoecious. Staminate flowers about 
3 cm. high; calyx deeply divided, with 5 ovate lobes, on pedicels 2-3 mm. 
long; stamens 10, much exserted, densely pilose on the filaments, the alter- 
nate filaments with a small strap-shaped petal or petaloid appendage attached 
to them on the outside near the base. Pistillate flowers larger, sessile, the 
segments of the perianth long, lanceolate ; styles long, 3-divided, each division 
split into 3 hairy stigmas ; ovary large, 3-carpelled ; seeds brownish-black 
when mature, rough, about 3 mm. long, convex on the back, obtusely angled 
on the face, marked by a large white caruncle at the hilum. 

Differs from J. Gardneri in being more widely branched, with 
lighter colored foliage, smaller and serrate leaves, and otherwise, 
and from J. pycnophyllus in having the flowers in loose clusters 
instead of dense heads, smaller leaves, as well as in other respects. 

Obraje de Pedro Gill, Pilcomayo River (864). January. 

Julocroton pycnopliyllus, Muell. Arg. in D.C., Prod., xv, pt. 2, 700'. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (593). January. ^ Balansa 1665. 

A tall, branching, shrubby plant. Stem and bi'anches compressed- 
angled, clothed with long ferruginous hairs which are stellate at the 
top. Leaves elliptical, undulate, palmately 5-nerved, densely clothed 
with ferruginous stellate pubescence on both sides, on petioles 5-10 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 223 

mm. long; the blades 7-10 cm. long and 2^-4 cm. broad. Floral 
leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers in dense, compact terminal spikes, 
which are cylindrical, narrowing at the apex, 3-5 cm. long and 1-2 
cm. in diameter. 

The whole plant has a 3^ellowish appearance. 

Ar^ytliamnia MonteTidensis (Diedr.), Muell. Arg., Linnsea, xxxiv, 
147. 

Pilcomayo River (996). April. 

A shrub about 4 dm high, with many stems springing from a 
procumbent, contorted base. Stem strict, scarcely branched, pubes- 
cent with straight, appressed hairs. Leaves alternate, narroAV 
elliptical, more or less serrulate, with scattered hairs like those of 
the stem beneath, 3-5 cm. long and 1-1|- broad, sessile or the lowest 
on minute petioles. Flowers monoecious, the 2 kinds together in 
axillary clusters. Inner lacinise of the perianth light yellow. Fruit 
a 3-carpelled capsule, the carpels looking like 3 little nuts joined 
together, 5 mm. broad, about 3 mm. long, villous. Seeds globose, 
obtusely 3-angled, a little wrinkled, nearly 3 mm. in diameter. 

€aperoiiia paliistris, St. Hil., PI. Remarq., 245. 

Asuncion (382); Pilcomayo River (1047); Caballero (438). 
January-Ma3^ 

This genus differs principally from the preceding Euphorbiaceous 
genera in having its fruit in united triplets, the 3 cocci generally 
hispid or echinate. The species here noted is a coarse plant 6-9 
dm high, the stems beset with spreading, translucent setae, each 
tipped with a minute oblong head. Nos. 382 and 1047 have broad 
oval crenate-serrate leaves, while the leaves of 438 are long, narrow 
lanceolate and sharply serrate. The last differs so greatly from the 
other forms that it might almost be considered a distinct species. 

Some specimens of 1047 were distributed as C. caatameeefolia, St 
II il., which very closely resembles this species. 

Manihot Aipi, Pohl., PI. Bras., i, 29. 

Asuncion (390). 

Cultivated extensively and sometimes spontaneous in Paraguay. 
Known as Mandioca dulce, or the sweet or innocuous Manioc. 
A shrubby plant with smooth stems and deeply 6-7-parted leaves, 
1-1^ m. in height. The roots are greatly esteemed as vegetables, 
looking when boiled for the table something like parsnips. The}^ 



224 Plants Collected iyi Paraguay. 

are also used for feeding cattle. The meal made by grinding them 
and drying the pulp, called farina, forms the principal subsistence 
of the common people. A delicious bread known as chipa is manu- 
factured from it, and it serves as many purposes as wheat flour does 
in this country. It may be grown most of the year. 

Maiiiliot utilissiina, Polil., 1. c, 32. 

Asuncion (391). 

So strongly resembles the preceding species that an unpractised 
eye cannot tell them apart. The natives, however, readily distin- 
guish them by small differences in color and position of the leaves 
on the stem. In properties they are opposites, for the juice of this 
species is a deadly poison. It is known as Mandioca brava, and is 
cultivated to some extent in Paraguay. When the juice is expressed 
from the grated pulp, and that is dried over the fire or in the sun, 
it becomes a wholesome article of food. Indeed, some persons 
expressed to me a preference for the meal made of this species, but 
I never could discover any difference in taste between the two. 

Grown the year round. 

Bernardia pulcliella, Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras., xi, pt. 2, 392. 

Caballero (607). January. = Balansa 1688. 

A tall shrub or small tree. The fruit as in Gaperonia in 3 cocci, 
but these are only minutely pubescent. The staminate flowers are 
in slender spikes 3-4 cm. long, usually on a different stem or another 
part of the stem from the pistillate ; stamens 8-12. Pistillate 
flowers few or solitary. Leaves elliptical, narrow^ed at both ends, 
sessile, serrate on the upper half, 6-13 cm. long and 2-4 cm. wide, 
appressed-pubescent on the nerves beneath. 

Acalyplia cominuiiis, Muell. Arg., Linnsea, xxxiv, 23. 
Pilcomayo River (1549). February. 

Acalyplia communis, Muell. Arg., var. hirta, Mnell. Arg. in Mart. 
Fl. Bras., xi, pt. 2, 350. 

Asuncion (189). November. 

Suffruticose, usually not quite a metre in height, but sometimes 
growing into a shrub 2-2J m. high. A very variable species as to 
pubescence, shape of leaves, length of petioles, and thickness of the 
spikes. The form growing in old fields and by the wayside at 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 225 

Asuncion (var. hirta, Muell. Arg.) has lanceolate leaves, acute at 
the apex, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, crenate-serrate, 
sparsely pubescent, 5-9 cm. long and 1-2 cm broad, on petioles 1-3 
cm. long; stems covered with long spreading hairs and also a close 
retrorse tomentum. The form on the Pilcomayo has broad ovate 
leaves, cuneate or rounded at base, and petioles sometimes 8 cm. 
long; stems with long, scattered, spreading hairs. Staminate spikes 
slender, 2-6 cm. long, usually on the stem below the pistillate, both 
kinds numerous. Pistillate spikes and flowers much larger than 
the staminate. The long exserted, rose-red and thread-like fringed 
styles are quite ornamental, and lend a beaut}^ to this rough weed 
which it would not otherwise possess. 

Acalyplia liederacea, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Survey, 200. 

Luque (345). December. = Balansa 1691. 

A small creeping plant, occurring among grasses and underbrush. 
Leaves ovate or orbicular, 1-1^ cm. long. Staminate flowers in 
long, slender spikes, and the pistillate solitary or 1 or 2 in the axils 
of the leaves or at the base of the staminate spikes. In Texas and 
Mexico, as well as in Paraguay. 

Acalyplia riideralis. Mart. 

This w^as brought back from Kew under the name here given, 
but w^e have been unable to find any work in which it is so named 
or cited. 

Caballero (460). January. 

Inflorescence as in no. 345, but the stems are erect, 3-4|^ dm. 
high, and the leaves ovate or elliptical, crenate, acute at either end, 
pubescent on both sides, 2-6 cm. long and 1^-3 cm. wide; petioles 
1-1^ cm. long. 

Acalyplia agrestis, Moroug, n. sp. 

Suffruticose, 3 dm. to 1 m. in height, the stem and young branches hispid 
witli spreading hairs mingled with a close tomentum, sulcate and more or 
less compressed above. Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, rounded and sub- 
cordate at base, acuminate at apex, crenate-dentate, 5-7 palmately nerved, 
appressed pubescent above, softly villous beneath, the hairs lying along the 
nerves in an appressed fringe ; blades 6-10 cm. long and 3-5^ cm. wide ; 
petioles hispid, 2-4 cm. long. Stipules setaceous, hispid, much shorter than 
the petioles. Staminate spikes erect, with compactly crowded flowers, axil- 
lary, about 2 mm. thick and 3-4 cm. long, on short peduncles ; floral bracts 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Mar. 1893.— 15 



226 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

long ciliate ; segments of perianth 5, minutely pubescent, not ^ mm. liigli. 
Pistillate spikes terminal, thicker, 6-8 cm. long ; floral bracts 7-8 divided 
nearly to the base, glabrous ; perianth segments 3, ovate ; ovary tawny-liir- 
sute ; style parted shortly above the base into 15-18 much exserted purple 
threads. Fruit not seen. 

A species nearly related to A. communis, Muell. Arg. 
Central Paraguay (1578). March. 

Ricimis commiiiiis, L., Sp. PL, 1007. 

Asuncion (121). 

The Castor-oil Bean is very common on the river banks and in 
the woods around Asuncion. It frequently grows into a small tree 
5 or 6 m. high, and may be found in flower or fruit the greater part 
of the year. 

Tragia §ellolviana, Muell. Arg., Linnsea, xxiv, 178. 

Near Asuncion (709). May. 

A climbing herb, suflfruticose below, with very slender fuscons- 
haired stems. Leaves far apart, ovate, cordate, acute, dentate, 
palmately nerved, 5-10 cm. long, sparsely white pubescent on both 
sides, on petioles 3-6 cm. long. Flowers monoecious, in biparted 
racemes, the branches of distinct sexes; the common peduncle 
naked. Stipules lanceolate, small. Fruit of 3 silky-haired, globose 
cocci ; seeds globose, yellov/ or brownish spotted, nearly 4 mm. in 
diameter. In thickets. 

Stilliiigia sylvatica, L., var. Paraguayensis, Morong, n. var. 

Varies very decidedly from the Florida form (Chap. Flor., 404). A tree 5-8 
m. high. Stem single, alternately branched, with smooth gray bark. Juice 
milky. Leaves willowy, alternate, glabrous, lanceolate, acute at either end, 
4r-10 cm. long, 8-15 mm. wide, crenate-serrulate, the serratures appressed and 
ending in a gland, often biglandular at the base of the blade ; petioles 5 or 6 
mm. long. Stipules very small, ovate, scalelike. Spikes terminal, mona'ci- 
ous, sometimes all staminate, or again with only a few pistillate flowers at the 
base, 6-8 cm. long. Glands not cnp-shaped at all, but flat, 1-2 mm. wide. 
Bracts yellowish-green, broader than long, sometimes fimbriate. Style short; 
stigmas 3, longer, curled downwardly, stigmatic on the upper side. Fruit a 
large 3-celled capsule, each cell containing a single flatfish, black, smootli 
seed enveloped in a scarlet pulp, the seed about 5 mm. long. 

In flower at Asuncion, October, November; in fruit on the Pilco- 
mayo River, January (814). = Balansa 1711. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 227 

Sapitim glandulosiim (L.), Morong. 
Hippomane glandulosa, L., Sp. PL, 1191. 
Hippomane biglandulosa, L., Sp. PI., Ed. 2, 1431. 
Sapium higlandulosnm^ Muell. Arg., Liniisea, xxxii, 116. 

Asuncion (196). November-December. 

A tree some 13 or more m. in height, with ashen-gray bark much 
roughened and broken into lines on the trunk. The milky juice is 
so copious that it is shed all over the ground when the leaves are 
bruised by the wind. Leaves willow-like, alternate, the blades deep 
green, coriaceous, serrulate, 10-16 cm. long and about 2 cm. wide, 
biglandular at the base; on petioles 5-20 mm. long. Stipules small, 
round, membranous, with ciliate or jagged edges. Flowers in spikes 
at the ends of the branches, small, yellow, monoecious and dioecious; 
when monoecious the pistillate flowers are at the base of the stami- 
nate spikes. Staminate flowers with a perianth deeply 2- or 3- 
divided, when 2-divided with 2 stamens, when 3-divided with 3 
stamens. Fruit a fleshy capsule, 2-celled, containing 2 large seeds. 
In fields, suburbs of Asuncion. 

8e1)astiaiia Ibracliyclada, Muell. Arg. in D.C. Prod., xv, pt. 2, 1178. 

Banks of the Tebicuary River (500). January. 

A very leafy shrub about 5 m. high, the short lateral branches 
ending in stiff, sharp thorns. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous, obovate, 
oval or elliptical, entire or here and there with minute serrulations, 
slightly revolute, the blades 2-4^ cm. long and 1-2 cm. wide, on 
petioles about 5 mm. long. Flowers monoecious, the staminate 
small, yellowish, 1-3 under broad, somewhat dentate bracts, in 
spikes 1-2 cm. long at or near the ends of short branches. Pistil- 
late flowers among the leaves on the stem, solitary or several 
together in a cluster, on a peduncle 1-2 cm. long. Capsule pedi- 
celled, glabrous, depressed-globose, 3-carpelled, with a thick, hard 
shell, about 8 mm. broad; seeds nearly ovoid, glabrous, brownish, 
about 4 mm. long, with a small, black, peltate caruncle at the base. 

Seliastiana corniculata (Muell. Arg.), Baillon Obs. Bot., 1. c. 

Asuncion (154). November. 

Herbaceous, or subligneous at base, much branched, about 6 
dm. high. Leaves numerous, alternate, narrowly elliptical, bristly 
serrulate, glabrous and silvery dotted above, pubescent beneath, 
rounded at base, acute and mucronulate or sometimes obtuse at 
apex, 2|^-4 cm. long and 6-16 mm, broad, on petioles 2-5 mm. long. 
Staminate flowers minute, red, distichous, in setaceous spikes along 



228 Plants Collected iyi Paraguay. 

the stems. Pistillate flowers larger, solitary, near the base of the 
staminate spike. Fruit a 3-carpelled capsule 4 mm. long and about 
as broad, nearly glabrous, each carpel with 2 minute horns at the 
top ; seeds flattish, glabrous, dark colored, about 3 mm. long, with 
a white peltate caruncle at the base. 

A cti 11 OS tern on Liiqiiense, Morong, n. sp. 

An unarmed shrub 3-4 m. in height, with brownish-warty or black-spotted, 
fissured bark. Leaves glabrous, elliptical, apparently exstipulate, crenulate- 
serrate, the teeth with callous points, furnished with small glands near the 
midrib above and with scattered glands beneath, more or less revolute on the 
margins, the largest blades collected about 7 cm. long by 3 cm. wide; petioles 
5 or 6 mm. in length. Bracts decurrent, biglandular at the base. Staminate 
Howers small, yellow or greenish-yellow, in slender terminal spikes 5-10 cm. 
long, 1-3 flowers from a single bract ; calyx of several minute scales or want- 
ing ; stamens 3-10; anthers broader than long, 2-celled, opening longitudi- 
nally. Rachis of the spikes sharply angular, fuscescent. Pistillate flowers 
much larger, 1-3 at the base of the spike, apparently without a calyx ; ovary 
often 3-angled, glabrous, armed about half-way up by several irregularly 
dentate and sharp-toothed scales, slightly spreading at the top ; styles thick, 
connate at the base, 3-divided above, the divisions curling down over the ovaiy 
and longer than that. Fruit a very hard, thick-shelled, glabrous, globose 
capsule, 3-carpelled, 7 or 8 mm. long, containing 1 seed in each cell; seeds 
glabrous, globose, fuscous, 3 or 4 mm. in diameter, with a small peltate car- 
uncle at the base. 

Thickets, near Luque (720). May. 

URTICACEJE. 
Celtis Tala, Gill., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1848, p. 410. 

Pilcomayo River (1045 and 816). October-May. = Man don 
1096 from Bolivia. 

A spiny shrub 3-5 m. or more in height, with smooth, ashen-gray 
bark and flexuous branches. Leaves numerous, simple, oval, ser- 
rulate near the top, mucronulate, subcordate, the veins white and 
prominent beneath, 3-nerved, 3-5 cm. long and 2-3 cm. broad; 
petioles 3 or 4 mm. long. Flowers white or greenish-white, minute. 
Fruit a yellow, pulpy, 1-seeded berry. In thickets. 

Trema micraiitlia (Sw.), Blume, Mus. Bot., ii, 58. 

Asuncion (213). November-December. 

A tree of moderate size. Young branches pubescent. Leaves 
in 2 ranks, or nearly so, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate and mucronate, 
cordate at base, 3-nerved, serrulate, rough to the touch above and 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 229 

soft pubescent beneath, the largest about 10 cm. long and 4 cm. 
wide, on petioles about 5 mm. long. Flowers greenish, very small, 
in short cymes along the branches, polygamous. Fruit a small 
yellow 1-celled, 1-seeded drupe 

This tree generally grows in open fields, and bears croAvded 
branches and leaves. It is ungraceful in appearance. 

jnoriis allia, L., Sp. PL, 986. 

Asuncion (*787). 

One of the many forms of the white mulberry, bearing dark purple 
fruit. Not a native of Paraguay, but introduced and growing freely 
into a fine large tree. Like most other people, the Paraguayans have 
tried experiments in manufacturing silk, and this tree was intro- 
duced for the purpose of feeding the silk-worm, but a manufacture 
of that kind, even if all the requisite means were easy to be obtained, 
would never suit such an indolent, unenterprising race, and the 
industry soon perished. Some of the trees, however, are left and 
are found here and there in the country. In fruit August. 

FiCUS Radula (Miq.), Morong. 

Pharmacosycia Radula, Miq. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot., vii, 64. 

Asuncion (245). 

A noble tree, often growing nearly 25 m. in height. Bark gray- 
ish, very smooth. Leaves alternate, simple, entire, coriaceous, 
glabrous on both sides, oval, entire, the margins slightly revolute, 
abruptly acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, the blades 8-18 
cm. long and 5-8 cm. broad ; petioles l-|-5 cm. long. Keceptacle 
on a short peduncle, about the size of a pea, becoming in fruit a 
syconium nearly 2 cm. in diameter, and filled with small white 
seeds which are marked with a prominent raphe. The wood is 
hard, and the whole tree abounds with milk, which often exudes 
copiously of its own accord in the hot sunshine. Once when botan- 
izing in the woods near Asuncion I heard the pattering of what 
seemed to be rain-drops. Surprised at this, as the sun was shining 
brightly, I followed the sound, and found that the noise proceeded 
from milk-drops, falling one by one from this tree. The ground 
was fairly white beneath its boughs. Fruit only found. Decem- 
ber-January. 

Ficiis, Sp. 

Asuncion (1550). = Balansa 1986. 
Foliage only collected. 



230 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Coilotapalus peltata (L.), Brittou. 
Cecropia peltata, L., Amoen. Acad., v, 410. 

Near Luque (717). May-June. 

Cue of the most striking and beautiful trees in the forests of 
Paragua}^ the nmbrella-like head and the large peltate silver3Mobed 
leaves showing finely against the green foliage of its companions. 
It has a naked columnar stem, rising to a height of 10-15 m. Leaves 
orbicular in outline, 20 cm. or more in breadth, deeply 9-11 lobed, 
the lobes green and somewhat rough above, and with a silvery- 
white tomentum beneath, on petioles 15-20 cm. long. Flowers 
dioecious, in cylindrical spikes, sunk in the surface of the rachis; the 
pistillate spikes generally 4 on the same peduncle, and about 10 cm. 
long and l-l^cm. thick; the stamiuate smaller, 10 or more together, 
5 cm. long and 3 or 4 mm. thick. The large spatbe-like stipules which 
enclose the buds, also white tomentose, are very conspicuous. 

Ants are very fond of the fresh flowers of this tree, and I nearly 
always found them running over it in great numbers. 

Urtica spatlllllata, Sm. in Rees Cyc, no. 17. 

Buenos Aires (11). October. 

I did not see this nettle in Paraguay, but it is very abundant 
about Montevideo and Buenos Aires, and doubtless occurs farther 
north also. It is a small prostrate or ascending plant, with numer- 
ous small orbicular incisely dentate leaves. The prickles are ver}'" 
numerous and exceedingly irritating, leaving a stinging sensation 
which lasts for hours. 

Urera Ijaccifera (L.), Graudich. Bot. Voy. d'Uranie, 497. 

Near Pirayu (663). April. 

A tall, succulent-stemmed shrub, 3-5 m, in height, with a copious 
watery milky juice. Leaves very large, round-ovate, slightly cor- 
date at base, abruptly acute at the apex, sinuate-dentate, rugose 
above, very rugose and veiny below, armed with stinging hairs, 
30-40 cm. long and 15-20 cm. broad, on armed petioles 10-15 cm. 
long. Flowers dioecious in axillar}^, widely branching panicles. 
Fruit a small, round, water}^, white, berry-like utricle, containing 
a single flat seed. The stem is armed near the base with short, 
broad thorns, and naked to the inflorescence which bears many 
small stinging prickles. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 23 1 

Urera Caracasana (Jacq.), Weddell, D.C. Prod., xvi, pt. 1, 89. 

Asuncion (120); Pileomayo River (873), November-May. 

A climbing shrub, often prostrate or hanging over banks for 2 
or more metres. It has a rather slender stem, and is armed more 
or less on the leaves and inflorescence with small stinging hairs. 
Leaves coarse, cordate, ovate, crenate-dentate, 10-15 cm. long and 
8-10 cm. broad, on short petioles. Flowers in rather small axillary 
cymes. The red berry-like utricles which it bears abundantly are 
the most noticeable part of the plant, and are often seen in thickets 
or hanging over the banks along the Paraguay River at Asuncion. 
Common also on the Pileomayo River, supported by other shrubs. 

Parietaria delJilis, Forst., Flor. Ins. Austr. Prod., no. 387. 

Pileomayo River (1052). June. 

Looks much the same as our Southern plant, and found in similar 
situations in shady woods. 

SALICINEJE. 

Salix Chilensis, Molina, Sag. Stor. Nat. Chil., i, 169 (1782). 
Salix Humboldtiana, Willd., Sp. PL, iv, 657 (1806). 

Asuncion (788); Pilcoma3^o River (1061). June-September. 

This willow is popularly called Sauce real in Paraguay, and 
grows from the Amazon to Patagonia on both sides of the Andes 
Generally it is little more than a shrub 5-8 m. in height, but on 
the banks of the Pileomayo, I saw large trees at least 15 m. high. 
Leaves linear acuminate, glabrous, the midrib prominent below, 
with a fine lateral nerve on each ^side near the margin, serrulate, 
5-14 cm. long and 5 or 6 mm. wide. 

HYDROCHARIDEiE. 
L.imno'biuill Sinclair!^ Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 175. 

Ponds near Asuncion (1559). = Mandon 596 a, from Bolivia. 
November-December. 

A small plant, with round oval leaves, floating on the surface of 
the water. The leaves are covered on the upper surface with rows 
of small tubercles. 



232 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

ORCHIDEJ^. 
Named by R. A. Rolfe. 
Pleiirothallis^ Sp. 

Caballero (394). January. 

An epiphyte clinging to the bark of trees. Leaves very thick, 
6-8 cm. long and l-lj cm. broad, somewhat keeled, many-nerved, 
black spotted on the upper surface, on jointed petioles rising from 
the rootstock, and 10-12 cm. long. 

Suloptiia maculata, Reichb. f. 

Pilcomayo River (968). March. 

Scapes stiff, erect, sparsely bracted, 4-5 dm. high, from thick, 
white, cottony, granulated roots. Leaves radical, elliptical, very 
thick, light green, blotched with deeper green, somewhat channelled 
in the centre, spiny pointed, sheathed at the base by several bracts, 
the largest over 3 dm. long and about 5 cm. wide. Flowers 2 cm. 
high, 5-15 in the spike, 1 or 2 spikes springing from the same bract, 
1 longer than the other ; lip larger than the other segments of the 
corolla, with 2 small rounded lobes at its base, the lobes purple- 
striped inside and whitish outside, the upper portion curved down- 
wards, with 2 spots of reddish-purple inside, whitish outside ; spur 
curved, clavate. Ovary enlarging to 3 cm. in fruit. In deep, damp 
woods. 

Catasetum fimliriatiiiii, Lindl. 

Pilcomayo River (8t5). January. 

Scapes slender, bracted, 4-5 dm. high. Flowers purple, in a 
terminal raceme, each on a bracted pedicel 3 or 4 cm. long, the 
perianth 5 or 6 cm. long and 4 or 5 cm, broad; petals and sepals 
narrow, oblong, acute, greenish and covered with minute purple 
dots, the lateral sepals reflexed; lip large, inflated, expanding into a 
broad and fringed apex, which curves over itself; spur large, blunt. 
The flow^er of this orchid is exceedingly interesting in its contri- 
vances for securing insectivorous agency in its fertilization. They 
are similar to those of a related species described by Darwin in his 
Fertilization of Orchids, p. 322. Wet grounds. 

Oncidium? 

Caballero (397). In fruit January. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 233 

Oncidiiim? 

Caballero (394 a) ; banks of the Tebicuary River (510); Pilco- 
mayo River (1551). January. 

An epiphyte ver}^ common on trees in moist woods in many parts 
of Paraguay, throwing up scapes from 10 to 20 cm. high, with 
many lateral racemes of flowers. Flowers small, purple, sessile. 
Found mostly in fruit. Pod oblong, about 5 mm. in length. The 
leaves are very thick, elliptical, keeled, 4-12 cm. long and 12-20 
mm. broad, many-nerved, acute at either end. 

The plant forms large bunches of roots, leaves, and stems on the 
trunks and limbs of trees. 

Ornithoceplialiis, Sp. 

Caballero (510 a). January. 

Campylocentrum^ Sp. 

Pilcomayo River (1552). January. 

Common on trees in the Pilcomayo forests. The stems run along 
the trunk, throwing out long roots, lateral flowering branches, and 
other stems at intervals. Leaves narrow lanceolate, 4-Y cm. long. 
Flowers in lateral spikes, 2-ranked, each under a small bract ; the 
ovary slender, 6-8 mm. long, surmounted by a purplish perianth 
about 2 mm. long, the segments acute ; the spur short, blunt, up- 
turned. Many of the long white-corticated roots dangle in the air 
for 10-18 cm., giving a strange, straggling appearance to the plant. 

Habenaria Goiirlieana, Gill., Lindl. Gen. and Sp. Orch. 

Pilcomayo River (861). January. 

Stem 4 or 5 dm. high. Leaves lanceolate, 15-20 cm. long, run- 
ning into acute, sheathing bracts above. Flowers pale yellow, 
numerous, in a short raceme at the summit of the stem ; ovary very 
long and slender; sepals broad ovate; petals much longer, almost 
capillary ; lip about as long and narrow as the petals, 3-lobed, the 
middle lobe much the longest ; spur over 10 cm. in length, clavate 
at the tip, the lower end generally hidden under the long, acute 
floral bracts. The ovary is about 3 cm, long, and on a pedicel 
about the same length. Flowers somewhat nodding, the very nar- 
row and projecting petals and lip, together with the extraordinarily 
long and slender spur, giving them a peculiar appearance. In moist, 
open woods. 



234 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

SCITAMINE^. 
Named by J. G. Baker. 

^laranta arundioacea, L., Sp. PL, 2. 

Caballero (401); Pilcomayo River (1553). January. 

The well-known Arrowroot, a reed-like plant growing in damp 
or marshy open woods. Stems very smooth and glabrous, with 
long internodes, widely and dichotomously branching, 5-8 dm. high. 
Leaves lanceolate, rounded or slightly cordate at base, acute at apex, 
the largest collected 3J dm. long and T cm. broad, on sheathing 
petioles as long as the blade. Inflorescence much forked. Perianth 
with 3 green separate calyx-like outer segments, enclosing a bluish 
corolla. Capsule about 1 cm. long, crowned with the persistent 
calyx and without corolla. The flowers easily drop off, and it is 
hard to preserve them. The root out of which the farinaceous 
substance known as Arrowroot is made is a large, hard, somewhat 
tuberous rhizome. It is not common enough in Paraguay to be of 
much service to the people. 

Tlialia geniculata, L., Sp. PL, 1193. 

Asuncion (555). February. 

Stems reed-like, very smooth and glaucous, about 3 m. high. 
Leaves solitary or few, 3-5 dm. long, on long, sheathing petioles. 
Flowers in long, lax, terminal panicles, a pair enclosed in a 2-valved 
spathe 15-lY mm. long; inner segments of the corolla 1 white and 
membranous and longer, and the other 2 red, the 3 outer red; sepals 
minute, membranous, very light purple, striped. 

Canna glaiica, L., Sp. PL, 1. 

Asuncion (3'r8); Pilcomayo River (84*7 and 1554). December- 
May. 

No. 318 has deep red flowers, and 847 and 1554 yellow flowers, 
as we find them in our flower-gardens. The two are considered as 
belonging to the same species, but as I found them growing wild in 
Paraguay, I was led to question whether they are identical. They 
occur in different localities, never in the same clump. The red- 
flowered form usually has smaller flowers, the corolla rarely exceed- 
ing 6 cm. in length, while those of the other are sometimes 10 cm. 
long ; the petals too, as a general rule, are narrower and the floral 
bracts larger than in the yellow-flowered form. I found the floral 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 235 

bracts of the red-flowered form often broadly obtuse at the apex 
and covered with a white mealy or waxy substance, peculiarities 
which I never saw in the other. Still these differences may not 
hold in other regions. The plants grow both in wet grounds and 
on dry banks. 

BROMELIACE^. 

Named by J. G. Baker. 

Bromelia Pinguin, L., Sp. PL, 285. 

Asuncion (341). December. 

This plant has an immense rosette of numerous spine-tipped 
leaves pointing in all directions, and bristling like so many lances, 
some of them 1 J m. in length, beset down the sides with upwardly 
hooked spines, forming a barrier which neither man nor beast 
attempts to break through. The central part of this rosette is of a 
deep scarlet color, and can be seen from a long distance. Flowers 
purplish or bluish, closely arranged about a fleshy caudex, 10-12 
cm. thick and 15-20 cm. high. Fruit a succulent, edible berry, 3 or 
4 cm. long and 2 or 3 cm. in width, looking somewhat like a fig. 
The plant is known under the native name Garaguata, and is often 
called the wild pine-apple. It is a noted object in Paraguay, as the 
leaves have been used time out of mind by the natives for making 
fishing-nets and lines, and a coarse, strong cloth is woven out of the 
fibres. It has also been used in recent years in the manufacture of 
paper. The plants often cover the ground for acres. 

Ananas sativus^ Lindl., var. microcephalus, Baker, Handb. Bromel., 
23. 

Trinidad (831) ; Pilcomayo River (1555). November-January. 
= Balansa 609. 

The basal rosette very similar to that of no. 341, but the leaves 
are fewer in number, and none of them scarlet colored as in that, 
or so long. Flowers on a thick central stem, which is scurfy dotted 
below, 3-6 dm. high, bearing smaller leaves like those of the rosette. 
Flowers in a thick oval head 8-10 cm. long, each subtended by a 
pink-colored, spine-edged bract. Sepals reddish ; petals purplish. 
The fruit is harsh and unpalatable. This without much doubt is 
the original wild form of the cultivated pine-apple. The leaves are 
used like those of no. 341 in textile manufactures. Found in similar 
situations as that, but rarer. 



236 Plants Collected in Faragiiay. 

^Chmea liroilielisefolia (Rudge), Baker in Benth. and Hook. Gen. 
PL, iii, 664. 

Caballero (523). January. 

Growing as an epiphyte upon trees in damp woods at Caballero 
It is a very large plant, with a rosette of 12-20 silvery-green leaves 
at the base, which with the stem reach a height of 1-lJ m. Leaves 
3 dm. long and 5-8 cm. wide, the margins unarmed, bluntlj^ pointed 
at the apex. Peduncle about 3 dm. long. Flowers purplish, in 
a cylindrical or somewhat conical spike, 5-8 cm. long and 2^ cm. 
thick, imbedded in a white cottony tomentum. The peduncle bears 
5 or 6 foliaceous, acuminate bracts, 8 or 10 cm. long, which are 
somewhat silvery woolly. A striking plant. 

jf^cliinea disticliantlia, Lem., Jard. Fleur., t. 269. 

Asuncion (141); Pilcomayo River (1556). February-May. 

Leaves 15-20, like those of no. 341 in a large rosette, about 4-5 
dm. long and 3-5 cm. broad, armed with sharp, curved, black spines 
on the margins and a large straight spine at the apex. Flowers in 
a dense oblong panicle 10-18 cm. long, on a bright red peduncle 
3-9 dm. high, the 3 sepals red and the 3 petals bright blue, longer 
than the sepals. The peduncle is beset with leaves passing upwards 
into foliaceous bracts. Fruit a dry, indehiscent, 3-celled berry, con- 
taining many small seeds in each cell. This plant occurs abundantly 
on porphyritic ledges 2 miles east of Asuncion, and also on the 
banks of the Pilcomayo River. Though it is neither epiphytic 
nor parasitic, yet it often grows high up on the trunks and limbs 
of trees. Like the Bromelia and jEchmea already noted, the leaves 
of this species furnish excellent material for textile fabrics and cord- 
age. They show, however, none of the scarlet tint by which the 
leaves of the former are made so conspicuous, 

Tiilandsia "bryoides, Griseb,, Symb. Flor, Arg., 334. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (492); Pilcomayo River (1086). 
January. = Balansa 617 a. 

A small epiphyte, with densely tufted leafy stems which have the 
look of a moss. Leaves linear-subulate, densely scaly. Flowers 
small, numerous, racemed, on short scapes, rose colored. 

Tillandsia diantlioidea, Rossi, Cat. Modoct,, 1825, 1. 1. 

La Plata, Arg. Republic (35). October. 

A small epiphyte with lilac flowers, occurring in the Argentine 
Republic, but not found in Paraguay by me. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 237 

Tillandsia glutinosa. Mart., R. and S., Syst., vii, 1225. 

Caballero (513). January. 

A fine large epiphyte on trees near the Tebicuary River at 
Caballero. The plant is 1 or 1^ m. high; the stem about 12 mm. 
thick, clothed with silvery leaves 3-6 dm. in length. Peduncle 4 
or 5 dm. long, very branching, covered with bracts 3-5 cm. long, 
and each flower under a similar bract. Flowers spicate, all erect, 
large, yellow. The plant very showy. 

Tillandsia Hilaireana, Baker, Handb. Brom., 199. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (493). January. 

A beautiful epiphyte about 20 cm. high, with densely tufted, 
rigid, channelled, long pointed, silvery, lepidote leaves which are 
about 10 cm. long. Flowers spicate, on a scape 10 or 12 cm. high. 
Petals red. This occurs with no. 492, but is larger and more showy. 
It is also abundant on the Pilcomayo River, and our party fre- 
quently gathered the flowers, and hung them upon the posts of our 
camp and along the cabin sides of our steamer for ornament. 

Tillandsia Lorentziana, Griseb., PI. Lor., 223. 

Pilcomayo River (902). April. = Balansa 4744. 

A conspicuous epiphyte on the trees along the upper Pilcomayo. 
Leaves rigid, coriaceous, 10-20 cm. long, channelled, 2 cm. broad 
at the base, long acuminate and curling up at the end like a pig's 
tail, striate, densely white lepidote, about 20 on the short, thick 
stem. Flowers in lateral spikes on a peduncle nearly 7 dm. in 
length. Petals blue and purple striped, rounded and recurved at 
the apex, white in the interior of the tube, 2^ cm. high and 2 cm. 
broad when expanded ; calyx, if so called, of 3 reddish parts closely 
appressed to the tube of the corolla. 

Tillandsia recurvata, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 410. 

Gran Chaco opposite Asuncion (292 b); between Yilla Rica and 
Escoba (492 a); Pilcomayo River (876 and 1085). January-May. 

One of the most common epiphytes growing in Paraguay. It 
appears to be very widespread, occurring all the way from Florida 
to Chile and the Argentine Republic. It is a small, densely caespi- 
tose plant, with subulate, channelled, white lepidote leaves, and 
solitary or 1-3 olive-colored flowers on capillary peduncles. It 
sometimes covers the trunks and limbs of trees so densely that the 
bark can scarcely be seen. 



238 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Tillaiidsia usneoides, L., Sp. PL, 287. 

Pilcomayo River (886). January-May. 

This is common on some parts of the Pilcomayo, but not so 
abundant nor so luxuriant as in our Southern States. A lichen 
growing by its side rivalled it in length. 

Tillandsia vernicosa, Baker, Jour. Bot., 1887, p. 241. 

Gran Chaco, near Asuncion (554). January. 

Leaves in a dense rosette, ensiform, acuminate, 7-20 cm. long, 
channelled, pale green, glossy, finely lepidote, very thick and rigid 
in texture, the outer spreading widely. Spikes densely crowded on 
scapes 15-20 cm. high. Flowers w^hite, or at least the petals. 

IRIDE^. 

Cypella gracilis (Klatt), Baker, Jour. Lin. Soc, xvi, 129. 

Named by J. G. Baker. 

Between Trinidad and Asuncion (277). = Balansa 536. 

It is difficult to convey any idea of the very irregular and beauti- 
ful flower of this little bulbous plant. The outer segments of the 
perianth are oblong, about 2 J cm. in length, with a basin-shaped 
base which is stiflfer than the upper part, yellow, slightly purple- 
tinged at the base inside. The 3 inner segments are much shorter, 
clawed, incurved at the apex in a fold which is rolled inwardly and 
pointed, purple blotched. Stamens 3 ; filaments stout and thick ; 
anthers black on the cell margins, cohering to the stigma at the top. 
Stigmas appendaged much as in Iris. Stems slender, about 20-25 
cm. high, 2-leaved, and with several acute bracts above. Pedicels 
bracted. Flowers spreading when open. Abundant on the campos 
northeast of Asuncion. 



Buenos Aires (13). October. 

I did not see this species in Paraguay, but as it is common in 
Chile and about Montevideo and Buenos Aires, it may be looked 
for northwards. The stem is glabrous, somewhat stout, 3-4 dm. 
high, ancipital. Leaves linear-ensiform, acuminate, 3-10 cm. long. 
Flowers several from the same spathe, on capillary pedicels, small, 
bluish-purple, with darker purple stripes, the 3 outer segments with 
5 and the 3 inner with 3 stripes; a yellow eye at base of the corolla 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 239 

tube inside. Petals oblong, subspatulate, retuse, mucronate, and 
with the ovary and pedicels slightly glandular pubescent. 

Sisyrincliium micrantliiiin, Cav., Diss., vi, 144, 1. 191, f. 2. 
Asuncion (63). October-November. = Balansa 552, 552 a, and 

556. 

A small species 7-12 cm. high, with many stem-s from the fibrous 
roots, very glabrous. Leaves linear ensiform, 3-5 cm. long and 
1-2 mm. broad. Perianth 6 mm. long, the segments obtuse and 
cuspidate at the apex, yellow, with 3-5 light purple sunken lines 
within, and 2 small purple spots at the base. Stamens united for 
their whole length, the anthers enclosing the 3 stigmas. Flowers 
on capillary pedicels, 3-7 springing from the same spathe. Abund- 
ant in grassy plats near the Recolleta Cemetery at Asuncion. 

SisyrincUiimi vaginatiim, Spreng. Syst., i, 166. 

Caballero (468). January. 

Stem very slender, 25-30 cm. high, dichotomously branching, 
bearing only sheathing bracts 10-15 mm. long. Spathes 1-flowered. 
Flowers yellow, glabrous ; pedicels capillary, scarcely as long as the 
spathe, glabrous. Among grass on the campo. 

AMARYLLIDE^. 

Zeptiyrantlies Bakeriana, Morong, n. sp. 

A delicate plant rising from an underground tunicated bulb. Bulb ovoid, 
1|— 2 cm. in diameter, the tunics fuscous and the neck 5 mm. long. Scape 
and leaves from a pair of membranous radical sheaths, which are fuscous and 
warty at the tips. Leaves 1-4, much longer than the scape, produced with 
the flowers, linear, 2 mm. broad. Scapes 10-12 cm. high, glabrous, slender, 
erect or slightly declined. Flowers solitary, large and showy ; tube none or 
minute ; perianth segments 3-4 cm. long, elliptical, about equal, pointed at 
the apex, membranous, yellowish-whUe, with many purple stripes. Stamens 6, 
3 scarcely more than one-half as long as the others ; filaments separate to the 
base and epigynous ; anthers versatile, curved upwardly when dry, the cells 
confluent. Style longer than the stamens, slightly dilated at the apex and 
divided into 3 stigmas. Capsule obovoid, scarcely lobed. Pedicel nearly or 
quite' 2 cm. long. Spathe about 2^ cm. long, tubular in the lower half, the 
upper open part bifid. 

. On the Gran Campo, about 5 miles east of Asuncion (254). 
December-January. 



240 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Foiircroya Cubensis, (Jacq.), Haw., Syn. PL Succ, 73. 

Asuncion (805). 

This Cuban plant is not unfrequent on the borders of gardens and 
in hedges at Asuncion, where its tall flower stalks in full blossom 
make a great display. It bears a large rosette of rigid green gla- 
brous leaves, 30 or more in number and 2 m. or more in length, 
margined by large deltoid, hooked spines. The flower stalk is 
from 3 to 5 m. high, covered with large, fragrant, bell-like blossoms, 
the corolla white externally and greenish inside. It seems to be 
propagated exclusively by bulblets, which are large and numerous, 
often beginning to sprout while still on the stalk. The fibre, like 
that of the Caraguata, is employed in the manufacture of textile 
fabrics. 

In flower March- April. Bulblets collected in October. 

No. 998, from the Pilcomayo Kiver, April 11, 1890, collected only 
in fruit, is probably of this order, but is not identified. 

DIOSCORE^. 

Dioscorea pedicellata, Morong, n. sp. 

Twining over shrubs for 3-6 m. The whole plant very glabrous. Stems 
slender, rarely branching, strongly angular. Leaves alternate, entire, cor- 
date-ovate, the sinus broad and the lobes rounded, abruptly acute and aristate 
at the apex, 7-9-nerved, the 2 lowest nerves bifid or sometimes trifid, 10-12 
cm. long and nearly as broad at the base ; petioles 4-6 cm. long. Staminate 
racemes axillary, 1-2 in an axil, usually simple but sometimes once divided, 
7-10 cm. long, the rachis nearly capillary and strongly angular like the stem. 
Staminate flowers alternate, solitary, on pedicels 2-5 mm. long, the pedicels 
subtended by 1, sometimes 2, or even 3 minute, lanceolate membranaceous 
bracts. Perianth about 3 mm. high, the tube not half as long as the lobes, 
the lobes oblong, obtuse, greenish-purpl«? in color, spreading open rotately in 
anthesis. Stamens 6, of minute, sessile anthers, central in the bottom of the 
perianth. Pistillate flowers and fruit not seen. 

Deep woods on the banks of the Pilcomayo (975). March. 



LILIACEJE. 
Siuilax Assuinptionis, A. D.C., Monog. Phan., i, 132. 

Lympio (133); Pilcomayo River (1557). January-May. 
A tendril-climber running over trees and shrubs ; spines few, 
stout and straight. Leaves coriaceous, elliptical-ovate, subcordate, 



Plants Collected in ParaguoAj. 241 

obtuse and mucronate at the apex, largest collected 10 cm. loup: and 
4 cm. wide. Staminate flowers greenish-yellow, sometimes brown- 
ish-purple, red in the bud. Berries 4 or 5 mm. in diameter, dark 
red, on pedicels 5 or 6 mm. long-. 

Xotlioscorduill HaTescens, Kunth., Enum., iv, 459. 

Luque (715). 

A small bulbous plant 8-15 cm. high, the bulbs small, ovoid, 
deep underground. Leaves narrowly linear, surpassing the scapes, 
appearing with the flowers. Flow^ers in small umbels, 3-5 in an 
umbel, the pedicels unequal, capillary, 10-18 mm. long. Perianth 
6-8 mm. high, with a short tube ; the 6 lanceolate lobes somewhat 
longer, yellow, 1-nevved, the nerve green on the inside and purplish 
outside. Spathe white, membranous, tubular below, bifid on the 
open portion above, much shorter than the pedicels. 

This pretty little flower decorates the sandy campos east of 
Asuncion nearly all the year round. 

PONTEDERIACE.E. 
Pontederia cordata, L., Sp. PL, 288. 

Villa Rica (490) ; Luque (301) ; Pilcomayo River (1040). Decem- 
ber-May. 

As common in water and miry places throughout Paraguay as 
in the United States. Called Aguapi in the native tongue. 

Piaropiis crassipes (Mart.), Britton. 

Pontederia crassipes, Mart., Nov. Gen., i, 9. t. 4. 

Eichornia a-assipes, Solms-Laubach in D.C. Mon. Phau,, iv, 527. 

Trinidad (265). December-January. 

A showy aquatic common in pools near Asuncion and other parts 
of Paraguay. A long running stem rooting in the mud throws up 
at intervals leaves or scapes. Sometimes a set of leaves and a scape 
grow erect from a large body of fibrillate roots. Leaves of a firm 
texture, like those of Pontederia cordata, various in shapfe, broadly 
obovate or subreniform, sloping abruptly into the petiole, or occa- 
sionally subcordate, the blades 3-5 cm. long, 3^-6 cm. broad ; peti- 
oles 6-20 cm. long, frequently with an oval inflated sac near the 
middle, or plane for their whole length, sheathing at the base. 
Scape somewhat longer than the leaves, with a foliaceous bract 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Mar. 1893.— 16 



242 Plants Collected m Pai^aguay. 

just under the flowers. Flowers large, spicate, 5-15 on the spike. 
Perianth with a closed, slightly recurved tube about 2 cm. long, 
6-lobed, the lobes as long as the tube, of a fine bluish-purple tint, 
rounded or obovate, the 3 exterior somewhat larger, the uppermost 
marked by a round yellow eye in the centre ; 3 of the stamens 
longer than the other 3, inserted near the sinuses of the lobes; 
anthers dark blue. Style longer than the stamens in all the speci- 
mens that I collected ; stigma capitate, hairy. Glandular on the 
perianth lobes and also on the tube, style, and filaments. This 
plant is popularly known as Aguapi, and' also as Camalote, names 
which appear to be applied indiscriminately to all the species of 
Eichornia and Pontederia in Paraguay. 
Some of this was distributed as E. azurea. 

Piaropus azureus (Sw.), Raf. Fl. Tell., Part 2, 81. 
Eichornia azurea, Kunth., Enum., iv, 129. 

Pilcomayo River (859 and 964). March. 

Heterantliera reniformis, R. and P., Fl. Peruv., 43. 
Asuncion (320). December. 

XYRIDE^. 
« 

Named by Mr. Heinrich Ries. 

Xyris toi'tula, Mart., Flora, xxiv, Bibl. 2, p. 55. 

Caballero (520). January. 

A species about 3 dm. high, with slender terete, twisted scapes 
and small, ovoid, 6-10 flowered heads. Leaves about half as long 
as the scapes, twisted spirally, rigid, erect, sulcate, 1 mm. or less 
in width. Scapes and leaves rising from a compact, dense tuft of 
black bracts. 

Xyris connnilliis, Kunth., Enum., iv, 12. 

Luque (329). December. = Balansa 562 a. 

Scape 3 to 6 dm. high, slightly 2-winged above, 1-angled below, 
a little rough on the angles and wings. Heads somewhat conical, 
I4-I4 cm. long and 1 cm. broad. Scales orbicular, obtuse, fuscous 
on the edges and with a cinereous rasped space in the centre near 
the apex. Lateral sepals with showy fringes on the keels. Leaves 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 243 

one-third as long as the scapes, 5-7 mm. wide, bluntly acute, many 
and irregularly nerved. Wet grounds. 

Seubert in Fl. Bras., iii, pt. 1, p. 220, regards this as only a 
variety (v. procera) of no. 582. 

Xyris laxifolia. Mart., Flora, 1. c. 

Villa Rica (582). January. = Balansa 563. 

Similar to no, 329, but with more numerous and larger leaves, 
at least in the specimens collected. Scapes 6-8 dm. high. Heads 
conical, lJ-2 cm. long. Leaves 5-15 mm. broad. Superficies of 
scapes and leaves often marked with purple-fuscous lineolse. Grow- 
ing in bogs. The probability is that both this and no. 329 are forms 
of X. communis, Kunth. 

MAYACACE^. 
3fayaca Sellowiana, Kunth., Enum., iv, 32. 

Villa Rica (498). January. = Balansa 2364. 

With erect stem, 3-6 cm. high. Peduncles capillary, 1-3 cm. 
long. Flowers solitary, rose-colored. Leaves 3 or 4 mm. long, 
almost setaceous. Capsules 6-seeded. In bogs. 

COMMELmACEJE. 

Commelina platypliylla, Seub., var. Balansai, Clarke in D.C, 
Monog. Phan., iii, 177. 

Asuncion (239). December-January. = Balansa 593. 

A branching herbaceous plant, 8-20 cm. high, with pure white 
flowers. Stems angular, somewhat compressed above, more or less 
pubescent. Leaves numerous, somewhat crowded, oblong, usually 
obtuse, amplexicaul, the lowest often eared at the base, 4-10 cm. 
long and 1-2 cm. broad. Spathes 1-2 cm. long, cofiaplicate, obtuse, 
sometimes 3 cm. or more broad. Varies from the type in having 
obtuse leaves and oblong seeds. Common in shady places along 
the railway track. 

Commelina Tirginica^ L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 61. 

Asuncion (54). November-January. 



244 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Tradescantia Fiuniinensis, Veil., Flor. Flum., 140, 1. 152. 

Buenos Aires (1.5). October. 

I collected this plant at Buenos Aires, but it also occurs in 
Paraguay. Stems decumbent, much branched, sulcate, compressed, 
glabrous, 4 or 5 dm, high. Leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, 3-5 cm. long. Sepals scabrous-pubescent, or glabrous on the 
back. Flowers white. 

Tradescantia glandiilosa, Seub. in Mart. Fl. Bras., ill, pt. 1, 253. 

Asuncion (261). December. 

A small plant with striate, glabrous, or glandular-pubescent 
stems, 1^-4^ dm. high. Leaves elliptical, mucronate, with long 
white cilise at the amplexicaul base, and glandular ciliate above, 
3-5 cm. long and 2-3 cm. broad. Flowers very small, in umbellate 
clusters at the summit of the stems and branches, the sepals and 
pedicels glandular hairy. Flowers about 3 mm. high, the petals 
white, the sepals greenish. When fresh the stems are a little succu- 
lent and nearly or quite terete, becoming angular and compressed 
in drying. In shady or moist grounds. 

PALM^. 
Acroconiia sclerocarpa, Mart., Palm. Bras., Q%, t. 56 et 57. 

Asuncion (233). 

One of the most common palms in Paraguay, popularly called 
Coco. It is a monoecious tree growing 8-12 m. high, armed on 
the trunk with many rows of long spines (some of them 10 cm.), 
which, as the tree ages fall off, often leaving the trunk nearly bare. 
The fronds are pinnate, from 1 to IJ m. long; pinnae green, coria- 
ceous, in 2 opposite rows, 1-2 cm. apart, 3-4 dm. long and about 
1 J cm. wide ; rachis triangular, armed with sharp spines 2-4 cm. 
long. Staminate flowers in numerous long aments or spikes above ; 
pistillate few, sessile at the base of the branches ; spathe single, 
long, and husk-like. Drupe globular, 3 cm. or more in diameter, 
surrounded by a thin separable rind, inside of which is a soft yel- 
low, edible pulp ; seed an exceedingly hard nut containing an edible 
meat which tastes like that of the cocoanut. 

This is a valuable tree, the nuts yielding an excellent oil, and the 
meat forming a favorite article of food among the Paraguayans. 
Piles of the extracted kernels are offered for sale in the Asuncion 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 245 

market; and many mills for expressing the oil are seen in the 
country. The pinnae are used as in many other palms in the 
manufacture of hats, chair bottoms, and other domestic articles. 

Flowering in October and November ; fruiting in December and 
January. 

COCOS aiistralis. Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm., iii, 289. 

Asuncion (233 a). 

Equally common with no. 233, and popularly known as the 
Pindo, but entirely unarmed. It resembles the Coco in height 
and general appearance, but has longer drooping fronds, and is 
altogether a handsomer tree. Fruit smaller, oblong-ellipsoidal, 2-2^ 
cm. long and about 1^ cm. in diameter, with a fibrous husk on the 
outside and a hard, crustaceous nut within, the kernel tasting like 
the meat of the cocoanut. The nuts yield oil equal to that of no. 
233, but are rarely used for that purpose. It makes a beautiful 
shade tree and is a great ornament in parks and gardens. The 
fronds are largely used in the decoration of dwelling-houses and 
churches on festive occasions. On Palm Sunday crowds may be 
met on the streets bearing the green fronds in their hands. 

Flowers in January; fruit May-July. 

Plioenix dactylifera, L., Sp. PL, 1188. 

Near Trinidad (803). 

The Date Palm is occasionally seen in cultivated grounds around 
Asuncion, but although it seems to grow vigorously, it never, so 
far as I know, perfects its fruit. In flower October. 

Copernicia cerifera, Mart., Orbig., 41, 1. 1, f. 3. 

Pilcomayo River (1073). 

Commonly known in Paraguay as Palma negra, and in Brazil 
as Caranda. This tree abounds in great numbers along the banks 
of the Pilcomayo River and throughout the Gran Chaco. It has 
a straight slender trunk 10-15 m. high, 12-13 cm. in diameter. 
When young the stem is covered below with the bases of the 
petioles, but these fall off at maturity leaving the trunk bare and 
smooth. Wood black, dense, and hard, forming a valuable timber, 
which is used all over Paraguay for roof timbers and fence posts. 
Leaves erect, plaited, fan-shaped, the surface covered with a whitish 
waxy substance, which is scraped off and made into the well-known 



246 Plants Collected in Pai-aguay. 

Carnauba wax. The leaves are 7 or 8 dm. in length and about as 
broad, split nearly to the middle into slender rays, on stout hemi- 
spherical petioles armed with strong straight or hooked spines. 
Flowers small, white, in large, branching panicles, the staminate 
above and the pistillate below. Drupe ellipsoidal, pointed at the 
base, about IJ cm. long and 1 cm. in diameter, smooth and olive 
colored at maturity. 

This is considered with good reason one of the most valuable 
trees in Paraguay. Not only does it furnish strong, durable tim- 
ber and wax, but its berries are eaten by the Indians, the tender 
vertex of the caudex makes an admirable cabbage, and its leaves 
are employed for various purposes, such as thatching, making fans, 
straw-braid, thread, fishing-lines, cordage, and the like. 

In flower January ; fruit April-May. 

Coperiiicia allia^ Morong, n. sp. 

Tliis palm is very similar in general appearance to C. cerifera, but is quite 
distinct in several characters. Stem I6w, frequently not over 3 m. high, and 
seldom reaching a height of 10 m., the diameter 15-18 cm^, clothed nearly to 
the summit of the trunk with the bases of the old leaf stalks. The head is 
much larger than that of C. cerifera, containing many more leaves. In the 
inflorescence the two do not vary essentially, except that C. alba has a more 
densely woolly tomentum on the flowers and rachis. The flowers are smaller, 
and the floral bracts much longer and more acute. The fruit of this species 
is obtuse at the base, that of C. cerifera distinctly pointed, in other respects 
the same. In the wood of the two lies the principal difi"erence, and this is 
very striking. The wood of C. cerifera has a very close, compact grain, 
making a solid log, when first cut slighthy brown, afterwards becoming black, 
and hence called Palma negra ; that of C. alba soft and spongy, very loose and 
cellular in grain, and absolutely unfit for timber, white in color and hence 
popularly known as Palma blanca. The roots of the two exhibit a structural 
diflerence as remarkable as that of the stems. The brown wrinkly cuticle 
of Palma negra encloses a thick, very dark colored, loosely cellular cortex, a 
separable heart wood of parenchymatous tissue and minute, black woody 
bundles pressed compactly together, entirely without open spaces or air-cells. 
In Palma blanca, the cuticle is whitish in color and smooth, the cortex thick, 
friable and yellowish in color, while the heart wood is composed of white paren- 
chymatous tissue penetrated by many large open spaces or air-cells. Nothing 
shows the diflference between the white and black palms more perfectly than 
this structural dissimilarity. 

Common with no. 1073 on the banks of the Pilcomayo (1079). 
Flower January ; fruit April-May. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 24T 

Copernicia riilira, Morong, n. sp. 

Intermediate in characters between C. cerifera and C. alba, but decidedly 
different from both. Stem 10-13 m. high, and 18 cm. or more in diameter, 
clothed nearly to the top of the trunk with the bases of the old leaf stalks, 
never smooth as in C. cerifera, and always much thicker. The head is large 
and rotund in outline like that of C. alba. The inflorescence is very similar 
to that of the other two species, except that the tomentum is of a more rusty 
tinge. The drupes are larger and globular or slightly oval in shape, obtuse 
at both ends, instead of being ellipsoidal as in the others. The wood is reddish- 
colored, and more compact than in C. alba, but never hard and solid as in 
C. cerifera, hence popularly known as Palma colorada. It is seldom used as 
timber. 

The peons of our party distinguished these 3 species of palms at 
a glance, though they were mingled in the groves upon the banks 
of the Pilcomayo. Palma negra, however, is much the most nume- 
rous, P. colorada being rather rare. 

Pilcomayo River (10*78); Central Paraguay (738). Flower 
January ; fruit April-May. 



TYPHACEJE. 
Typlia aiigustifolia, L., Sp. PL, 971. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (532) ; Pilcomayo River (1025). 
January-May. 

No. 1025 has unusually broad leaves for the species, being from 
l^ to 2 cm. wide. The spikes in some cases are 2 cm. in diameter 
and 9 dm. in length, the pistillate and staminate flowers occupying 
nearly equal spaces on the rachis. This was growing in vast num- 
bers in the great laguna on the Pilcomayo River, and was one of 
the weeds which so densely choked the stream that we were unable 
to force our boats through. 

AROIDE^. 
Pistia Stratiotes, L., Sp. PI., 963. 

Asuncion (180). November-December. 

The form called by Engler in Flor. Bras, cuneata, with obversely 
triangular leaves, rounded and commonly emarginate at the apex. 
Common in pools about Asuncion. 



248 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Xaiitliosoma Riedelianuiii^ Schott., (Est. Bot. Zeit., 1865, p. 33. Kx 
descr. 

Liique (294). December. 

Named by N. E. Brown. 

A large showy bog plant 6-9 dm. high. Leaves light green, the 
blades somewhat panduriform and sagittate, 4-5 dm. long and 1-2 
dm. broad, obtusely pointed, the basal lobes about ^ as long as the 
leaf and rounded, the sinus usually broad ; primary lateral nerves 
5-7, curving into a common marginal nerve, which runs at unequal 
distances from the margin. Petiole rounded below and flat above, 
much longer than the bla^e. Flowers solitary, on scapes shorter 
than the leaves; spathe 25 cm. long, the lower part greenish and 
convolute, the upper half spreading open and pure white ; spadix 
one-half or two-thirds as long as the spathe, the pistillate flowers 
at the base, occupying about one-quarter of the length, the perfect 
staminate flowers at the apex, and a space of abortive staminate 
flowers between the two. The flowers reminded me of our common 
house Calla when I first looked at them, though not spreading open 
so widely, and the spadix being slate-colored instead of golden. In 
miry bogs or water at Luque. 

LEMNACEJE. 
L.emna minor, L., Sp. PL, 970. 

Pools in the vicinity of Asuncion (1558). 

ALISMACEJE. 
Sagittaria MonteTidensis, C. and S., Linnsea, ii, 156. 

Asuncion (177). November-January. 

The common Sagittaria of southern South America. It resem- 
bles our S. sagittaefolia in habit and aspect, but is at once distin- 
guished by the deep purple spot at the base of the flower inside. 
The leaves are almost as variable as those of our species, but are 
sometimes enormously large. I met with specimens 1-lJ.m. high, 
having leaves 6 dm. or more in length and as broad at the base. 
The spikes are sometimes 5 dm. long, bearing 12-15 verticils of 
flowers. Pistillate flowers in 2 or 3 verticils at the base of the 
spike, with shorter and much thicker peduncles than the staminate, 
recurved in fruit. Veins of the leaves prominent and often rough 
with erect glands. In water or miry bogs. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 249 

£chinoclorils grandiflorus (C. and S.), Mich, in D.C. Monog. Plian., 
iii, 57. 

Caballero (508); Pilcomayo River (853). December-January. 

A bog plant with scapes 7-9 dm. high, striate, rough with glan- 
dular tubercles. Leaves ovate or oval, cordate, obtuse at the apex, 
prominently 9- or lO-nerved, glabrous, largest about 15 cm. long 
and 13 broad, on petioles similar to the scapes, 20-30 cm. long. 
Flowers white, in 8-10 remote whorls, 5-7 in the whorl ; the 3 ex- 
terior bracts separate, many and strongly nerved, ending in a long 
subulate summit, as long as or longer than the pedicels. Pedicels 
10-15 cm. long. Kootstock creeping; roots fibrous. A very vari- 
able plant as to size, smoothness, and number of verticils. 

No. 508 was collected in dry and rather dusty ground near the 
railway track at Caballero, and 853 in pools between Paragua and 
Luque. 

Echinodorus subalatus (Mart.), Griseb., Cat. PI. Cub., 218. Ex 
descr. 

Pilcomayo River (1039). May. 

Growing in water in the great laguna on the Pilcomayo River. 
Scapes 6 dm. to 1 m. or more high, striate and with 3 sharp angles, 
which become subulate among the inflorescence. Inflorescence sim- 
ple or branching below. Flowers 4-7 in a verticil ; the 3 exterior 
bracts slightly coalescent below, lanceolate, ending in a long subu- 
late point, longer than the pedicels. Pedicels 5-10 cm. long. Sepals 
with a broad membranous margin. Petals white, obtuse at the 
apex, 2-3 cm. in diameter when expanded. Stamens about 20, at 
length contorted. Leaves elliptical, glabrous, attenuated at either 
end, 3-7 nerved, 10-25 cm. long and 4-8 cm. broad, marked by 
pellucid lineolse, which are often obscure or obsolete. Petioles 
angled like the scapes, and nearly as long, the striae when young 
sometimes minutely glandular pubescent. Rootstock thick and 
hard, with many long fibrous roots, the rootlets often bearing 
many small white tubers. 

L.iiniiocharis nymphoides (Willd.), Mich., 1. c, 91. 

Trinidad (266). December-February. 

An aquatic with very beautiful light yellow flowers, but so deli- 
cate are the petals that I never succeeded in preserving any in the 
dried specimens. Flowers solitary, on a long scape rising from a 



250 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

joint of the rhizome. Sepals 3, green, oblong, one-half as long as 
the petals. Petals broad and obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the 
base, 3 cm. long, with a darker yellow tint at the base inside. 
Stamens numerous in several series, very dark purple ; anthers 
black-purple. Styles 6, enlarged at base, whitish below, black- 
purple above ; stigmas 2-lobed. Leaves on a long petiole similar 
to the scape, the blade nearly orbicular, entire, subcordate or slop- 
ing into the petiole, 3-6 cm. in diameter. The plant has a long 
rootstock running i^n the mud beneath the water or floating, rooting 
at the nodes and throwing up flower stems and leaves from the 
joints, growing in shallow pools 3-4 dm. deep. Juice milky. 

NAIADACEJE. 
L.ilaea subulata, H. and B., Pi. ^q., l, 221. 
Buenos Aires (20). October. 

Ruppia maritima, L., Sp. PL, 127. 

Pilcomayo River (903). January-February. 
Abundant in the bed of the upper Pilcomayo on a sandy mud 
bottom, in brackish water, the plant 6-9 dm. long. 

ERIOCAULE^. 
Dupatya caillescens (Poir.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 745. 

Luque (331). December. 

Stem 3-5 cm. high, from the summit of which numerous scapes 
spring, 3-10 cm. high. Scapes 3 ribbed, glabrous. Leaves rather 
loose, linear, 1^-2 cm. long, 2-4 mm. broad, acuminate or slightly 
mucronate, when young puberulent, glabrescent with age. Heads 
about 4 mm. in diameter. Involucral bracts and the segments of the 
outer perianth glabrous, acute, silvery-white. Sheaths about as 
long as the leaves, obliquely fissured. 

This little plant grows in miry places, not very common. It is 
the only one of the order that I found in Paraguay, though many 
others must occur along the northern borders of the country. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 251 

CYPERACE^. 
Cyperus Ijroiiioides, Link., Jahrb., iii, 85. 

Between Escoba and Caballero (416). January. 

Cyperus Balansae, Maury, Mem. Soc. Phys. Gen., xxxi, 130, t. 39. 

Named by C. B. Clarke. 

Central Paraguay (1560). 

Stout, 1 m. high; stems triquetrous, glabrous. Umbels simple. 
Heads sessile or on rays 2-7 cm. long. A tall, conspicuous marsh 
sedge. 

Cyperus cinereus, Maury, 1. c, 127, t. 361. 
Caballero (433). January. 

Cyperus Concepcionis, Steud., Syn. PL Glum., pt. 2, 42. 
Caballero (565). January. Named by C. B. Clarke. 

Cyperus elegans, L., Sp. PL, 68. 

Luque (29t b). December. 

Cyperus esculentus, L., Sp. PL, 67. 

Gran Chaco (1561). October. 
Common in wet cultivated fields. 

Cyperus flavus (VahL), BoeckL, Linnsea, xxxvi, 384. 

Asuncion (128); Caballero (123 b); Yilla Rica (578). January. 

Cyperus ferax, Rich., Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Par., i, 106. 
Asuncion (243). December. 

Cyperus giganteus, Rottb., Gram., 38? 

Asuncion (353 and 562). December. 

A very conspicuous species wuth stout, terete, leafless stems 2-3 
m. in height. Flowers in a dense, compound, leafy head at the 
summit of the stem, 3 or 4 dm. high, spreading as widely. Primary 
rays 40-50 or more, 10-20 cm. long, triquetrous, glabrous, the 
secondary 1-2 cm. in length. Spikes narrow, flat, 2-3 cm. long, 
and 5 mm. wide, 3 or 4 small flowers in a spikelet, all much over- 
topped by the long acuminate, erect bracts. Involucral bracts 5-15 
mm. broad at the base, not sheathing, erect, 3-3 J dm. long, striate, 



252 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

rough on the margins, tapering to an acuminate point; involucels 
narrower, about one-half as long. Sheaths of the rays about 3 cm. 
long, reddish at the apex, obliquely fissured. The spikes are almost 
buried out of sight among the bracts, which look like a broom. 

The two numbers referred to this may represent different species, 
and I am uncertain whether either of them is the true C. giganteua, 
Rottb. 

Cyperiis Haspan, L., Sp. PL, QQ. 

Yilla Rica (580); Luque (297 a). December-January. 

Cyperus Jenmani, C. B. Clarke, ined. 

Pilcomayo River (1069). January-April. = Spruce 6418. 
Named by C. B. Clarke. 

An elegant species with slender, glabrous, triquetrous stems 4^-6 
dm. high, many from the same root. Flowers straws-colored, in 
compound umbels. Spikes 5-18 in a cluster, flat, 1-2 cm. long, 
sessile or on rays 2-10 cm, long and raylets 4-5 mm. long, 10-30 
flowers in a spike. Involucral bracts not sheathing, narrow, rough 
on the margins, tapering to a long acuminate point, 1 or 2 of them 
much longer than the flowers, in some cases nearly half as long as 
the stems. 

This very strongly resembles C. Gapitinduensis, Maury, 1. c, 129, 
t. 38. 

Cyperus l<uzulae, Rottb., Gram., i, t. 13, f. 2. 

Asuncion (244). December. Collected also at Cordoba by Hie- 
ronymus. 

Cyperus nodosus, Willd., Enum., i, 72. 

Asuncion (364). December-January. 

Stem slender, rather weak, obscurely triquetrous, glabrous, with 
2 or 3 short sheathing leaves near the base, 6-6J dm. high, from a 
hard tuberous rootstock. Flowers in loose simple umbels, the rays 
filiform, unequal, 1-4 cm. long. Spikes 3-7, linear, unequal, 1-2J 
cm. long, 10-30 flowered. Fruit chestnut-colored. 

Cyperus Olfersianus, Kunth., Enum., ii, 10. 
Asuncion (86 and 567). November. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 253 

C'yperiis polystacliyus, Rottb., Descrip. Icon., 39, t. 2, f. 1. 
Asuncion (84 a, 84 b, and 566). December. 

Cyperus prolixus, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., i, 206. 

Caballero (432). January. 

Stems stout, triquetrous, rough near the bracts, 3-4 dm. high, 
branching at the summit into a long decompound umbel. Rays 
triquetrous, 8-10 or more, 12-24 cm. long, and again branching 
into 2-6 raylets, which are 6-10 cm, long. Flowers in densely 
crowded panicles. Spikelets loosely 5- or 6-flowered, on bracted 
pedicels 2 or 3 mm. long, the rachis flexuous. Glumes 5-8-nerved 
on the back, membranous on the margins, 3-4 mm. long. Involucral 
bracts foliaceous, not sheathing, 7 or more, 1 or 2 of them longer 
than the inflorescence ; inyolucels shorter than the raylets. The 
plant forms a very large, widely spreading inflorescence. 

C'yperus radiatus, Vahl., Enum., ii, 369. 

Pilcomayo River (1068). January-April. 

Stems several, glabrous, striate, triquetrous below, compressed 
above, 6-7 dm. high. Leaves nearly or quite as long as the stems. 
Inflorescence in simple umbels, the spikes numerous and crowded, 
radiating from the summit of the rays. Rays unequal. Spikes 
somewhat cylindrical, 1^-2 cm. long. Spikelets 2-3 mm. long, 
10-14-flowered, on peduncles of about the same length; flowers 
minute, crowded, the glumes squarrosely spreading. Bracts numer- 
ous, foliaceous, much longer than the flowers. Stems and leaves 
straw-colored when dry, and the flowers yellowish-green. 

Cyperus Surinamensis, Rottb., Descrip. Icon., 35, t. 6, f. 5. 

Asuncion (244 a and 564); Pilcomayo River (1562). December- 
January. 

Cyperus, Sp. 

Central Paraguay (83). 

Related to C. Surinamensis and C. Luzulde, Appears to be the 
same as a plant collected by Schweinitz in Surinam. 

Kyllingia odorata, Vahl., Enum., ii, 289. 
Asuncion (60). November. 



254 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Kyllingia obtlisata, Presl, Reliq. Haenck., i, 183. 
Asuncion (95 a). November. 

£leocIiaris acicularis (L.), R. and S., Syst. Veg., ii, 154. 
Asuncion (87). November. Named by C. B. Clarke. 

£leocliaris capitata (Wllld.), R., Br. Prod. Flor. Nov. HolL, 225. 
Asuncion (87 a). November. 

£leocliaris geniculata (L.), R. and S., 1. c, 224. 

Pilcomayo River (862 and 1036). January-May. 

An elegant species, l-lj m. high, with many stout stems from the 
same root, the sheaths at the base red, and the pure w^hite feathery 
looking heads 2-4 cm. long. This forms a conspicuous object among 
the grasses which choke the waters of the great laguna. 

Eleocliaris mutata (L.), R. and S., 1. c, 155. 

Luque (298) ; Villa Rica (499). December-January, 

Eleocliaris nodiilosa (Roth.), Schultes, Mant., ii, 87. 

Luque (298 b); Pilcomayo River (1084). December-January. 

Eleocliaris sulcata (Roth.), Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras., i, 98. 
Asuncion (249). December. Named by C. B. Clarke. 

Dictiromena ciliata, Vahl, Enum., ii, 240. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (474). January. 

Fim'bristylis capillaris (L.), A. Gray, Man. Ed. v, 567. 

Asuncion (94b and 130); Caballero (130b, 561, and 568). Novem- 
ber-January. 

Fimlbristylis complanata (Retz.), Link, Hort., ii, 292. 

Asuncion (94); Luque (296). December. 

Stems 3-6 dm. high. Leaves and bracts sheathing, some of them 
half as long as the stem, 3-5 mm. broad. Umbels 2 or 3 times 
compound. Wet grounds. 

Fimliristylis dipliylla (Retz.), Vahl, 1. c, 289. 

Luque (299 a); Caballero (299b). December-January. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 255 

Fimbristylis mbnostacliya (L.), Hassk. PL Jav. Rar., 61. 
Gran Chaco (863). January-March. 

Fimtoristylis sqiiarrosa, Vah], 1. c, 289. 

Asuncion (357); Pilcomayo River (879). January. 

Scirpus Culiensis, Poepp. and Kunth, in Kuntli Enum., ii, 172. 
Asuncion (563). December. 

Scirpus rolJUStus, Pursli., Fl. Am. Sept., i, 56. 
Pilcomayo River (927). February. 

Fuirena incoinpleta, Nees, Mart. Fl. Bras., ii, 107. 

Luque (328). December. 

A tall species. Stem simple, soft, triquetrous, 4^-6 dm. high, 
sheathed by 3 or 4 leaves. Leaves keeled, revolute on the margins, 
with a closed sheath which has a membranous ligule at its top that 
throws the blade nearly at right angles to the stem. Flower heads 
in clusters, which are sessile or in umbels. Scales 3-nerved below 
the awn. Wet grounds. 

Flatylepis Brasiliensis, Kunth, 1. c, 269. 

Asuncion (95). November-January. 

A genus not found in our country. It is distinguished by having 
terminal spikes, and the stipitate flowers and fruit enclosed in a flat 
or triquetrous scale which exceeds the glumes, and the absence of 
setse. The species here noted is a small, slender plant 15-20 cm. 
high, with the narrowly linear leaves crowded at the base and 
shorter than the culms. Spikes closely crowded. in a globose or 
ovoid head, 7-10 cm. long, subtended by 2 spreading bracts much 
longer than the head. Scale compressed, broadly and niembra- 
nously winged, tipped with an awn about one-third of its length. 
Nutlet dark, oblong, slightly angled on one side, tipped with the 
remains of the style, 1 mm. long. 

This little plant, with its small white heads, dots the grass lands 
about Asuncion and Villa Rica in large numbers. 

Ryiichospora Amazonica, Poepp. and Kuntli, in Kunth Enum., ii, 

292. 

Near Lympio (1564); Caballero (1563). January-May. Named 
by C. B. Clarke. 



256 Plants Collected m Paraguay. 

With slender stems 2-6 dm. high. Spikelets in lateral axillary 
clusters on long peduncles, or in terminal long peduncled panicles, 
3-5 in a cluster, ovoid. Glumes chestnut colored. Radical leaves 
one-third as long as the stem or shorter. 

Ryucliospora corymbosa (L.), Britton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 
xi, 84. 

Villa Rica (559). January. » 

Stems triquetrous, 20 cm. or more in height, having at the stim- 
mit a large, loosely spreading 2 or 3 times compound panicle of 
spikelets, twice as long as the stem and spreading for 25 or 30 cm. 
This is composed of 2 or 3 fascicles of umbels 4-6 cm. apart ; the 
uppermost the largest, its rays 10-15 cm. in length; raylets 3-5 
cm. long, and often again divided into shorter branches. Fascicles 
subtended by 1-4 foliaceous bracts, 1 of them 10-40 cm. long. 
Spikelets 2 or 3 in a cluster, at the ends of the ultimate divisions. 
Glumes chestnut-colored. A very striking plant. In wet places. 

Ryncliospora glaiica, Valil, 1. c, 233. 

Luque (300). December. Named by C. B. Clarke. 

Rynchospora scalierrinia, Boeck., FL, 1860, p. 452. 

Luque (311); Gran Chaco (1565). December-February. Named 
by C. B. Clarke. 

Spikelets in several compound umbelled fascicles along the stem, 
the uppermost largest, all with numerous umbels, and subtended 
by foliaceous bracts much larger than the flowers. Leaves firm, 
8-13 mm. wide and longer than the culm, very rough. A coarse 
species with rough, triquetrous stems 3-12 dm. high. Spikelets 
narrow lanceolate, acute, 3-5 mm. long, 3-12 or more in a cluster, 
dark chestnut-colored. 

Ryncliospora tenuis, Link, Jalirb., iii, 76. 
Luque (1566). December. 

Ryncliospora Urbani, Boeckl., Cyp. Nov., i, 26. 
Luque (560). December. Named by C. B. Clarke. 

Scleria liirtella, Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, i, 93. 
Caballero (424). January. 



Plants Collected in Faraguay. 257 

Scleria pratensis, Lindl. in Nees, 1. c, 179, t. 23. 

Asuncion (246). Named by C. B. Clarke. 

Culms 5-t dm. high, triquetrous, rough on the angles. Stem 
leaves 8-30 cm. in length, long-sheathed, 3-nerved, 5-8 mm. wide. 
Flowers shortly pedicelled, on long, branching peduncles, the stami- 
nate and pistillate in separate spikelets. Glumes grayish margined, 
with a dark chestnut centre, broad-ovate, mucronate. Nutlets 
globose, white and shining, 2 or 3 mm. in diameter. 

Wet places at Asuncion, Yilla Rica, and in the Chaco opposite 
Asuncion. 

Carex Bonariensis, Desf. in Poir. Lam. Encvc. Supp., iii, 250. 

Pilcomayo River (1076). February. Named by L. H. Bailey. 

With very long weak culms, often recurving or nearly reclined, 
rough on the angles, 3-5 dm. high. Leaves nearly as long as the 
culms, 1-3 mm. wide. Spikes 2 or 3, closely crowded in small 
terminal heads. 

In the woods and among grass on the campo. 

Carex involucrata, Boott, Illus. Car., ii, 77, t. 210. 

Luque (316). December. Named by L. H. Bailey. 

The spikes 3 or 4, disposed as in no. 1076. Culm a little stouter 
and not so high as in that. Leaves as long as or longer than the 
culm, 2-4 mm. broad. In dry grounds, old fields, among grass. 
Common at Luque and Trinidad. These 2 carices are the only 
species which I found growing in Paraguay. 

GRAMINE^. 

Paspaliim 'barTbigeruiii, Kunth, Gram., i, 24. 
Pilcomayo River (962). March. 

Paspalum conjiigatiim. Berg, x\ct. Helv., vii, 129, t. 8. 
Asuncion (247). December. 

Paspalum disticlium, L. Syst., Ed. 10, 

Asuncion (548); Trinidad (1567). November-December. 

Paspalum eriantlium, Nees, Agrost. Bras., 38. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (557 a). 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, April, 1893.— 17 



258 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Paspalum fasciculatum, Willd. in FlOgge, Mou., 69. 

Gran Ohaco near Asuncion (535). December-January. 

Culms tall and stont, growing l-i m. high. It has a long tough 
root, and is very difficult to eradicate in clearing fields. It is, how- 
ever, valued as a pasturage grass when young. 

Paspalum iiiaequivalve, Raddi, Agrost. Bras., 28. 

Asuncion (248). December. = Fr. Miller no. 72. 

This species spreads over the ground in long running culms, 
sometimes forming mats, throwing up erect or ascending stems 
here and there which are 15-25 cm. high. Spikes few, short, and 
some distance apart. It occurs in shady places or wet grounds. 

PaspaluEii mtermedium, Munro in Herb. Kew. 

Pilcomayo River (1019). May. 

Culms stout, glabrous, 1-1^ m, high. Spikes in a long (15-25 
cm), closely crowded, terminal raceme, purplish in color, 2-6 cm. 
long. Leaves nearly as long as the culm, sharply keeled, rough on 
the margins, covered with a mealy granulation when fresh. Com- 
mon in clumps on the campos along the Pilcomayo River. 

Paspatlim lividum, Trin., ex Schl., Linnsea, xxvi, 383. 
Pilcomayo River (1584). January. 



Paspalum oTatum, Nees, 1. c, 43. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (549). January. = Balansa 110. 

Paspalum pauiculatum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 81. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (553). January. 

Paspalum plicatulum^ Mx., Fl. Bor. Am., i, 4.5. 
Near Asuncion (1580). December. 

Paspalum repens, Berg, Act. Helv., vii, t. 7. 

Asuncion (282). November. 

An aquatic grass, creeping b}^ running rootstocks on the bottom, 
and sending up many floating stems. The sheaths are inflated and 
seem to act as floats. Spikes narrowly linear, terminal. Cattle are 
so fond of this grass that they will wade far into the water to get 
a bite of it. 

Paspalum simplex, Morong, n. sp. 

Culm slender, simple, 7-10 dm. high, striate, glabrous. Sheaths glabrous, 
open, and with long silky hairs at the mouth. Blade of the leaf linear, 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 259 

glabrous, rough on the margins, tapering to a long acuminate point, 12-30 
cm. long, 2-5 mm. broad ; ligule short, fuscescent. ,Spikes 4H0 at the sum- 
mit of the culm, linear, 3 or 4 cm. long, scarcely 2 mm. broad, with long 
silky hairs at the base; rachis glabrous. Spikelets 2 mm. long, on minute 
pedicels. Empty glume only 1, strongly 3-nerved, boat-shaped, as long as 
the flowering glume, translucent ; flowering glume 3-nerved. Grain slightly 
rough under the lens. 

Pilcomayo River (1583). February. 

Paspaliim virgatiim, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 81. 

Caballero (516); Asuncion (551); Pilcomayo River (969). 
January-June. 

This grass in Paraguay grows sometimes nearly 2 m. in height. 
It has a stout stem and long, broad leaves. On account of their 
sharp cutting edge the people call it Paja corta dura, or grass that 
cuts. It is largely used for thatching houses, and I was told that 
if well laid it would shed the rain perfectly and last ten years. 

l^riocliloa punctata (Lam.), Hamilt., Prod., 5. 

Asuncion (283); Pilcomayo River (9tl). December-March. 

Panicum amplexicaule, Rudge, PL Guian., i, 21, t. 27. 

Luque (541); Pilcomayo River (1030). December-May. 

Growing in miry places or in water. Culms glabrous. Stem 
leaves amplexicaul, 1-3 cm. broad at the base, 14-30 cm. long, 
tapering to a sharp acuminate point. In young plants before the 
culms appear the leaves sheath each other at the base. Panicle 
narrow, of many densely flow^ered spikes, the spikes cylindrical, 
some of them 20 cm. or more in length, the panicle 30 cm. or more 
long. Glumes strongly rough-awn#d, and rough on the mid-nerve. 

Panicum auriculatum, Willd. in Spreng. Syst., i, 322. 

Caballero (515); Asuncion (693). January-May. 

No. 515 is referred here with hesitation. No. 693 = Balansa 114. 

Growing in miry places or in water, stout, 1-lj m. high. Stem 
leaves short, auriculate, and very broad (sometimes 4 cm.) at the 
base. Panicle close, 3-5 cm. broad and 2^-4 dm. long, composed 
of many rather loosely flowered cylindrical spikes 2-10 cm. long, 

Panicum capillare, L., Sp. PL, 58. 
Pilcomayo River (1568). February. 



2G0 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Panicillll Cliloroticuin, Nees, in Trin. Diss., ii, 236. 

Named by N. E. Brown. 

Pilcomayo River (1002). April. 

Some of this was distributed as /'. elephantipes, Trin. 

An aquatic species, with floating culms 2-3 m. Sometimes nearly 
5 m. in length. Stem leaves 13-25 cm. long. Panicle widely 
spreading, 2-5 dm. long, the branches rising singly or 2-3 from 
the main rachis, and 15-25 cm. long, many forked. Spikelets much 
scattered, solitary, on short pedicels along the ultimate branches. 
It was mainly owing to this grass that w^e could not get our little 
steamer through the great laguna on the Pilcomayo, and so were 
compelled to abandon our voyage and return to Asuncion. It 
choked the channel of the river with an impenetrable mass of vege- 
tation. 

Panicum Crus-Galli, L., Sp. PL, 56. 

Pilcomayo River (963) ; Asuncion (743 and 539). January-May. 

Panicum demissiim, Trin., Sp. Gram., t. 319. 

Caballero (519). January. 

A small grass with very slender erect or nearly prostrate stems 
8-12 cm. high. Leaves l-2cm. long, lanceolate, acute. Spikelets 
in a loose, spreading, terminal panicle 1^-3 cm. long, each on a 
pedicel 3-t mm. long. 

Panicum glutinosum, Sw., Prod., 24. 

Caballero (405 a). January. = Balansa 1. 

Apparently so named because the roots are tubercled and glutin- 
ous, causing the sandy soil in w^hich the plant grows to adhere to 
them. The inflorescence and general appearance of the plant much 
like those of our P. virgatum. This, however, grows in shady 
woods. 

Panicum insulare (L.), Meyer, Fl. Esseq., 60. 

P. leucophceum, H. B. K., i, 97. 

Asuncion (176); Pilcomayo River (983). November-April. 

Panicum latifolium, L., Sp. PL, 58. 

Asuncion (755, 780, and 641) ; Pilcomayo River (1569). January- 
April. 

This is a very different plant from the species commonly called 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 26 1 

P. latifolium in this country, which should be P. Walteri, Poir. 
It is really a cane, often growing 3 or 4 m. high, the culm with 
hollow joints, glabrous, and nearly as thick as the thumb, with a 
dark ring at the joints, leaning downwards at the summit. Leaves 
rounded and with a tuft of silky hairs at the junction with the 
sheath, lanceolate, long acuminate, 6-15 cm. long, 1-3 cm. broad 
in the middle, more or less pubescent on the blade and sheaths. 
Panicle with divergent lateral branches, 5-20 cm. long. Spikelets 
solitary on short pedicels, 3 or 4 mm. long, the lower empty glume 
half as long as the upper, puffed outwardly as if inflated, 5-nerved, 
the upper as large as the flowering glume, 5-Y-nerved, both glumes 
with a tuft of down at the apex. The fruit when ripe becomes 
perfectly black, very smooth and shining, and dropping off at a 
touch. A striking plant, occurring usually in swampy thickets. 

Paniciim laxiliu, Sw., Prod., 23. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (537) ; Pilcomayo Iliver(977). March. 

A delicate weak-culmed grass 1-1^ m. high. Panicle loose, 25 
cm. or more in length. Spikelets hardly 1 mm. in length, loosely 
strung along the capillary rachis ; the glumes whitish ; pedicels 
hardly 1 mm. long. Wet places in woods. 

Paniciim megiston, Schultes, Mant., ii, 248. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (813) ; Pilcomayo River (1072). 
October-June. 

A fine grass, growing with stout, glabrous culms, 1-lj m. high. 
Stem leaves 10-15 cm. long, 18-28 mm. broad, tapering to a sharp 
acuminate apex, sparsely hairy and rough on the sheaths with 
minute tubercles. Panicle 3-4 dm. long, 5-18 simple, drooping 
branches rising together in whorls from the main rachis and 10-12 
cm. in length. Spikelets solitary or 2 or 3 together, about 3 mm. 
long, sessile or on minute pedicels, strung along on the rachis at 
some distance from each other. ITpper empty glume as large as the 
flowering glume, strongly 5-7-nerved. Occurs in deep woods or on 
their borders, and forms a most excellent pasturage grass for cattle. 

Panicuiii JViimidiaiium, Lam., Encyc, 49. 
P. barbinode, Trin., Act. Petrop., 1835, p. 256. 

Asuncion (779 a). 

This species is more common in Brazil than in Paraguay, It is 
cultivated in fields at Asuncion under the name Paja Angora, 



262 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Angora grass, and used as green fodder for horses. In good soil 
it yields fine crops, being cut down in sections as wanted, and 
growing all the year round. It attains a height of 1-1^ m., and is 
softly pubescent, the panicle 8-20 cm. long and mostly glabrous. 

Panicuni paucispicatutn, Morong, n. sp. 

Culm geniculate, striate, pubescent, especially on the branches, 2-6 dm. 
high. Branches spreading. Sheaths striate, downy, marked with a dark 
ring at the top. Blade of the leaf lanceolate, acute, or acuminate, cordate 
and amplexicaul at the base, ciliate, pubescent, many nerved, 4-7 cm. long, 
9-18 mm. broad at the base ; ligule short, fimbriate. Spikes few and dis- 
tant, 2-4 cm. long ; rachis triquetrous, the angles sharp, very downy. Pedi- 
cels with a ring of projecting hairs just under the spikelets. Spikelets about 
8 mm. long ; empty glumes downy, pointed, strongly 3-7-nerved, the lowest 
half as long as the flower. Sterile flower hyaline, nerved. Flowering glume 
tipped with a sharp awn-like projection which is 1 mm. long. 

Similar in appearance to P. zizanioides, but differing from that 
in its marked pubescence, the size and numbers of the spikelets, 
number of nerves on the glumes, and especially in the peculiar pro- 
jection at the apex of the flowering glume. 

Wet grounds in the Chaco opposite Asuncion (15T3). January. 

Paiiicum polygoiiatum^ Schrad. in Schultes, Mant., ii, 256 ? 

Pilcomayo River (1574). 
Panicuni Potamium, Trin., Diss., ii, 239. 

Caballero (441); Luque (534). December-January. 
Panicnm proliferum, Lam., Encyc, iv, 747. 

Caballero (543). January. 
Panicum recalTum, Kunth, Gram., i, 39. 

Pilcomayo River (1570). June. = Balansa 144. 
Panicuni rivulare, Trin., Diss., ii, 213. 

Caballero (517); Pilcomayo River (517 a). January. 

A tall coarse grass, growing in bogs at Caballero. Also collected 
at the ford on the Tebicuary River on the road between Yilla Rica 
and Escoba. Culm 1^-2 m. high, glabrous. Panicle large, louse, 
and spreading, 3J-8|- dm. long, 15-20 cm. broad. Spikelets small, 
crowded on the branches of the panicle. Leaves 6-10 cm. or more 
in length, with a very rough cutting edge, tapering to an extremely 
long acuminate point. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 2G3 

Paniciini sanguinale, L., Sp. PL, 57. 

Asuncion (558). November- January. 

Panicum spectaliile, Nees, Agrost. Bras., 262. 

Pilcomayo River (1070). April. = Balansa 156. 

Growing in water. A thick culmed grass, 4 or 5 dm. high. 
Leaves rough on the edges with minute bristles and sometimes 
with small tubercles also, 3-5 dm. long and 1-2 cm, broad, the 
uppermost much longer than the panicle. Panicle close, 15 cm. 
long and 2^ cm. broad. Spikes simple, erect, disposed alternately 
around the raehis, about 3 cm. long. Main rachis strongly angled, 
hispid with short hairs, and with longer ones just under the spikes. 
Spikelets 5 or 6 mm. long, sessile, disposed closely and in several 
rows about the rachis of the spike. Flowering glume 5-T-nerved, 
with a long hispid awn, and hispid on the nerves. 

Panicum sulcatum, Aubl., PI. Guian., i, 50. 

Caballero (444); Pilcomayo River (15t2). January-February. 

Culms terete, pubescent, sulcate, 1-1^ m. high. Leaves, especi- 
ally on young plants, very beautiful, being nearly glabrous, strongly 
striate longitudinally or even plicate, 3-6 dm. long and 2-|-5 cm. 
broad in the middle, the blades bright green in color ; sheaths 
downy, with long white hairs in a tuft at the summit and along the 
margins. Spikes in a close panicle 3-4 dm. long, very bristly with 
upwardly barbed setse 1-2 cm. long which rise from the base of the 
pedicels. 

Panicum trictiantlium^ Nees, Agr, Bras., 210. 

Named by N. E. Brown. 

Luque (311); Pilcomayo River (15tl). December-January. 
= Balansa 46 and 46 a. 

Panicum Testitum, Kunth, Gram., i, 39. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (552). January. 

Csespitose. Stems strict, 2-3 dm. high ; panicle short; the glumes 
3-4 mm. long, clothed with long silky hairs. Rising from a hard, 
somewhat tuberous base, and fibrous roots. Leaves narrowly 
linear, half as long as the culm ; the culm mostly naked. 

On the open campo between Yilla Rica and Escoba. 



264 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Paniciim Tirgatum, L., Sp. PL, 59. 

Caballero (405); Gran Chaco near Asuncion (538). January. 

Paiiicilin zizanioides^ H. B. K., Nov. Gen., i, 100. 

Gran Chaco near Asuncion (536); Pilcomayo River (1001). 
January- April. 

Grows in masses along the edges of water-courses, in the water 
and on the banks. It is an open, spreading plant, creeping at the 
base, S^-S dm. high. Leaves 7-13 cm. long, amplexicaul at the 
base of the blade. Panicle 10-13 cm. long, with several, unequal, 
nearly erect spikes. Spikelets scattered along the rachis, usually 
2 together, 1 on a pedicel 1 mm. long, and the other on a pedicel 5 
mm. long. Lowest glume | as long as the spikelet, 3- or obscurely 
5-nerved, infolding the spikelet at the base. All the glumes gla- 
brous. Whole plant glabrous except on the margins of the leaf 
sheaths. 

Faiiicum, sp. 

Caballero (521). January. 

Oplismenus setarius (Lam.), R. & S., Sjst. Veg., ii, 481. 
Asuncion (248 a); Luque (315). December. 

ChamaerapUis caudatus (Lam.), Britton. 
Panicum caudatum, Lam., EncycL, iv,'2. 

Pilcomayo River (1575). January-February. 

Csespitose. Culms numerous from a hard base, strict, slender, 
angular, mostl}^ glabrous. Leaves narrowly linear, glabrous, revo- 
lute, nearly as long as the culms. Panicle spiciform, simple or sub- 
simple, 4-8 cm. long. Spikelets whitish, 2 mm. long. Longest 
setae about 1 cm. 

In hard soil on the campos of the Pilcomayo River. 

Cliamaerapliis glauca (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL, 767. 
Near Asuncion (540). December-April. 

CliamaBrapIiis Italica (L.), Kuntze, L c? 
Asuncion (207). November-December. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 265 

Cliamaerapliis setosa (Sw.), Kuntze, 1. c, 768. 

Setaria macros f achy a, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., i, 110. 

Between Yilla Kica and Escoba (546); Asuncion (658); Pirayu 
(613); Pilcomayo River (1574), January-rApril. 

A grass striking- in appearance and of common occurrence in 
Paraguay. The culms are sometimes nearly 3 m. high, and the 
leaves 30-45 cm. long and 2-3 cm. broad, strongly sulcate, almost 
plicate. Panicle 20-30 cm. long and 3-4 cm. broad, branches sin- 
gle, 1-1^ cm. long, the inflorescence looking as though it were all 
bristles. Setae very numerous, l-2-|- cm. long. Spikelets 2-2^ mm. 
long. 

CliamdBrapliis paiicifolia, Morong, n. sp. 

Culm terete, glabrous or slightly rough, striate or nearly smooth, 1-2 m. 
high, with a dark ring at the nodes ; interuodes 15-25 cm. long. Leaves few, 
striate, with the sheaths minutely rough, nearly as long as the stem, revolute, 
running to a long acuminate point. Ligule reduced to delicate white hairs. 
Panicle terminal, spiciform, densely cylindrical, 10-20 cm. or more in length, 
and about 1 cm. wide, on naked peduncles 3-5 dm. long. Spikelets sessile or 
on minute pedicels, on the rachis or on very short lateral branches, closely 
crowded, glabrous, about 3 mm. long, acute, slightly recurved and spreading. 
Empty glumes white, the lowest about 1 mm. long, the second a little longer, 
5-nerved, both barely pointed and having a curiously puffed appearance. 
The flowering glume as long as the flower, acute, 5-nerved, whitish. Palea 
wrinkled transversely, very thick and hard, purplish when mature. Setse 
] or 2 under each spikelet, 10-12 mm. long. This plant usually grows in 
tufts. The culms are often branched below, and the branches flower-bearing. 

On the campo at Caballero (418), and on the Pilcomayo Kiver 
(982). January-April. 

Cenclirus ecliinatus^ L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1150. 
Asuncion (96). November. 

Cenchrus myosuroides, H. B. K,, Nov. Gen., i, 115. 

Asuncion (214). November-December. 

A fearful thing to encounter when the burs are ripe, as the plant 
is nearly as high as one's head, and the thickly crowded spike is 
sometimes 25 cm. long. I have had my clothes so completely 
covered with the burs that it took me nearly an hour to pick them off. 

Old fields in the vicinity of Asuncion. 



266 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Pennisetum purpurascens, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., i, II3. 

Pilcomayo River (1516). March-April. 

A handsome species. Calms sometimes 1 cm. in diameter at the 
base, hard and hollow-jointed like a cane, glabrous, and as much 
as 3 m. in height. Leaves numerous, 3-5 dm. long, 1-2 cm. broad. 
Spikes often reddish or purple in color, sometimes 25 cm. or more 
in length, frequently recurved. Spikelets densely crowded. Setae 
very numerous, 10-15 mm. long. 

Pennisetum setosum (Sw.), L., in Pers. Syn., i, 72? 

Asuncion (208 a); Pilcomayo River (991). February-April. 

A fine grass, much valued for pasturage when young. Culms 
1-2J m. high. Inflorescence in a long, plumose spike (15-25 cm.), 
which has a rich yellow or purplish tint, frequently recurved. Spike 
1-lJ cm. wide. Similar to no. 1576, but much more graceful, and 
with shorter and narrower spikes. It presents a beautiful appear- 
ance when standing on the banks of the Pilcomayo River, where it 
is very common. 

This was first determined and distributed as P. Sieberi, Kunth. 

Olyra pauciflora^ Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, i, 125. 

Caballero (505). January. 

A genus of grasses with 1-flowered, monoecious spikelets, the 
staminate in the lower part of the panicle, or rarely in a distinct 
panicle, and with a single glume. Pistillate flowers 3-glumed. The 
species here noted is, according to Swartz, an inhabitant of the 
island of Jamaica. It has a culm 2 or 3 dm. high. Leaves ovate, 
acute, rounded or truncate at base, 4-6 cm. long and 2^-3 cm. broad 
at the base, on a minute pedicel, the sheaths closely involute. Pani- 
cle 6-8 cm. long, the branches in verticils of 6-10, the lowest f as 
long as the panicle. Glumes aristate. Leaves very green, striate, 
glabrous, shining on the upper surface. 

Pilar us latifolius^ L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1408. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (449). January-March. 

This seems to be the plant described in Chap. Fl. Supp., p. 661, but 
it certainly is not aquatic as he declares his plants to be, as it grows 
in the woods, often in very dry woods. It occurs abundantly in 
the monte on the banks of the Pilcomayo, as well as in Central 
Paraguay. The panicle is small, not over 10 cm. long, the branches 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 26T 

widely spreading. It is a bad thing to handle, as the fruit-bearing 
glume is densely covered with small hooked hairs, and the fruit 
adheres to everything it touches, even to the drying-paper, so that 
it is very difficult to preserve complete specimens. 

Tripsaciim dactyloides, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1378. 

Pirayu (675). April. 

ILiiiziola Peruviana, Pers., Syn., ii, 575. 
Asuncion (195). November. 

LiUZiola Spruceana, Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras., ii, pt. 2, 18. 

Near Asuncion (556). February. = Spruce 536. 

An aquatic with long sheathing leaves, the sheaths much inflated, 
and the leaves much longer than the culms. Monoecious. Stami- 
nate panicle terminal, 5-6 cm. long, loose and spreading, on culms 
almost filamentous, about 20 cm. long. Pistillate panicle below, 
much larger, the branches setaceous, dichotomous. 

Oryza latifolia, Desv., Journ. Bot., 1813, 77. 

Pilcomayo River (949). February. 

An aquatic occurring in pools in deep woods on the Pilcomayo 
River. Culms 1^-2 m. high. Leaves 3-3|- dm. long, 1^-4 cm. 
broad at the base, midnerve white and prominent, dark purple at 
the junction of blade and sheath, otherwise green, rough on the 
margins, otherwise glabrous ; sheaths 20-25 cm. long, closely in- 
vesting the culm. Panicle 25 cm. long, composed of simple erect 
branches 8-10 cm. long, rising 1-4 together from the rachis, with a 
tuft of silky hairs at the base of each cluster. Spikelets white, 6 or 
7 mm. long ; empty glumes subulate, 3 mm. long ; flowering glume 
keeled and laterally 2-nerved. Keel and nerves green, hispid, with 
a very long hispid awn ; palet similar, apiculate. 

Ariindinella Martinicensis, Trin., Diss., ii, 62. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (544). January. 

A strong, rank grass 3-9 dm. high, with rigid re volute acuminate 
leaves 2-3 dm. long. Panicle close, 2-3^ dm. in length, 3-5 cm. 
wide, the branches 6-12 cm. long. Spikes crowded. Spikelets gemi- 
nate, on unequal pedicels, 3 mm. long, 1-flowered ; upper empty 
glume longer than the lower and longer than the flower, 5-nerved, 
keeled, slightly recurved. Palet with a tuft of hairs at the base, 



268 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

awned, the awn delicate, bent at the summit, the lower half chest- 
nut-colored like the palet, and white above. 

On the campos between Villa Rica and Escoba. 

Sacdiariiin Cayeimense (Beauv.), Benth., Jour. Linn. Soc, xix, %Q. 

Between Caballero and Escoba (417). January. 

Culms stout, lf-2j m. high, yellowish, shining, glabrous, except 
at the joints, which are enclosed in a ring of long white hairs. 
Leaves linear, 2-3 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, fuscous pubescent on 
both sides, strongly nerved, midnerve large, becoming 5 or 6 cm. 
long above. Sheaths longer than the blades, pubescent above. 
Panicle spiciform, nearly cylindrical, interrupted, 10-25 cm. long, 
about 2 cm. wide. Branches 1-2 cm. or less in length, glomerate, 
densely crowded, solitary or 1-3 branched, the racemes subglobose. 
Spikelets about 4 mm. long. Glumes 4, the outer one oblong, 
white, shining, coriaceous, densely ciliate at the base and apex and 
on the margins with rufous hairs longer than the spikelet, indis- 
tinctly 3-4-nerved near the apex ; the other glumes chartaceous 
and smaller, the second slightly pilose. One of the most interest- 
ing grasses in Paraguay. The long, fluffy, bronze-colored, soft and 
velvety haired panicle is exceedingly beautiful. In bogs near the 
railroad track between Escoba and Caballero. 

SacctiaruiU liolcoides (Nees), Hack, in Mart. Fl. Bras., ii, pt. 3, 254. 

Luque (321). December. 

This species differs from the preceding more in habit than in the 
floral characters. Culms slender, glabrous, fringed with a ring of 
white hairs at the joints, about 6 dm. high, with 2 or 3 nodes. 
Leaves shorter than the culm, glabrous, except on the upper mar- 
gins of the sheath, revolute. Panicle flattish, not cylindrical, 8-12 
cm. long; branches 2-3 cm. long, simple or nearly so, spreading. 
Spikelets 4 mm. long, ciliate with bronze-colored hairs like no. 417, 
but the hairs not so dense and shorter than the spikelet. Outer 
glume bare of hairs on the back, pointed and minutely bidenticulate 
at the apex, with 4 green nerves which run the whole length of the 
glume. Near wet rocks with the water dripping upon it from above. 

Some of this was distributed as S. Cayennense. 

Pappopliorum macrostacliyiiiii, Schrad. in Scliultes Mant., ii, 
342. 

Pilcomayo River (1071). April. 

Culms stout, sulcate, glabrous, 10-15 dm. high. Leaves 4J-7 



Plants Collected in Paraguay, 269 

dm. long, glabrous, sulcate, the margins setulose-rough ; sheaths 
glabrous or a little pilose at the mouth, as long as the blades ; 
nodes 2 or 3. Panicle at first enclosed in a foliaceous bract as long 
as itself, the largest 8 dm. long and 6 cm. broad, tapering to an 
acuminate apex, more or less nodding; branches very numerous and 
crowded, simple or compound. The 2 lower glumes silvery-white, 
papyraceous, 1-nerved, 3 or 4 mm. long, apicfhlate, much surpassed 
by the setae of the palets. Lower palet divided into about 13 setae. 
Caryopsis elliptical. A fine grass, the long silvery-white panicles 
very showy. 

Andropogon condensatus, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., i, 188. 

Asuncion (206). November-December. 

Common in old fields at Asuncion. Culms rigid, about 1 m. high. 
Panicle spreading widely at the summit, 10-15 cm. long. Racemes 
much exserted from the spathes. Flowers white and fleecy. 

Andropogon lateralis, Nees, Agrost. Bras., 329. 

Asuncion (230). December. 

A harsh slender-stemmed grass, 10 or 12 dm. high. The flowers 
are borne along the stem at intervals in small, long-peduncled pani- 
cles, 2-3 branched. Spikes 4-6 cm. long. Hairs on the spikelets 
rather scanty. Awns twisted at the base, slender, bent about \ of 
the way up. The culms are caespitose, with a tuft of short leaves 
at the base. 

Andropogon leiicostactiys, H. B. K., Nov. Gen. i, 187. 

Caballero (469). January. = Balansa 2t9. 

Regarded by Hack el as a form of A. Virginicus, L., but differing 
in having much longer spikelets and with shorter hairs on the cal- 
lous base of the first glume. It seems to me also to have much 
larger panicles and longer racemes. Usually 3-4 panicles of fleecy 
flowers at long intervals on the stem. Culm 4-5 dm. high. Com- 
mon on the open campo around Caballero and Villa Rica. 

Andropogon JUinaruin (Nees), Kunth, Enum., i, 507. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (488 a). January. 

Culms rather stout, 5-9 dm. high. Panicle densely spiked, oblong- 
^bovate, 12-28 cm. long and 4 or 5 cm. broad, the branches some- 
what verticillate. Distinguished by its chestnut-colored, twisted, 
hairy awns, 4-6 cm. long. These are very conspicuous, and seem 



270 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

to occupy the whole panicle. Glumes white, with a sharp, slightly 
curved, callous, white-hairy point at the base. These cling close 
to the fruit and have the remarkable hygrometric property of un- 
twisting in wet weather and retwisting when dry, so that the 
sharp point bores its way into the earth. Persons who keep sheep 
complain that these sharp-pointed seeds actually bore their way into 
the sides of the animals. 

Andropogon Neesii, Kunth, Enum., i, 491. 
Near Caballero (423). January. 

Andropogon nutans, L., Sp. PL, 1045. 

Between Axilla Kica and Escoba (545, 54t); Pilcomayo River 
(926), January-February. 

No. 547 is nearly the ordinary A. nutans of the United States. 
It has light yellow panicles, and occurs on the campo near Villa 
Kica. Nos. 545, 547 belong to the form called by Hackel (Mon. 
Phan., vi, 529) j8. agrostoides, with spikelets about 4 mm. long; 
awns 4-7 mm. long, deep yellowish-brown in color. All of them 
are exceedingly handsome when in flower. On the campos near 
Yilla Kica and the Pilcomayo River. 

Andropogon saccharoides, Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ, 205, var. laguroides 
(D.C.), Hack, in Mart. Fi. Bras., ii, pt. 3, 293. 

Luque (326); Pilcomayo River (1083 and 1008). December- 
April. 

This grass sometimes grows to a height of 4 m, in Paraguay, 
with a panicle over 30 cm. long. The spathe-like floral bract is 
very rigid, and rarely fully opens till the flowers are dropping off. 

Andropogon Sorgtium (L.), Brot,, Fl. Lus., i, 88. 

Asuncion (203). November. 

Not exactly Sorghum vulgare, but the form called by Hackel 
corymbosus. It runs wild in fields in the vicinity of Asuncion. 
Culms 2-2^ m. high. Panicle 30-40 cm. long, very lax, the lowest 
branches drooping. Spikelets obovate, very hairy, or at maturity 
the glumes shining, interruptedly hairy, brownish-red or black, 
5 or 6 mm. long. Awns 5-8 mm. long, bent about half-way up. 
The leaves are sometimes 7 dm. long and 6 or 7 cm. broad. It was 
probably introduced into Paraguay by immigrants, but it seems to 
thrive very well as a naturalized grass. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 271 

Rottboellia Balansae, Hack., in Mart. Fl. Bras., ii, pt. 3, 312. 

Near Yilla Rica (542). January. = Balansa 291. 

Culms hard and dry, 1-lf m. high, growing in tussocks on the 
campo near Villa Rica. This is one of the most common grasses 
upon the plains of Paraguay, and usually presents a stiff, harsh 
aspect, affording but little nutriment for cattle, except when very 
young. 

Rottboellia compressa, L. f., SuppL, 114. 

Pilcomayo River (8*74). January. = Balansa 646. 

Aristida iniplexa, Trin., Act. Petrop., 1836, 48. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (488). January. 

Culms nearly or quite glabrous, 1 m. or more in height, csespitose. 
Leaves as long as or longer than the culms, narrowly linear, very 
revolute, appearing nearly cylindrical when dry. Panicle close, 
25-30 cm. long. Empty glumes 2-2|- cm. long, bluish, rough on 
the keel and with a rough bristle. Awns of the flowering glume 
nearly 10 cm. long, straight, much twisted. A strawy-looking 
species among the hills and woods. 

Aristida coniplanata, Trin,, 1. c, 1829, 85. Ex descr. 

Asuncion (648). April. 

A slender species with nearly glabrous compressed culms 5 or ft 
dm. high. Leaves narrowly linear, 2 mm. broad, nearly or quite 
glabrous, tapering to a long, hair-like point, very revolute. Panicle 
contracted, 15-20 cm. long, l-lj cm. wide, with 3 or 4 branches. 
Empty glumes purplish, membranous, barely bristle-pointed, the 
lower 1-nerved or obscurely 3-nerved at base, 12 mm. long. Awns 
20-25 mm. long, very slender, not twisted, straight. A delicate, 
caespitose plant, occurring in old fields. 

8porolt)OlllS Indicus (L.), R. Br., Prodr., i, 170. 

Asuncion (365); Caballero (551). December-February. 

Cllloris distictiopbylla, Lag., Gren. et Spec, Nov. 4. 
Asuncion (142). November. 

Ctiloris polydactyla (L.), Sw., Prodr., 26. 

Pilcomayo River (1586). April. Named by Dr. Geo. Yasey. 
A very handsome species growing along the borders of the Pilco- 



2T2 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

iiiayo. Culms 1-1^ m. in height. Distinguished by its numerous 
finger-like, soft-haired spikes which are 10-15 cm. in length. Some- 
times as many as 25 of these spring from the apex of the stem. 
The fleecy hairs and the needle-like awns of the flowering glume 
and palet impart a fuzzy appearance to the spikes. 

Tricllloris fascicillata, Fourn., Enum. Mex. PI. Grram. 142. 

Pilcomayo River (984). April. = C. Wright, Texas Y64. 

This grass occurs in Mexico and crosses the boundary into Texas. 
It is quite common along the banks of the upper Pilcomayo. The 
flowers are in densely crowded verticillate spikes at the top of the 
culm. The plant appears in the Paraguayan form to have much 
longer spikes (12-18 cm.) and a stouter and taller (1^-2|- m.) culm 
than in any of the Mexican specimens that I have seen. The very 
slender awns are sorhetirties 15 mm. long. 

Eleusine Indica (L.), Gsertn., Fruct et Sem., i, 8. 

Asuncion (61). November-January. 

£leusine Indica (L.), Gsertn., var. brachystachya, Trin., Sp., t. 72. 

Asuncion (68). 

Both of these forms grow in the streets of Asuncion, as well as 
in grassy places in the suburbs. The variety has much shorter and 
broader panicles, the spikelets closely crowded, and 1-3 spikes, while 
the type has 3-5 narrowly linear spikes. Sometimes erect and 20-30 
cm. high, but usually prostrate with ascending culms 6-15 cm. high. 

Leptochloa Tirgata, (L.), Beauv., Essaj., 71. 

Asuncion (211, 211a); Caballero (440) ; Pilcomayo River (9*70). 
January-April. 

This grass has a hard, smooth, reed-like culm l-lj m. high. 
Panicle 15-30 cm. in length. Spikes drooping, slender, 5-12 cm. 
long, 1-3 rising together from the rachis. Glumes and palets 
often purple-tinged. Culm occasionally branching, thickened at the 
branch nodes. Panicle sometimes on long naked peduncles, some- 
times sheathed by a leaf. 

Tricuspis latifolia^ Griseb., PI. Lorentz., 211. 

Near Pirayu (674); Pilcomayo River (928). February-April. 
This grass grows abundantly on the edges of the monte on the 
overhanging banks of the Pilcomayo. Culms with hard, smooth. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 273 

hollow joints like a reed, often as much as 3 m. high. Leaves some- 
what shorter than the culm, 2-3 cm. wide. Panicle very large, 
loose and spreading, 20-40 cm. long. Spikes on long branches, 
rising 1-3 or more together from the rachis, beginning to flower 
half-way up. These branches are filiform, 10-20 cm. in length, 
gracefully drooping. The specimens from Pirayu (614) had a 
closer panicle, presenting a more compact and bristly appearance 
than those of the Pilcomayo. 

Diplachne Terticillata, Nees. 

Pilcomayo River (981). April-June. 

Very common on the low grounds near the Pilcomayo River. 
It grows 1-1^ m. high. Panicle strikingly glaucous, sometimes 
over 30 cm. long, bearing from 35 to 50 slender spikes 5-10 cm. 
long, rising singly or several together from the rachis. Panicle 
rigid, 6-8 cm. broad ; spikes nearly erect. Spikelets 1^ cm. long, 
appressed, on the upper side of a rachis scarcely ^ mm. wide, 4-8 
flowers in a spikelet. Culm quite brittle at the joints, often branched 
below and sending up several flower stems. 

This is very similar to, if not identical with, D. imhricata of 
Texas and Mexico. 

Oynerium argenteum, Nees, Agrost. Bras., 462. 

Pilcomayo River (950). March-April. 

The well-known Pampas grass. It grows in large clumps all 
along the Pilcomayo Ri\^er and down the Paraguay to Uruguay. 
The culms sometimes measure 2-2^ cm. in diameter at the base, 
and attain a height of 4^ m. The plumes are 5-7 dm. in length, 
generally of a silvery-white, but frequently of a delicate rose tint. 
The leaves are narrowly linear, running into a long sharp apex, 
^-1|- m. in length, rising in a rosette about the base of the culms 
and gracefully curving over towards the ground. Usually several 
culms grow together in a tussock. 

The masses of this showy grass impart a wonderful beauty to 
the solitudes of the Pilcomayo forests, looking like plumed sentinels 
guarding the entrance to nature's treasures. 

Gyiierium saccbaroides, H. B. K., PL ^Equin., ii, t. 215. 

Pilcomayo River (1065). June. 

Much inferior to no. 950 in beauty, but equally conspicuous. 
Culms 3-5 m. high, over 2|- cm. thick at the base, not hollow, but 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, April, 1893.— 18 



274 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

filled with a rather tough pith. Leaves distichous, numerous, 70 
cm. or more long and 5 cm. or more in breadth at the base, giving 
one the idea of a large cornstalk. Panicle often over 14 dm. long, 
composed of numerous branches, some of which are over 5 dm. 
long, beginning to bear flowers 4-7 cm. from the base. The long 
branches of the panicle blow out on one side in the wind like a 
banner, and this and the large, close-veined leaves impart a strange as 
well as gigantic appearance to the plant. Guarani name '' Cuygua.''^ 

Arundo Donax, L., Sp. PL, 81. 

Asuncion (680) ; Pilcomajo River (1064). June. 

Culm smooth, hollow and jointed like a reed, 13-20 mm. thick at 
the base, and 3-4 J m. high. Leaves 2-ranked, the largest 5 dm. or 
more in length and 4-5 cm. broad at the base, acuminate, glabrous 
on the margins as well as on the surface. Flowers in a dense, 
contracted panicle 5^-8 dm. in length, composed of numerous closely 
disposed capillary branches, arranged on all sides of the rachis, and 
bearing innumerable spikes and spikelets. Outer glumes chestnut- 
colored, bristle-tipped, 10-12 mm. long; the inner clothed with white 
silky hairs. This grass is commonly known in Paraguay as " Gafia 
Gastilla^^ and is the native Cana, but it would be impossible to get 
juice from the culms like that of the sugar-cane, which is the true 
Caiia. It may have been named Gastilian sugar-cane in derision 
of the Spaniards, who are not loved in Paraguay. 

l^ragrostis Baliiensis^ Schultes, Mant., ii, 318. 

Asuncion (256). December. 

A caespitose grass with slender culms 3-5 dm. high. Leaves 
very short. Panicle laxly branched, 10-16 cm. long, the branches 
drooping ; the spikes containing from 10 to 25 lead-colored spike- 
lets. Panicle on naked peduncles 15-25 cm. long, This grass 
occurs in dry grounds, and is highly valued for pasturage. 

Kragrostis hypnoides (Lam.), B. S. P., Prel. Cat. N. Y., 69. 
Near Asuncion (356). December. 

Kragrostis IVeesii, Trin., Act. Petrop., 1831, p. 405. 

Luque (338). December-January. 

Dwarf, 15 cm. high at the most. Leaves short, in a radical tuft, 
or 1 or 2 at the base of the culm, covered with long, spreading white 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 2*l5 

hairs. Panicle close, 3 or 4 cm. long, with 3-5 short branches below ; 
S-*! flowers in the flat spikelets; glumes and palets mixed purple and 
white. One of the feeding grasses for cattle on the Gran Campo, 
about 5 miles east of Asuncion. 

Poa airoides (Nees), Kunth, Enum., i, 360. 

Asuncion (550). January. 

Growing in dry open thickets in the Chaco opposite Asuncion. 
Culms 3-5 dm. high. Panicle very diffuse, as long as or longer 
than the culms. One I measured was t dm. in length, with numer- 
ous branches, some of them 15 cm. long, 1-4 rising together from 
the rachis. Flowers minute, 1 or 2 in a spikelet ; the spikelets on 
capillary peduncles, and greatly scattered. Nerves of the flowering 
glume nearly or quite obsolete. Glumes lead-colored and scantily 
hairy at the base, A fine grass for mantel ornamentation. 

Bromus unioloides (Willd.), Nees, Agrost. Bras., 470. 
La Plata, Argentine Republic (21). October. 

Cliusquea teuella, Nees, Linnsea, ix, 492 ? 

Near Asuncion (755 a). June. 

Without flowers or fruit. Found with no. 755 in swampy woods 
near Asuncion. A lower and more slender culm than 755 ; leaves 
short, glabrous, nerved, lanceolate, rounded or semicordate at base, 
on a short petiole ; the sheaths slightly open, hairy fringed at the 
mouth. Short branches and leaves fascicled at the nodes, the culms 
often tapering into a long, very slender termination, and the nodes 
much longer than the leaves, sometimes 20 cm. A Chusquea with- 
out doubt, and corresponding, so far as these specimens go, to C\ 
tenella, as described in Flor. Bras. 

EQUISETACE^. 
l^quisetuiii giganteum, L., Sp. PL, Ed. 2, 1517. 
Pileomayo River (1000). April. 

SALYINIACE^. 
SalTinia auricula ta, Aubl., PI. Guian., ii, 969. 

Asuncion (289, 1579). December. = Balansa 1122. 



216 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

FILICES. 

Named by Elizabeth G. Britton. 

Alsophila atroTirens, Presl., Tent. Pter., 61. 

Between Yilla Kica and Escoba (418). January. 

The only tree fern that I met with in Paraguay, though there 
must be other species. The stem is l-lj m. high, and 1-12 cm. 
thick. 

This was first determined as A. armata, Presl., and so distri- 
buted. We are indebted to Mr. J. G. Baker for the correction. 

I>ick.soiiia cicutaria, Sw., Flor. Ind. Occ, iii, 1965. 
Between Yilla Bica and Escoba (511). January. 

Adiantum thalictroides, Willd. ; Schlecht. Adumbr., 53. 
Between Villa Rica and Escoba (441). January. 

Clieilaiitlies cliloropliylla^ Sw., Vet. Acad. Handl., 1817, p. 76. 

Asuncion (169); between Yilla Rica and Escoba (512, 512 b, 
181). November-May. 

Clieilantlies tuicropliylla, Sw., var. elongata, (Willd.), Baker. 
Asuncion (232). = Balansa 359. 

Ctieilantlies radiata (L.), J. Smith in Hook. Journ. Bot., iv, 159. 
Caballero (569). January. 

Pteris denticulata, Sw., Prod., 129. 

Asuncion (284, 698). May. 

Pteris pedata, L., Sp. PL, 1532. 

Caballero (110). January. 

This grows in deep woods on the banks of the Pilcomayo River 
as well as in similar places about Asuncion and Caballero. 

Bledmum Brasiliense, Desv., Berl. Mag., v, 330. 
Luque (309). December. 

Blechuum occidentale^ L., Sp. PL, 1534. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (1511). January. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 277 

Asplenium Oibertianum, Hook., Sp. Fil., iii, 199. 

Asuncion (739). May. 

A handsome little plant. Fronds 10-15 cm. in length, bipinnate 
below or the pinnae bipinnatified above, ending at the apex in a long 
linear projection, which roots at the tip and throws up a new plant. 
Deep damp woods near Asuncion. 

Asplenium lunula tuin^ Sw., Syn. Fil., 80. 
Between Yilla Kica and Escoba (386). January. 

Dryopteris aculeata (L.), Kuntze, Rev. Gren. PL, 812. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (573). January. = Balansa 323 a. 
The form of the species referred by Mr. Baker (Mart. El. Bras., 
i, pt. 2, 462) to Aspidium acultatum, var. phegopteroideum. 

Dryopteris Martinicensis (Spreng.), Kuntze, 1. c. 
Aspidium macrophyllum, Sw., Syn. Fil., 43. 

Between Yilla Rica and Asuncion (385). January. 
Dryopteris parasitica (L.), Kuntze, l. c, 811. 

Aspidium molle, Sw. in Schrad. Journ., ii, 34. 
Luque (307). December. 

Dryopteris unita (L.), Kuntze, l. c. 
Asuncion (250). December. 

Dryopteris Tillosa (L.), Kuntze, 1. c, 814. 
Near Asuncion (783). May. 

Polypodium angustum, Mett., Polyp., 90. 
Caballero (395). January. 

Polypodium incanum, Sw., Syn. Fil., 35. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (533); Pilcomayo River (1088). 
January-Eebruary. 

Polypodiuni latipes, Langsd. & Fisch., Icon. Fil., 10, 1. 10. 

Between Pirayu and Yaguaron (784); near Asuncion (828). 
April. 

The fronds of this fern exhale a delicious aroma when drying, 
something like that of Melilot. I was consulted by natives in 



278 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Paraguay anxious to know if the plant could not be used in making 
perfume. 

Polypodium lycopodioides, L., Sp. PI., 1542. 

Caballero (396). January. 

Climbing upon the trunks of trees for a distance of 3-5 m. in 
damp woods. Found with nos. 511 and 574, which have a similar 
habit. Dead prostrate trees are often completely covered with these 
plants, which seem to derive abundant sustenance from the decay- 
ing bark. 

Polypodium geminatum, Schrad. in Gott. G-el. Anz., 1824, p. 667. 

Ex descrip. 

Caballero (511). January. 

Polypodium Plumula, H. B. K., Nov. Gen., i, 8. 

Caballero (524); near Asuncion (726). January-May. 

Polypodium Tacciniifolium, Langsd. & Fisch., Icon. Fil., 8, t. 7. 
Caballero (574). January. 

G-ymnogramme calomelanos (L.), Kaulf., Enum. Fil., 76. 
Luque (308). December. 

Oymnogramme trifoliata (L.), Desv., Berl. Mag., v, 305. 

Near Luque (312). December. 

A golden fern, with trifoliate or binate leaves. The pinnae are 
linear-lanceolate, 4-8 cm. long, on a short pedicellate rachis. I saw 
this rarely in the streets of Asuncion, and it is abundant in dry or 
wettish grounds. 

Gymnogramme tomentosa (Lam.), Desv., 1. c, 304. 
Pilcomayo River (1087). February-March. 

Aneimia PbyllitidiS; Sw., Syn. FiL, 155. 

Between Villa Rica and Escoba (782). January. 

Aneimia tomentosa, Sw., 8yn. FiL, 157. 

Asuncion (234). December. 
LygOdium venustum, Sw. in Schrad. Journ., 1801, 303. 

Between Yilla Rica and Escoba (483). January. 



Plants Collected in Paraguay. 279 

MUSCI. 

Named by Elizabeth G. Britton. 

Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.), Mitt. Journ. Linn. Soc, xii, 84. 
Falkland Islands (1398). 

Tortula serrulata. Hook, and Gl-rev., Brewster's Edinb. Journ., i, 291, 
t. 12. 

Falkland Isknds (1399). 

Tortula laeta^ Knnzo in C. Muell. Syn., i, 574. 
Central Paraguay (1397). 

Bar1)iila pallido-Tiridis, C. Muell. 

Central Paraguay (1391). = Balansa 3562. Named by E. 
Bescherelle. 

Barbula luuricola, Hampe. 

Central Paraguay (1372). — Glaziou, Brazil, 7454. 

JUacromitrium pliyilorliizum, C. Muell. 
Central Paraguay (1378). = Balansa 59. 

Bryum memliraiiaceuiii, C. Muell. 

Central Paraguay (1382). = Balansa 74. 

Racliopiluiii tomentosiiin (Hedw.), Mitt., 1. c, 3.33. 
Central Paraguay (1389). -^ Balansa 3677. 

Hookeria sulidepressa, Besch., Rev. BrjoL, xii, 19. 
Central Paraguay (1386). = Balansa 3689. 

Hrpodium Paraguense, Besch. 

Central Paraguay (1385). = Balansa 3644. 

Ectropotheciuin rutilans (Brid.), Mitt., I.e., 519. 
Central Paraguay (1388). = Glaziou 7453. 

PlagiotlieciUIll Villa Ricae, Besch. Named \)j C. H. Wright. 
Central Paraguay (1371). = Balansa 1210. 



280 Plants Collected in Paraguay. 

Hypnum tenuirostre (Schwseg.), Mitt., 1. c, 547, var. Pariguari- 
cense, C. Muell. 

Central Paraguay (1374). = Balansa 3687. 

Hypnum turgidicaule, C. Muell., Rev. BryoL, xiv, 57, name only. 
Central Paraguay (1376). = Balansa 3680. 

Hypnum microphyllum, Hedw., Sp. Muse, t. 69. 
Central Paraguay (1383). 

L.asia coronata, Mont., var. tenuis, C. Muell. 

Central Paraguay (1377). = Balansa 3669. Named by E. 
Bescherelle. 

Hypnum SUbnudum, C. Muell., Rev. BryoL, xiv, 57, name only. 
Central Paraguay (1373). = Balansa 3679 a. 

Rapbidostegium Kegelianum, C. Muell., Liunsea, xxi, 198. 

On trees at the junction of the El Dorado (1380). = Burchell 
2575. 

SematophyUum circinale (Hampe), Mitt., i.e., 486. 
Central Paraguay (1390). = Balansa 3692. 

Fissidens SUl)Crispus, Besch., Rev. BryoL, xii, 17. 
Central Paraguay (1392). = Balansa 69. 

Fissidens HornscllUCllii, Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. (II), xiv, 342. 
Central Paraguay (1394). = Gardner 18. 



CORRECTIONS. 

Page 48. Before CastaHa €ril>ertii, insert the ordinal heading — 
NYMPH^ACE^. 
Page 56. For Sida pandiculata, read Sida paniculata. 

Page 69. Before Zantfaioxylum NaranjiUOj insert the ordinal 
heading— RUTACEiE. 

Page 205. 15th line, for Paraguay read Paragua. 



III. — Coleopterological Notices. 
V. 

BY THOS. L. CASEY. 
Read Oct. 2, 1893. 

In bringing together a number of short studies of our North 
American Coleoptera under the above title, the methods and objects 
held in view in the other parts of the present series are continued. 
The systematic revisions do not pretend to approach completeness, 
and are merely efforts to indicate the probable interrelationships of 
the species, based upon such material as it has been found possible 
to gather together. New forms are continually being brought to 
light, which sometimes tend to alter previously formed conceptions 
of specific limits, or to destroy or modify the value of characters 
assumed as the bases and criteria of classification. This is the 
natural outcome of all endeavors to evolve the laws of complicated 
affinities from inadequate data, but, at the same time, it is not 
always necessary or advisable to defer the announcement of such 
apparent truths as we have been able to discover with the material 
at our disposal; if carefully conducted, I believe that they may, and 
generally do, lead onward and upward. 

Having before us a confused mass of material which it is proposed 
to classify and arrange generically and specifically, the problem is to 
record all the genera and species, but neither more nor less. This 
problem is frequently more difficult than any which can confront us 
in the domain of the exact or physical sciences, because the acci- 
dental and variable factors cannot be determined. We might illus- 
trate the process by imagining an exact circle finely drawn on paper, 
and then trying by free hand to retrace it with a blacker pencil. It 
will be found that a portion of the dark line is outside the circle, a 
portion within, and another truly on the line. The portion without 
represents an excess of units or species, that within those which we 
have overlooked, as shown by subsequent and fuller evidence. The 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Oct. 1893.— 19 



282 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

hand cannot follow the circle exactly, and in like manner is it im- 
possible for the human brain to correctly interpret nature; we can 
only approximate. It would of course be perfectly easy to strike a 
circle wholly within the circumference of fact, but this would be 
analogous to the rule of thumb by which an engineer may make a 
structure many times too strong, in order to avoid laborious calcula- 
tions. It may answer in a certain way, but is not in the spirit of 
true scientific inquiry. 

New York, Sept. 7, 1893. 



STAPHYLINID^. 

Aleocharini. 

It is unfortunate, having in view the optical means of investiga- 
tion usually employed, that the Aleocharini are so small in size, for, 
from all points of view taxonomic and etiologic, they are one of the 
most interesting groups of little animals on the earth. The extra- 
ordinary diversity of structure and specialization of type observable 
among the termitophilous inquilines, are, in a measure, characteristic 
of the entire tribe, and it is this diversity alone which has given 
rise to the multitude of generic names which have been proposed. 
It is impossible to estimate just what proportion of these names is 
really necessary, but the number of true genera is without doubt 
proportionally much greater than in any other tribe of Staphylin- 
idse, possibly excepting the Omalini. This diversity and specializa- 
tion bespeaks a greater geological antiquity for the Aleocharini than 
for the other tribes of Staphylinidse, and this is indicated again by 
the fact that nearly all the associates of the termites, — known to be 
more ancient than the Coleoptera, — are taken from the tribe under 
consideration, or the closely related Tachyporini. 

The study of the subarctic Aleocharini of North America has 
been almost completely neglected thus far, but the species are with- 
out much doubt as plentiful here as in any other part of the world, 
and seem to follow the general rule with regard to the Staphylinidse 
in being more abundant and diversified than in Europe. This is 
somewhat remarkable, in view of the superior development in that 
continent of several other large families of Coleoptera, and, as I 
have before suggested (Col. Not. II, p. 326), seems to point to a 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 283 

greater age for the Staphylinidse than for some other families of 
Coleoptera. 

The following detached studies are merely intended as a begin- 
ning, and in drawing up the generic diagnoses, I have employed to 
some extent the differential characters suggested by Rey in the 
"Brevipennes" of France; so that one familiar with that work can 
refer the genera to their most probable positions in the European 
scheme. It is to be regretted, on the score of simplicity, that it has 
been found necessary to propose so many new genera, but I feel 
quite sure that those here described are really essential. In fact 
several species now referred to Leptusa, Oxypoda and Rheochara, 
will ultimately have to form distinct genera. This matter of generic 
subdivision is, however, becoming an important one from the mere 
standpoint of numbers, and, in the Aleocharini, if we go beyond 
Aleochara, Myrmedonia, Bolitochara and others, as determined by 
the number of tarsal and antennal joints, it is difficult to tell just 
where to draw the line. One good rule to follow in such cases, is 
to avoid defining new. genera unless there be at least three or four 
important structural differences; facies, however, here as elsewhere, 
frequently goes far as a guide, and is much more important than 
any single organic structural peculiarity. 

There is one important point concerning the nomenclature of the 
Aleocharini, which should be continually borne in mind. Homalota 
Mann, was founded upon a single definitely stated species, the 
Aleochara plana of Gyllenhall, which was subsequently found by 
Rey to have but four intermediate tarsal joints. This necessitates 
the complete abandonment of all our old ideas of Homalota as ex- 
tended by Erichson, and the true and only Homalota is the genus 
named Epipeda by Rey. In future, therefore, when we think of 
the Erichsonian Homalota, we should have in mind Atheta, Colpo- 
dota, Amischa, Liogluta and a score or so of other genera.' When 

1 This is set forth with sufficient clearness in the recent catalogue of Heyden, 
Reitter and Weise. I cannot agree with the authors of that work, however, 
in changing certain family names by reason of the rehabilitation of Geoffroy's 
genera. For instance, under Mylabris, Geoff., p. 331, I am unable to find a 
single species named by Geoffroy. Genera are and must be founded upon 
species, and if no species were described by Geoffroy under Latin names, it 
follows that that author had not adopted a proper binomial nomenclature 
when he founded his genera. We are compelled to assume some definite 
beginning, and that beginning is the date when the names of species were 
first published under the true binomial form. It is possible that some genera 



2S4 Coleopterological Xofices, V. 

there is the least doubt, a name long established in connection with 
certain species should not be changed, but in a case of this kind, 
where there can be no doubt whatever, the sooner we overcome 
our conservatism and adopt what is manifestly proper and right, 
the easier it will be for the generations of systematists who are to 
come into the world during the next few hundreds or thousands of 
years. It is our duty to lay as immovable a foundation as possible 
in the nomenclature of all sciences. The time, be it greater or less, 
during which we have become accustomed to a certain status or 
condition, will count as a mere nothing in future ages. 

Aleocharides. 

Antenna? 11 -jointed ; tarsi 5-5-5-joiuted. 

MASEOCHARA Sharp. 

Of this interesting genus we have four species. First, a large 
form with red elytra, which is without much doubt semivelutina 
Solsky ; second, a similar species, having the base of the prothorax 
equally rounded with the sides, but with the elytra black, described 
by LeConte under the name vaJida (= californica Csy.). Third, 
a rather smaller and notably more slender species with black elytra, 
having the basal angles of the prothorax distinct, recently made 
known by Dr. Sharp under the name opacella, and fourth, the fol- 
lowing very small species allied to gracilis Shp, 

M. pillierula n. sp. — Black, each elytron feebly suffused with rufo- 
piceous toward — but not attaining — the suture ; legs throughout and antennae 
toward base dark rufo-piceous ; integuments alutaceous, the elytra rather 
more shining, the abdomen strongly sliining ; head and pronotum feebly and 
sparsely punctate, the elytra more closely and a little more distinctly, the 
abdomen rather strongly but not densely, the impressed basal areas impuuc- 
tate ; pubescence rather long, coarse and plentiful, conspicuous, though much 
less so on the abdomen. Head orbicular, rather longer than wide, the eyes 
at fully their own length from the base; antennas fully as long as the head 
and prothorax, feebly incrassate, second and third joints equal, tenth one- 
half wider than long. Prothorax one-fourth to one-third wider than long ; 
sides parallel, broadly, evenly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse but very distinct, 

founded upon undescribed species may have been more recently accepted, but 
this would scarcely be a case in point, since the adoption of them took place 
long after the binomial system was firmly established. To establish a system 
is quite another matter, and requires the rigorous fulfillment of certain condi- 
tions. 



Coleoptei'ological Notices, V. 285 

scarcely blunt ; base broadly arcuate, slightly wider than the truncate apex ; 
disk very obsoletely impressed along the median line throughout. Elytra 
strongly transverse, at base subequal to the prothorax, but, at apex, quite 
distinctly wider ; sides feebly divergent from the base, broadly arcuate ; disk 
externally scarcely as long as the prothorax, the suture much shorter than 
the median line of the latter, broadly, feebly depressed toward the suture ; 
humeri broadly rounded to the base of the prothorax. Abdomen one-half 
longer than the anterior parts, about equal in width to the elytra; sides 
parallel, feebly convergent toward apex ; first two tergites strongly, widely 
impressed at base, the third very feebly so; fifth just visibly longer than the 
fourth. Basal joint of the hind tarsi one-third longer than the second ; two 
to four exactly equal ; fifth a little longer than the preceding two together. 
Length 4.0-5.0 mm. ; width 0.85-1.25 mm. 

Arizona (Benson). 

The male above described, has six small slender teeth along the 
apex of the sixth tergite, but instead of being disposed in two sets 
of three, with a wider interval in the middle as in the other species, 
they are here equidistant. The coloration seems to be constant, and 
the largest and smallest specimens in my series are both females. 
The rufous cloud on each elytron is extremely feeble. 

BARYODMA Thoms. 

B. SCIllptiTentris n. sp. — Rather narrow, parallel, convex, black, a 
narrow apical margin of the elytra almost imperceptibly rufescent ; legs 
scarcely paler, the tibise and tarsi dark piceo-rufous ; basal joint of the 
antennae piceous ; integuments moderately shining, the abdomen polished ; 
head coarsely and rather closely punctate, the pronotum very finely but 
deeply, extremely densely and evenly so ; elytra more distinctly but still 
rather finely, very densely and subasperately so ; abdomen very coarsely 
deeply and densely punctured, the coarse punctures of the basal depressions 
longitudinally coalescent, forming fine strong ridges ; pubescence of the pro- 
notum and elytra fine, subrecumbent, very dense and distinct, of the abdomen 
longer but fine, sparse and very inconspicuous. Head orbicular, as long as 
wide, three-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; antennae feebly incrassate, slightly 
longer than the head and prothorax, third joint obconical, elongate, two and 
one-half times as long as wide and much longer than the second, tenth scarcely 
one-half wider than long. Prothorax broadly ovoidal, one-half wider than 
long ; sides broadly, strongly arcuate, becoming distinctly convergent in apical 
half; base broadly, strongly arcuate, much wider than the apex which is 
feebly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse and blunt ; disk broadly, evenly convex, 
without trace of impression. Elytra distinctly transverse, slightly wider than 
the prothorax and about as long as the latter ; sides subparallel and broadly 
arcuate ; humeri not distinct. Abdomen much longer than the anterior parts, 
very slightly narrower than the elytra ; sides parallel and straight ; first three 



286 Coleopferological Notices, V. 

segments very strongly impressed at base througli about one-balf of their 
length ; fourth and fifth equal in length. Legs rather short ; posterior tarsi 
very much shorter than the tibiae, with the first joint distinctly shorter than 
the next three. Length 4.0-4.2 mm. ; width 1.2 mm. 

New York (Catskill Mts.); North Carolina. 

The middle coxae are moderately distant, the mesosternal process 
extending nearly to the apex, with its sides becoming parallel, the 
apex transversely truncate with the angles right and not rounded, 
the apical margin just visibly bisinuate, the fine acute median carina 
extending to the tip, the space between the carina and side margins 
broadly concave. This species is about twice as large as the Euro- 
pean morion Grav., and has much longer antennae. 

B. tlloraciCR n. sp. — Stout, thick, parallel, polished, black, the lateral 
limbs of the pronotum feebly rufescent from diaphaneity ; elytra, tip of the 
abdomen, legs and basal joint of the antennae clear pale rufous ; head ex- 
tremely minutely, scarcely visibly, remotely punctate ; pronotum very finely, 
sparsely, uniformly so ; elytra strongly, rather closely and asperately ; abdo- 
men sparsely, unevenly, subrugosely sculptured ; pubescence rather short, 
not very dense, stiff, inconspicuous, long and sparse on the abdomen. Head 
strongly deflexed, oval, longer than wide, less than one-half as wide as the 
prothorax, convex ; eyes well developed ; antennae long, distinctly incrassate, 
extending fully to the middle of the elytra, third joint feebly obconical, nearly 
three times as long as wide, longer than the second, tenth very slightly wider 
than long. Prothorax large, transversely suboval, three-fifths wider than long ; 
sides broadly, strongly arcuate, convergent anteriorly becoming gradually 
parallel in basal half; base broadly, rather strongly arcuate, much wider 
than the more feebly arcuate apex ; basal angles very obtuse and rounded but 
not obliterated; disk evenly, strongly convex, without trace of impression. 
Elytra very short, twice as wide as long, not in the least wider than the disk 
of the pronotum and scarcely more than two-thirds as long as the latter ; sides 
just visibly divergent and arcuate from the base; disk not impressed, the 
apex transverse. Abdomen — when contracted — not longer than the anterior 
parts, at base as wide as the elytra; sides subparallel, becoming feebly con- 
vergent toward apex ; first three segments narrowly, deeply impressed along 
the base ; fifth distinctly longer than the fourth. Legs rather long ; posterior 
tarsi very long and slender, only slightly shorter than the tibiae, with the 
basal joint fully as long as the next three combined. Length (contracted) 
3.0 mm. ; width 1.1 mm. 

Canada (Grimsby). 

The abdomen is reflexed from the base. The middle coxae are 
moderately distant, the mesosternal process extending nearly to 
their apices where it is as usual superposed on the tip of the short 
metasternal projection ; the sides of the process are feebly conver- 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 287 

gent, the apex transversely sinuato-triincate with the angles not 
rounded, and, along its surface there is a low rounded ridge, extend- 
ing to the apex and occupying one-third of its entire subapical width. 
The differences between this and the preceding species are almost 
certainly subgeneric ; the general appearance of thoracica is not 
unremindful of Oxypoda. 

B. "bipartita n. sp. — Stout, subfusiform, rufo-piceous in color, the head 
and abdomen darker and blackish ; elytra scarcely visibly clouded with 
blackish along the suture and toward the flanks ; legs pale flavate through- 
out ; antennae fuscous, paler toward base, the eleventh joint also paler except 
toward its base ; integuments strongly shining, the head finely, strongly, not 
very densely, the pronotum finely, strongly, evenly and extremely densely 
punctate ; elytra finely, still more densely, subasperately punctate, the abdo- 
men much more coarsely, very densely and subrugosely ; pubescence coarse, 
stiff, dense, short, pale fulvous and distinct, finer darker sparser and incon- 
spicuous on the abdomen. Head small, orbicular, not as long as wide, scarcely 
more than one-half as wide as the prothorax, the eyes large, elongate, at much 
less than one-half their length from the base ; infralateral carina strong, 
entire ; vertex evenly convex ; antennae short but only slightly incrassate, 
not quite as long as the head and prothorax, the second and third joints equal 
in length, the first longer and stouter, fourth but little wider than long, six 
to ten equal, slightly though distinctly transverse, eleventh subconical, rather 
acute, somewhat longer than the two preceding. Prothorax not quite twice 
as wide as long, the sides strongly convergent, very evenly and moderately 
arcuate from base to apex ; base strongly arcuate, four-fifths wider than the 
apex, which is less strongly arcuate; basal angles very obtuse, rounded; 
apical equally obtuse but less broadly rounded ; flanks greatly deflexed, the 
disk completely unimpressed, the fine basal bead distinct. Elytra at base 
equal in width to the prothorax, which is widest at its base, toward apex 
quite distinctly wider than the prothorax, equal in length, strongly trans- 
verse, the humeri concealed ; sides feebly divergent, evenly and unusually 
strongly arcuate throughout ; disk flattened toward the middle. Abdomen 
quite distinctly longer than the anterior parts, at base equal in width to the 
elytral apex ; sides feebly convergent and straight to the apex ; first two seg- 
ments only feebly impressed but not more coarsely punctured at base ; fifth 
distinctly longer than the fourth ; border thick, moderately deep. Legs short ; 
posterior tarsi slightly shorter than the tibiae, the basal joint barely as long as 
the next two and slightly longer than the last. Length 3.7 mm. ; width 1.3 mm. 

Texas (Galveston). 

The mesosternal process is moderate in width and extends to the 
very apex of the coxse, the apex subtruncate with rounded angles, 
the median carina entire, strongly elevated and finely compressed. 
This species greatly resembles an Oxypoda in outline. The contrast 



288 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

between the fine dense punctuation of the anterior parts, and the 
coarser, beautifully regular sculpture of the abdomen, is very 
marked. 

RHEOCflARA Rey. 

The species described below is assigned provisionally to this 
genus, although the outer joints of the antennae are strongly trans- 
verse, the first three tergites gradually less strongly impressed at 
base, the posterior tarsi much shorter than the tibiae, and the ante- 
rior tibiae entirely devoid of spinules. It will probably form a genus 
distinct from Rheochara, but at present it is not advisable to sepa- 
rate it, as I have no representative of Rheochara with which to 
compare it. 

K* lucifllga. n. sp. — Slender, moderately convex, pale ochreous-yellow, 
the head piceous and the abdomen with a large very feeble piceous cloud near 
the apex ; apices of the three basal segments paler than the base ; surface 
feebly shining, the abdomen polished ; pubescence rather coarse, decumbent, 
moderately dense, sparser on the abdomen. Head ovulate, longer than wide, 
three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, evenly convex, finely, sparsely punctate ; 
eyes moderate, before the middle ; infralateral ridge very strong ; ligula with 
a short thick simple and membranous deflexed process bearing two setse ; 
terminal supplementary palpal joint distinct ; anteunse as long as the head 
and prothorax, thick, the first three joints gradually decreasing in length, 
four to ten transverse, increasing greatly in size, the tenth rather strongly 
transverse, eleventh large, feebly pyriform, as long as the two preceding, 
outer joints somewhat perfoliate. Prothorax one-fourth wider than long, sides 
subparallel, broadly arcuate, distinctly convergent only in apical third ; base 
broadly arcuate, much wider than the apex ; basal angles very obtuse but 
not obliterated ; disk widest just behind the middle, broadly, feebly convex, 
finely feebly and somewhat closely punctate, not in the least impressed, the 
edges, except at apex, finely beaded ; hypomera slightly visibly from the sides, 
subhorizontal. Elytra one-half wider than long, not distinctly wider and a 
little shorter than the prothorax ; sides subparallel, feebly arcuate ; humeri 
rounded, slightly exposed ; disk rather finely but strongly, somewhat closely, 
subasperately punctate ; suture strongly margined, scarcely impressed. Abdo- 
men — when extended — not quite twice as long as the anterior parts, very 
slightly narrower than the elytra; sides just visibly convergent behind the 
middle ; fourth segment a little shorter than the fifth, the latter very remotely 
punctate ; basal impressions not more densely or coarsely punctate. Legs 
moderate ; posterior tarsi much shorter than the tibia, slender, with the basal 
joint fully as long as the next two. Length (extended) 4.8 mm. ; width 0.9 mm. 

Kentucky (Lexington). Prof H. Garman. 
The mesosternal process is long, extremely slender and acutely 
pointed, extending to and over the acute apex of the mesosternal 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 289 

process at about two-thirds the coxal length. This interesting 
species is said to inhabit caves, but as the eyes are well developed, 
it probably only seeks their seclusion and darkness during the day. 
The genus Rheochara seems to be distinct from Aleochara, with 
which it is united in the recent European catalogue. 

POLISTOMA Steph. 

There is considerable variation in the form of the mesosternal 
process in this genus, the apex being more truncate in the European 
species, but as the Californian species are intermediate in this re- 
spect between them and maritima, I have no doubt that the genus 
Emplenota Csy. will have to be suppressed ; I have used the name 
Polistoma however, as Polystoma is preoccupied. The North 
American species in my cabinet may be readily separated as fol- 
lows : — 

Basal joint of the hind tarsi short, only slightly longer than the second- 
Head very coarsely and conspicuously punctured. Atlantic coast. 

maritima 
Head more finely and sparsely punctured ; form broader. Pacific coast. 

arenaria 

Basal joint of the hind tarsi much longer, equal to the next two combined ; 
form still broader, the head and prothorax more transverse, the latter more 
strongly rounded at the sides ; pubescence sparser ; antennae more incras- 
sate ; defiexed apical angles of the prothorax very broadly rounded. Pacific 
coast pacifica 

The species of Polistoma throughout the world are remarkably 
homogeneous in general appearance. 

P. arenaria n. sp — Parallel, rather depressed, black, the elytra some- 
times with a subquadrate rufescent cloud not attaining the base ; antennae 
black ; legs rufo-piceous toward tip ; head and pronotum opaque, extremely 
densely and minutely granulato-reticulate, rather finely, feebly, sparsely but 
distinctly punctate ; elytra rather less opaque, more strongly and closely punc- 
tured ; abdomen polished, sparsely finely and unevenly punctate; pubescence 
rather coarse, long, not dense but conspicuous, arranged transversely on the 
pronotum. Head orbicular, as long as wide, fully four-fifths as wide as the 
prothorax, parallel and broadly arcuate at the sides ; antennae feebly incras- 
sate, one-half longer than the head, the outer joints not more than one-half 
wider than long. Prothorax feebly transverse, subquadrate, one-fourth wider 
than long ; sides parallel, broadly, feebly arcuate; base and apex equal, the 
former evenly and very strongly, the latter feebly, arcuate; apical angles 
strongly defiexed, narrowly rounded ; basal extremely obtuse but distinct ; 
disk evenly, feebly convex, somewhat flattened in a broad median area toward 



290 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

base. Elytra moderately transverse, slightly longer and much wider than the 
prothorax, parallel ; humeri distinctly exposed at base ; disk flat, deflexed 
at apex except laterally. Abdomen slightly narrower than the elytra, as long 
as the anterior part of the body, parallel and straight at the sides ; border 
strong ; segments subequal. Length 3.6-4.0 mm. ; width 0.9-1.1 mm. 

California (San Diego and San Francisco). 

Easily distinguishable from pacifica hj the narrow, more parallel 
form and more conspicuous pubescence. Moderately abundant. 

It at first seemed probable that this species might be the same as 
Homalota litoralis of Maklin, since the elytra are frequently rufous 
with the base and external sides black, this being the described 
coloration of litoralis; but the phrases " thorace .... posterius 
ante basin latissime transversim impresso, confertim subtilissime 
punctulato" do not find the remotest correspondence, there being 
no trace of a transverse subbasal impression ; the width, also, 
^ line — about | mm. — is not sufficient for areno^ria. 

P. pacifica n. sp. — Parallel, moderately depressed, black, the legs rufo- 
piceous ; antennse picescent toward base ; elytra, except laterally, feebly 
rufo-piceous ; sculpture and punctuation as in arenaria, the pubescence much 
sparser and less conspicuous. Head much wider than long, scarcely more 
than three-fourths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes at rather more than their 
own length from the base; antennse strongly incrassate, the outer joints fully 
twice as wide as long, one-half longer than the head, shorter and thicker than 
in arenaria, the second joint distinctly shorter than the third. Prothorax trans- 
verse, nearly one-half wider than long ; sides parallel, evenly, strongly arcuate ; 
apex broadly, strongly arcuate ; apical angles strongly deflexed, very broadly 
arcuate ; basal extremely obtuse and almost completely obliterated ; disk very 
feebly flattened toward the median line from base to apex. Elytra transverse, 
only slightly wider and longer than the prothorax ; sides subparallel, straight ; 
humeri strongly rounded to the prothorax ; disk flat, feebly deflexed at apex 
in the middle. Abdomen, when contracted, distinctly shorter than the anterior 
parts combined, nearly as wide as the elytra ; sides parallel and straight ; 
border strong, rather deep ; first three segments impressed at base ; fifth longer 
than the fourth. Length (contracted) 3.4 mm. ; width 1.15 mm. 

California (Sta. Barbara). 

The elongate basal joint of the hind tarsi will readily enable one 
to identify this species. A single specimen taken by Mr. Gr. W. 
Dunn. 

OXYPODA Mann. 

The types here assigned to Oxypoda cannot all be retained as 
such, for those species having the antennal joints abruptly enlarged 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 291 

from the fourth, forming a long compact cylindrical club, have the 
metasternal process between the middle coxae long and acute, while 
the others, with slender or feebly incrassate antennae, have this pro- 
cess either entirely obsolete, or else in the form of an extremely 
short broad cusp. The former may or may not be congeneric with 
the European Mycetodrepa, of which I do not possess a represen- 
tative at present, but in any event the three here brought to notice 
differ greatly among themselves in somewhat important characters. 
The genus will prove to be very extensive in North America, and 
I have simply selected at the present time a number of hitherto 
undescribed forms, for the most part illustrative of groups; these 
may be known among themselves as follows : — 

Antennse more slender, gradually and generally feebly incrassate toward tip. 

Third antennal joint distinctly longer than the second, the antennae long ; 

abdomen parallel, narrowed slightly at the fifth segment ; prothorax 

widest before the bas'e, the basal angles almost completely obliterated ; 

basal joint of the hind tarsi as long as the next three COngriienS 

Third antennal joint equal in length to the second, both elongate ; antennse 

much shorter ; elytra distinctly longer than the prothorax. 

Prothorax widest before the base ; abdomen narrowed from base to apex ; 

basal joint of the hind tarsi as long as the next three. ..convergens 

Prothorax widest at base ; abdomen parallel, narrowed near the tip ; basal 

joint of the hind tarsi but slightly longer than the next two. 

impressa 
Third antennal joint distinctly shorter than the second.. 
Elytra longer than the prothorax. 

Elytra pale, clouded with black toward the scutellum and toward each 

flank ; abdominal punctures not so dense nilbifer 

Elytra uniform in coloration or very nearly so ; sides of the elytra per- 
fectly parallel; integuments subopaque saxatilis 

Elytra shorter than the prothorax. 

Prothorax subconical, widest at or near the base, where it is a little 
wider than the elytra. 
Abdomen blackish, the apices of the segments narrowly paler. 

glenorae 
Abdomen rufous, with a large blackish cloud occupying most of ter- 

gites three to five ; form very slender ; size small nigriceps 

Prothorax with the sides perfectly parallel and broadly, evenly arcuate 
from base to apex, not wider than the elytra ; body very small and 

narrow, piceous and black in color lilieata 

Antennse rapidly enlarged from and including the fourth joint, forming a long, 

compact, claviform mass. 

Antennae, except near the base, completely devoid of erect setae, clothed 

uniformly with excessively minute even pubescence, almost perfectly 

cylindrical from the fifth joint blldsouica 



292 Coleopierological Notices, V. 

Antennae with short erect setse as usual, rapidly enlarged from the fourth 
to the sixth or seventh joints. 
Rufo-testaceous, the head and a large suhapical abdominal cloud blackish. 

fustiger 
Black ; elytra slightly picescent, much paler at the humeri. 

californica 

I have been unable to recognize sagulata Er., which is a species 
apparently allied to convergens. but having pale antennae, with the 
apical joint obtuse, and a subparallel abdomen, and minuta Sachse, 
which is small, piceous, with the antennae toward base, legs, elytra 
and anterior parts of the abdomen testaceous; the latter is probably 
allied to nigriceps, but in that species the pronotum is very pale 
and the elytra dark. The species described by me as Oxypoda 
insignis is placed further on in the genus Anepsiota, allied to 
Atheta, the anterior tarsi being four-jointed. 

O. COngmens. — Moderately stout and convex, parallel, brown, the head 
and abdomen black, the segments paler at apex above and beneath ; legs and 
antennae brown, the latter still paler toward base ; integuments alutaceous, 
excessively minutely, densely punctate throughout, the pronotum slightly 
less densely so and more shining toward base ; pubescence throughout very 
short, fine and dense, subsericeous. Head orbicular, rather longer than wide, 
but little more than one-half as wide as the prothorax, evenly convex ; eyes 
moderate, distant from the base ; antennae long, fully attaining the middle of 
the elytra, gradually and feebly incrassate, the second joint shorter than the 
first or third, the latter nearly as long as the next two, tenth joint not dis- 
tinctly wider than long, eleventh acutely conoidal, barely as long as the two 
preceding. Prothorax transversely suboval, the base moving freely above the 
elytra, fully three-fourths wider than long, the sides broadly arcuate, becom- 
ing convergent and straighter in apical half, the base much wider than the 
truncate apex, broadly, strongly arcuate, the basal angles almost completely 
obliterated ; apical but slightly deflexed, broadly rounded ; disk feebly im- 
pressed in the middle before the basal margin. Elytra moderately transverse, 
at base narrower than, at apex equal in width to, the prothorax, sliglitly longer 
than the latter ; sides distinctly divergent, broadly arcuate, especially near 
the base ; humeri concealed ; disk very indefinitely and widelj'- impressed in 
the middle toward base. Abdomen but slightly narrower than the elytra, much 
longer than the anterior parts ; sides straight and parallel to the apex of the 
fourth segment ; first three tergites impressed at base, successively less strongly; 
fifth slightly longer than the fourth. Length 3.4 mm. ; width 1.0 mm. 

Montana (Helena) ; Michigan. 

The elytral humeri are frequently a little paler than the other 
portions of the disk. This species, which appears to be widely dif- 



Coleopterological Notices, V 293 

fused, differs from the European spectabilis in its much smaller size 
and far less distinct basal angles of the prothorax. 

O. COnvergens. — Rather broad, subfusiform, black ; four basal joints 
of the antennae and the legs throughout pale; pronotum gradually rufescent 
toward base ; elytra and apices of all the ventral segments pale brownish- 
rufous ; integuments alutaceous, extremely finely feebly and densely punctate 
throughout, the head and pronotum rather the least densely punctate and 
more shining ; pubescence short, very dense throughout, sericeous on the 
abdomen, the latter bristling with stiff setse toward apex. Head wider than 
long, orbicular, evenly convex, scarcely more than one-half as wide as the 
prothorax ; eyes rather large, extending to within one-half their length of 
the base ; antennae feebly incrassate, as long as the head and prothorax, the 
first three joints equal in length, fourth subquadrate, five to ten subequal, a 
little wider, slightly transverse, eleventh rather acutely conoidal, barely as 
long as the two preceding. Prothorax fully two-thirds wider than long, the 
sides strongly convergent, broadly evenly and strongly arcuate from base to 
apex ; base fully three-fourths wider than the apex, broadly, strongly arcuate, 
the apex transversely truncate ; basal angles obtuse and rather blunt but 
distinct ; disk just visibly wider at basal third than at base, not distinctly 
impressed. Elytra at base slightly narrower, at apex a little broader, than 
the prothorax, distinctly longer than the latter ; sides perceptibly divergent 
and feebly arcuate from base to apex ; humeri completely concealed ; external 
apical sinuations narrow and deep ; disk scarcely at all impressed. Abdomen 
at base distinctly narrower than the elytra, at the apex of the fifth segment 
one- half as wide as the latter ; sides perfectly straight ; border gradually 
thicker and deeper from apex to base ; two basal tergites very feebly impressed 
along the basal margin ; fifth nearly as long as the third and fourth together. 
Length 3.0 mm. ; width 0.9 mm. 

:Nrew York (Catskill Mts.). 

The abdomen is evenly narrowed from base to apex, and the fifth 
segment is unusually long. This species cannot be very closely 
allied to sagulata, although it approaches that species, according to 
description, closer than any other form here described. 

O. impressa. — Moderately wide and convex, black throughout, the 
elytra extremely indistinctly picescent ; antennge black ; legs rafo-piceous ; 
ventral plates slightly and narrowly pale at apex ; integuments but feebly 
shining, the head, pronotum and elytra finely and densely but rather dis- 
tinctly punctate, the abdomen much more minutely feebly and excessively 
densely so ; pubescence rather coarse, dense, semi-erect anteriorly, excessively 
minute and dense on the abdomen, each tergite, in addition, with a transverse 
apical series of long setae. Head orbicular, evenly convex, nearly as long as 
wide, slightly more than one-half as wide as the prothorax ; eyes rather large, 
at less than one-half their length from the base ; antennae moderate in length, 
slightly longer than the head and prothorax, rather slender and feebly in- 



294 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

crassate, tlie first three joints subequal in length, fourth slightly longer than 
wide, outer joints distinctly transverse, the tenth less so than the ninth, equal 
in width but a little longer, eleventh short, acutely conoidal, not as long as 
the preceding two. Prothorax fully three-fourths wider than long ; sides 
broadly, evenly arcuate and distinctly convergent from base to apex ; base 
fully three-fourths wider than the apex, broadly, strongly arcuate ; apex 
subtruncate ; basal angles obtuse and blunt but definite ; disk extremely 
obsoletely impressed along the median line, with a large rounded and distinct 
impression in the middle before the base. Elytra slightly transverse, at base 
exactly equal in width to the prothorax and at apex slightly wider, fully one- 
third longer ; humeri not exposed ; disk but feebly, indefinitely and broadly 
impressed in the middle toward base. Abdomen at base distinctly narrower 
than the elytra, the sides parallel and straight to the apex of the fourth 
segment ; fifth very much longer than the fourth. Length 2.75 mm. ; width 
0.75 mm. 

British Columbia (Glenora). Mr. Wickham. 

Readily distinguishable froui congruens by its smaller size, smaller 
prothorax with more distinct basal angles, shorter antennae, longer 
fifth ventral segment and many other characters. 

O. nullifer. — Somewhat narrow, subparallel, pale rufo-testaceous, the 
head piceous ; abdomen piceous, broadly pale at tip and at the apices of all 
the segments ; legs pale ; antennae dusky, pale toward base ; integuments 
strongly shining, extremely feebly sculptured ; head and pronotum finely 
and closely but feebly and not conspicuously punctate, the elytra scarcely so 
densely but more distinctly so, the abdomen minutely, feebly and moderately 
densely; pubescence short, decumbent, moderately dense. Head orbicular, 
evenly convex, as long as wide, a little more than one-half as wide as the 
prothorax ; eyes at nearly their own length from the base ; antennae short, 
feebly incrassate, not quite extending to the base of the prothorax, the second 
joint a little longer than the first and distinctly longer than the third, fourth 
subquadrate, feebly obconical, five to ten subequal, distinctly wider than 
long, eleventh long, obtusely ogival, rather longer than the two preceding. 
Prothorax widest at base, two-thirds wider than long, the sides strongly con- 
vergent and feebly, evenly arcuate from base to apex ; base and apex equally, 
moderately arcuate, the former two-thirds wider than the latter ; basal angles 
— viewed laterally — very obtuse and blunt but not obliterated, the apical 
moderately defined, broadly rounded ; disk perfectly even, without trace of 
impression. Elytra at base scarcely as wide, but at apex fully as wide, as the 
prothorax, just visibly longer, slightly transverse ; sides subparallel ; humeri 
concealed ; apex strongly sinuate near the sides, the edge thence to the inner 
angles feebly, anteriorly oblique and straight ; disk unimpressed, with a black 
cloud near the scutellum and another longitudinal near the flanks, not attain- 
ing base or apex. Abdomen just visibly narrower than the elytra, not longer 
than the anterior parts ; sides parallel, the fifth segment slightly narrowed, 
distinctly longer than the fourth ; border thick ; posterior edges of tergites 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 295 

two to four broadly, feebly sinuate. Legs rather short ; basal joint of the 
hind tarsi as long as the next two and equal to the fifth. Length 2.5 mm. ; 
width 0.7 mm. 

Utah (southwestern). 

The trimaculate elytra, pale coloration, feeble punctuation and 
conical prothorax, with the base rather loosely fitted over the base 
of the elytra, are distinguishing characters of this rather isolated 
species. 

O. saxatilis* — Rather narrow and subparallel, blackish-piceous, the 
abdomen black, the apices of all the segments paler ; legs pale throughout ; 
antennae dark, pale toward base ; integuments densely opaque, finely, very 
densely punctate, the abdomen not less densely so, the elytra more distinctly ; 
pubescence fine, short, recumbent, extremely dense throughout, the abdomen 
without longer setae toward apex. Head a little wider than long, well inserted, 
three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, the eyes moderately large, approaching 
the base within one-half of their length ; antennae slender, feebly incrassate, 
loosely articulated, about as long as the head and prothorax, the second joint 
much longer than the first and nearly as long as the next two, four to six 
slightly increasing in width, six to ten subequal, slightly transverse, eleventh 
acutely ogival, as long as the preceding two. Prothorax two-thirds wider than 
long, the sides convergent and distinctly arcuate from base to apex ; base 
broadly arcuate, two-thirds wider than the subtruncate apex ; basal angles 
obtuse but evident ; disk not distinctly impressed. Elytra throughout the 
length exactly equal in width to the prothorax, one-third longer ; sides 
parallel, nearly straight ; humeri concealed ; disk with a small and just 
visible impression behind the scutellum. Abdomen at base slightly narrower 
than the elytra, at the apex of the fifth segment three-fourths as wide as the 
latter, distinctly longer than the anterior parts ; sides straight and just visi- 
bly convergent from base to apex ; border rather thick ; tergites two to four 
\iiYy feebly sinuate at apex ; fifth one-half longer than the fourth. Legs 
slender ; posterior tarsi filiform, the basal joint slightly longer than the next 
two and much longer than the fifth. Length 2.5 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Colorado (Canon City). Mr. Wickham. 

Readily recognizable by the parallel elytra, very nearly as long 
as wide, and by the opaque integuments. 

O. glenorae. — Narrow and elongate, pale brownish-testaceous, the head 
darker, rufo-piceous ; abdomen blackish, the apices of the segments paler ; legs 
pale throughout ; antennae piceous, paler toward base ; integuments feebly 
shining, extremely minutely and densely punctate throughout, scarcely more 
distinctly on the elytra ; pubescence minute, extremely dense throughout, the 
abdomen also with a few stifi" bristles toward apex. Head slightly wider than 
long, well inserted, evenly convex, not quite two-thirds as wide as the pro- 
thorax ; eyes moderate, at nearly their own length from the base ; antennae 



296 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

slender, very feebly iiicrassate, barely as long as the head and prothorax, the 
second joint subequal in length to the first and one-third longer than the 
third, the latter nearly as long as the next two, four to six slightly increasing 
in width, six to ten subequal, slightly transverse, eleventh acutely ogival, 
fully as long as the two preceding. Piothorax rather large, subconical, the 
base loosely fitted over the base of the elytra, three-fifths wider than long ; 
sides distinctly convergent and very feebly arcuate from the rather broadly 
rounded basal angles to the apex ; base broadly arcuate, much wider than 
the apex ; disk broadly and extremely obsoletely impressed along the median 
line in about basal half. Elytra transverse, at base distinctly narrower, at 
apex barely as wide as, the elytra, distinctly shorter than the latter ; sides 
divergent and nearly straight from base to apex ; humeri completely con- 
cealed ; disk with a small impression behind the scutellum. Abdomen one- 
half longer than the anterior parts, at base scarcely at all narrower than the 
elytra, at the apex of the fifth segment three-fourths as wide as the latter ; 
sides almost straight ; border rather thick and deep ; fifth segment much 
longer than the fourth. Legs moderate ; posterior tarsi scarcely at all shorter 
than the tibise, with the first joint almost as long as the entire remainder ; 
two to four short and equal. Length 2.9 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

British Columbia (Glenora). Mr. Wickham 

The extremely elongate basal joint of the hind tarsi and large 
conical loosely fitted prothorax, will readily lead to the identifica- 
tion of this species, which may possibly be referred to the subgenus 
Sphenoma. 

O. nigriceps. — Slender, subfusiform, convex, the head and antennae 
black, the latter pale toward base ; pronotum pale flavo-testaceous thoughout ; 
elytra much darker, piceous ; abdomen with the two basal segments dark 
rufo-testaceous, the remainder black, with the apices narrowly paler ; integu- 
ments moderately shining, the head polished, rather coarsely, not very densely 
punctate ; pronotum more finely, very densely, the elytra more distinctly but 
finely, subasperately and extremely densely, the abdomen minutely densely 
subasperately and less distinctly ; pubescence fine, extremely short, rather 
dense but inconspicuous, the abdomen bristling with long setse toward tip. 
Head slightly wider than long, scarcely three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, 
evenly, strongly convex, the eyes moderate, at about their own length from 
the base ; antennae short, rather slender, feebly, gradually incrassate and 
rather compact, not more than one-lialf longer than the head, the first two 
joints subequal in length, the second distinctly longer than the third, fourth 
to tenth feebly, gradually increasing in width, the latter nearly twice as wide 
as long, eleventh short, obtusely ogival, about as long as the two preceding. 
Prothorax large, rather more than one-half wider than long, the sides strongly 
convergent and feebly arcuate from base to apex ; base broadly arcuate, much 
wider than the apex, the basal angles obtuse and rather broadly rounded ; 
disk with an extremely obsolete impression in the middle before the base. 
Elytra distinctly shorter than the prothorax, and, throughout the length, 



Coleopterological Notices, V, 297 

visibly narrower ; sides subparallel and feebly arcuate ; humeri wholly con- 
cealed ; disk feebly, transversely convex. Abdomen fully one-half longer than 
the anterior parts, at base nearly as wide, and at the apex of the fifth segment 
two-thirds as wide, as the elytra ; sides straight ; border rather thick ; fifth 
segment two-thirds longer than the fourth. Legs rather short and thick, the 
hind tarsi much shorter than the tibiae, with the first joint a little longer than 
the next two. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 0.45 mm. 

Rhode Island (Boston Neck). 

Readily separable from minuta Sachse, by the pale prothorax and 
dark elytra. The antennae are unusually short. 

0» liueata. — Narrow and sublinear, convex, black, the pronotum piceons- 
black, the elytra feebly rufescent; antennae pale at base; legs pale fiavo- 
testaceous throughout; integuments feebly shining, the pronotum and abdo- 
men extremely minutely and excessively densely punctate, the elytra equally 
densely but rather more strongly and subasperately, the head a little less 
finely and more sparsely ; pubescence extremely minute, dense, the abdomen 
as usual with an apical fringe of longer hairs on each tergite, but having only 
a very few longer setse toward apex. Head as long as wide, evenly convex, 
fully three-fourths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderate, at more than 
their length from the base ; antennae rather long, loose, feebly incrassate, 
extending to basal third of the elytra, the third joint elongate, only slightly 
though visibly shorter than the second, joints increasing only very slightly in 
width toward apex, six to ten quite distinctly wider than long, the eleventh 
rather large, ogival at tip, fully as long as the two preceding. Prothorax — from 
above — only one-third wider than long, the sides parallel and evenly, broadly 
arcuate, widest at the middle ; base and apex equal, feebly arcuate, the former 
fitted rather closely to the elytral depression ; basal angles obtuse and blunt 
but very evident ; disk not distinctly impressed. Elytra short and transverse, 
quite distinctly shorter than the prothorax, at base as wide as the prothorax, 
and, at apex, just visibly wider ; sides perceptibly divergent and straight from 
base to apex ; humeri not exposed ; disk broadly, feebly impressed along the 
suture in more than basal half. Abdomen nearly one-half longer than the 
anterior parts, at base distinctly narrower than the elytz-a ; sides subparallel, 
narrowed toward apex; border moderate; fifth segment one-half longer than 
the fourth ; sixth greatly visible, a little narrowed and parabolic but as long 
as the fifth. Leys moderate in length, slender, the hind tarsi but slightly 
shorter than the tibiae, with the first joint a little longer than the next two. 
Length 2.1 mm. ; width rather more than 0.4 mm. 

Rhode Island. 

This species is rather aberrant, not only in the subquadrate form 
of the prothorax, but in the total absence of the infralateral carina, 
of the head. I cannot see, however, that it differs otherwise from 
Oxypoda. 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Oct. 1893,--20 



298 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

O. lllldsonica* — Moderately stout, subparallel, convex, pale flavo-testa- 
ceous throughout, the abdomen more rufous and less flavate, with a small dark 
cloud occupying about the fourth tergite ; integuments polished, the head and 
pronotum minutely and sparsely punctate, the elytra finely, densely, feebly 
but subasperately, the abdomen rather coarsely, strongly, distinctly and not 
very densely ; pubescence rather coarse, moderately dense, denser on the 
elytra. Head longer than wide, evenly convex, a little more than one-half 
as wide as the prothorax, the eyes moderate, black, at more than their own 
length from the base; antennae very thick, cylindrical, scarcely longer than 
the head and prothorax, the third joint but slightly shorter than the second 
but strongly, evenly obconical, not twice as long as wide, four to six very 
short and transverse, gradually wider, seven to ten equal, cylindrical, gradu- 
ally a little longer but not wider, strongly transverse, eleventh obtuse at apex, 
fully as long as the preceding two. Prothorax two-fifths wider than long, the 
sides feebly convergent, evenly and distinctly arcuate from the broadly rounded 
basal angles to the apex ; base and apex broadly arcuate, the former percepti- 
bly the wider ; disk very strongly, evenly convex, without trace of impression. 
Elytra moderately transverse, at base distinctlj'' narrower, but at apex just 
visibly wider than, the prothorax, distinctly shorter ; sides slightly divergent, 
broadly arcuate toward base; humeri concealed; disk with a small sutural 
impression behind the scutellum. Abdomen one-half longer than the anterior 
parts, at base but slightly narrower than the elytra, and, at the apex of the 
fifth segment, almost four-fifths as wide ; sides nearly straight ; border rather 
thick ; fifth segment but slightly longer than the fourth. Legs somewhat 
stout ; hind tarsi slightly shorter than the tibise, with the basal joint as long 
as the next three. Length 2.7 mm. ; width 0.75 mm. 

New York (near the city). 

The infralateral carina of the head is fine but strong and entire, 
and the facets of the eyes are rather larger and more convex than 
usual. The thick antennae, with their very peculiar and excessively 
minute dense vestiture, totally devoid of erect setae, render this 
species quite aberrant. 

O. fustiger. — Subparallel, convex, polished throughout, pale testaceous, 
the headpiceous; abdomen more rufous, blackish behind the second segment 
except at tip ; head finely, sparsely, the pronotum finely, rather less sparsely, 
feebly but subasperately punctate, the elytra more strongly, subrugosely but 
not more densely, the abdomen rather strongly, subasperately and not densely 
so ; pubescence coarse, inclined, not very dense, longer and still sparser on 
the abdomen, the latter without subapical bristles. Head wider than long, 
three-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes normal, at nearly their own length 
from the base ; antennae short, very thick, scarcely as long as the head and 
prothorax, the basal joint oblong-oval, nearly as long as the next two, second 
thinner, one-half longer than wide and perceptibly longer than the third, 
which is slightly elongate and obconical, fourth wider, strongly transverse, 
fifth similar but wider, sixth to tenth longer than the fourth or fifth, compact, 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 299 

very strongly transverse, eleventh short, not longer than wide, obtusely and 
obliquely ogival, scarcely as long as the two preceding, outer joints with short 
erect setae in addition to the minute pubescence. Prothorax three-fifths wider 
than long ; sides distinctly convergent, evenly and rather strongly arcuate 
from base to apex ; base broadly, strongly arcuate, much wider than the trun- 
cate apex ; basal angles obtuse, blunt but very evident ; disk strongly, evenly 
convex, without impressions. Elytra throughout equal in width to the pro- 
thorax, distinctly longer, nearly quadrate ; sides subparallel, almost straight; 
humeri not exposed. Abdomen about as long as the anterior parts, at base 
almost as wide as the elytra ; sides feebly convergent from base to apex and 
just visibly arcuate ; fifth segment but slightly longer than the fourth ; under 
surface sparsely, deeply and coarsely punctate and sparsely clothed with long 
coarse hairs. Length 2.3 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

California (Humboldt Co.). 

Differs from the preceding species in the gradually wider and 
sparsely setose outer joints of the antennae, and in the structure of 
the basal joints. A single specimen of undetermined sex, 

O. californica. — Somewhat fusiform, convex, highly polished through- 
out, black, the elytra piceous, testaceous at the humeri and along the suture 
near the apex ; abdominal tip scarcely at all paler ; legs pale ; antennae black, 
pale toward base ; head and pronotum minutely feebly and sparsely punctate, 
the elytra finely but a little more strongly and still more sparsely so ; abdomen 
finely, scarcely distinctly and sparsely; pubescence somewhat long, subrecum- 
bent, coarse and sparse. Head orbicular, as long as wide, evenly convex, 
nearly three-fourths as wide as the prothorax, the eyes at less than their 
length from the base ; antennae fully as long as the head and prothorax, stout, 
feebly setulose and finely pubescent, the first joint small, elongate-oval, longer 
than the second, the latter twice as long as wide and distinctly longer than 
the third, fourth and fifth very short and transverse, increasing in width, 
sixth to tenth subequal in length and width, longer than either the fourth or 
fifth and not more than twice as wide as long, eleventh short, obtusely and 
obliquely ogival, about as long as the two preceding. Prothorax rather small, 
three-fourths wider than long, the sides convergent and arcuate from the 
broadly rounded and almost obsolete basal angles ; base and apex broadly 
arcuate, the former much the wider ; disk evenly, strongly convex, unim- 
pressed, the basal bead strong. Elytra large, but slightly wider than long, 
one-fourth wider and rather more than one-half longer than the prothorax ; 
sides subparallel ; humeri quite distinctly exposed, rounded ; disk strongly 
and widely impressed on the suture in more than basal half. Abdomen as long 
as the anterior parts, at base much narrower than the elytra, and, at the fifth 
segment, one-half as wide as the latter ; sides feebly convergent from base to 
apex and just visibly arcuate ; fifth segment distinctly longer than the fourth. 
Legs rather long, very slender ; femora unusually narrow ; hind tarsi two- 
thirds as long as the tibiae, with the first joint longer than the next two but 
shorter than the fifth. Length 1.9 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 



300 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

California. 

The antennae are not as stoat as in fusHger, and bare the outer 
part more cylindrical, and, in addition, the prothorax is much 
smaller, the elytra larger and the coloration wholly different. This 
is the most sparsely punctate and polished species of Oxypoda which 
I have seen. 

ACHROHOTA n. gen. 

Body fusiform, moderately convex. Head small, but feebly con- 
stricted at base, not inserted deeply in the prothorax j eyes well 
developed ; infralateral carina almost obsolete. Antennae long and 
slender, scarcely perceptibly incrassate, setose, the first three joints 
elongate. Mentum rather large, trapezoidal, broadly sinuate at 
apex. Maxillary palpi well developed, the third joint slightly 
longer than the second ; fourth very slender, unusually long, oblique, 
more than one-half as long as the third, simple at apex. Ligula 
imperfect in the type. Prothorax transversely suboval, the hypo- 
mera broad, strongly inflexed and invisible from the side poste- 
riorly, but becoming horizontal anteriorly. Elytra well developed. 
Abdomen gradually narrowed almost from the base ; border rather 
deep ; first tergite broadly impressed at base, shorter than the second, 
the others completely unimpressed at base ; fifth just visibly longer 
than the fourth. Coxse large, the intermediate very approximate 
but not contiguous, the mesosternal process not extending behind 
the middle. Metasternum not advanced between the coxae, the fine 
beaded line merely feebly arcuate opposite the intercoxal space, the 
surface thence to the mesosternum transversely convex, the para- 
pleurae rather wide, parallel to the elytra, the epimera not projecting 
behind the elytra. Legs rather long and slender*, tarsi slender, 
5-5-5-jointed, the posterior slender but much shorter than the tibiae, 
with the first four joints slightly elongate and as nearly as possible 
perfectly equal, the fifth very long, longer than the two preceding 
combined } claws moderately long, slender, evenly arcuate. 

It seemed possible at first that the type of this genus might enter 
Oxypoda as an aberrant member or subgenus, but the tarsal struc- 
ture is so radically different that it is impossible to place it there. 
In fact there is no European genus near Oxypoda which has the 
posterior tarsi constituted in any way approximating this, but for 
the present it may be considered as allied to Thiasophila. The 
anterior tarsi are five-jointed, apparently without the slightest 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 301 

doubt, which will prevent us from placing the genus among the 
allies of Colpodota. 

A. flisiforitlis n. sp. — Rather stout, black, the elytra just visibly rufo- 
piceous ; legs and antennae throughout pale ; integuments finely but not 
strongly reticulate, rather shining, the head very sparsely, obsoletely punc- 
tate, more coarsely so toward the sides and base ; pronotum finely, not densely 
and obsoletely, the elytra strongly, closelj and asperately punctate, the abdo- 
men more sparsely, feebly and subasperately, very sparsely so toward apex ; 
pubescence short, coarse, decumbent, moderately distinct, sparser on the abdo- 
men, the latter bristling with long erect setae toward apex. Head orbicular, 
wider tlian long, about three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, strongly, evenly 
convex ; eyes not prominent, at rather less than their own length from the 
base ; antennae long, slender, fully attaining the middle of the elytra, the 
fourth and fifth joints longer than wide, about two-thirds as long as the third, 
outer joints rather loosely connected, very feebly increasing in width, the tenth 
not distinctly wider than long, eleventh pointed, as long as the two preceding. 
Prothorax three-fourths wider than long; sides broadly arcuate, subparallel 
toward base, becoming straighter and distinctly convergent in apical half; 
base broadly, strongly arcuate, much wider than the truncate apex, becom- 
ing feebly subsinuate near the basal angles, which are obtuse and slightly 
rounded ; apical angles only feebly deflexed, rounded ; disk transversely, 
strongly convex, very obsoletely impressed along the median line toward the 
middle, the posterior margin strongly beaded- Eltfira two-fifths wider than 
long, at base scarcely as wide as the pronotal disk, but at apex distinctly 
wider, about one-third longer ; sides distinctly divergent, subarcuate ; humeri 
concealed ; disk rather strongly, indefinitely impressed on the suture behind 
the scutellum. Abdomen equal in length to the anterior parts, at base slightly 
narrower than the elytra, the apex of the fifth segment scarcely more than 
one-half as wide as the elytral apex ; tergites, except the first, perfectly even, 
not impressed, broadly, feebly convex toward the abdominal apex. Length 
2.1 mm.; width 0.75 ram. 

N'ew York (near the city). Mr. H. H. Smith. 

The single specimen in my cabinet has no sexual marks of promi- 
nence; the sixth tergite is feebly exserted, much narrower than the 
fifth, with its apex feebly, evenly sinuato-truncate. 

THIASOPHILA Kraatz. 

The American species of this genus resemble the European 
angulala Er., in all essential points of structure, sculpture and 
vestiture, but have the prothorax a trifle wider near the base, and 
the abdomen more parallel and much more distinctly narrower than 
the elytra. The genus is widely diffused throughout the subarctic 



302 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

portions of the continent. The three species here brought to notice 
may be readily distinguished as follows : — 

Elytra but slightly longer than the prothorax, the apical angles of the latter 
blunt but rather distinct ; antennae shorter and less incrassate. 
Abdomen less elongate, slightly narrower than the elytra, strongly distinctly 
and moderately densely punctate, the dorsal plates strongly transverse. 

laticollis 
Abdomen longer, much narrower than the elytra, very finely densely and 
indistinctly punctate, the dorsal plates less than twice as wide as long. 

angustiTeiitris 
Elytra decidedly longer than the prothorax, the apical angles of the latter 
more broadly rounded ; abdomen nearly as in laticollis, but differing con- 
spicuously in coloration; size small asperata 

I am unable at present to say anything about the habits of these 
insects, but in Europe they are generally inquilinous with ants. 

T. laticollis n. sp. — Rather stout and convex, dark piceo-rufous, thp, 
abdomen uniformly blackish but pale at the apex ; legs and antennae rufo- 
testaceous, the latter just visibly clouded toward the middle ; head finely 
but strongly, the pronotum more finely and xqyj densely, the elytra strongly 
densely and subasperately punctate ; abdomen with imbricate sculpture, gradu- 
ally disappearing behind, the punctures fine but strong, isolated and distinct, 
sparse toward tip ; pubescence very short, stiff and rather dense. Head orbicu- 
lar, not as long as wide, but slightly more than one-half as wide as the pro- 
thorax ; eyes large, prominent, at less than their own length from the base; 
tempora convergent and broadly rounded behind them ; antennae a little longer 
than the head and prothorax, rather slender, feebly incrassate, the joints 
somewhat compactly united, the first and third subequal, longer than the 
second, fourth and fifth slightly longer than wide, tenth scarcely visibly 
wider than long, eleventh as long as the two preceding, pointed, constricted 
just beyond the middle. Prothorax transverse, not quite twice as wide as long, 
the apex subtruncate, about three-fourths as wide as the base, the latter 
broadly, feebly arcuate, distinctly sinuate near the basal angles, which are 
nearly right though slightly blunt ; sides convergent and feebly arcuate in 
apical two-thirds, just visibly convergent in basal third ; disk even. Elytra 
transverse, at base quite distinctly narrower than the prothorax, slightly 
longer than the latter ; sides just visibly arcuate ; disk rather convex, feebly, 
indefinitely impressed on the suture toward base. Abdomen — when contracted 
— scarcely as long as the anterior parts, parallel, slightly but distinctly nar- 
rower than the elytra, the border thick ; first three segments feebly and gradu- 
ally less distinctly impressed at base ; fourth and fifth equal. Length 2.7 
mm. ; width 0.8 mm. 

New York. 

The single specimen is of undetermined sex; it represents a larger 
broader and more distinctly sculptured species than the following. 



Goleopterological Notices, V, 303 

T. ailgllstiTentris n. sp. — Eather convex, dark red-brown, the abdo- 
men darker with tlie apex pale ; legs and antennae throughout pale brownish- 
flavate ; anterior parts rather dull, finely, extremely densely but somewhat 
distinctly, subasperately punctate, the elytra a little less densely and sub- 
rugosely ; abdomen more shining, minutely, much less closely punctulate ; 
pubescence very short but somewhat coarse and close, distinct, long and 
sparsely fimbriate at the apices of the abdominal segments. Head wider than 
long, three-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; antennae much longer than the 
head and prothorax, moderately incrassate. Prothorax fully three-fourths 
wider than long, the sides very feebly convergent from base to apex, broadly, 
nearly evenly arcuate from above, widest just behind the middle ; apex 
broadly sinuate ; apical angles deflexed, obtuse, not rounded ; basal obtuse, 
rather prominent, not in the least rounded ; base broadly arcuate, just visibly 
sinuate near the basal angles ; disk broadly, evenly convex. Elytra one-half 
wider than long, broadly, deeply emarginate at apex, very slightly longer 
than the prothorax and equally wide ; sides subparallel, very feebly arcuate ; 
base equal to the pronotal base ; humeri not in the least visible ; disk trans- 
versely convex, just visibly impressed behind the scutellum. Abdomen at 
base much narrower than the elytra, much longer than the anterior parts ; 
sides parallel and straight but convergent toward apex ; border thick. Length 
2.0-2.4 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Rhode Island ; Florida; Iowa. 

Readily identifiable by the wide convex pronotum and elytra and 
abruptly narrow parallel abdomen ; the prothorax is less strongly 
narrowed anteriorly than in laticollis. 

T. asperata n. sp. — Subparallel, somewhat convex, red-brown ; legs 
and antennae throughout pale, flavescent ; head piceous ; abdomen brighter 
red, with the fourth segment piceous-black ; head and abdomen very minutely, 
sparsely punctulate ; pronotum and elytra strongly, asperately, densely and 
equally punctured ; pubescence short, stiff", subrecumbent, rather dense and 
distinct, sparse on the abdomen. Head orbicular, as long as wide, three-fifths 
as wide as the prothorax ; antennae moderately incrassate, much longer than 
the head and prothorax, outer joints slightly transverse. Prothorax rather 
more than three-fourths wider than long, throughout nearly as in angustiven- 
tris, but with the apical angles distinctly rounded when viewed laterally, and 
the basal obtuse and just visibly blunt. Elytra scarcely as wide as the pro- 
thorax and fully one-third longer, the apex transversely truncate, just visibly 
sinuate toward the middle and deeply so near each external angle ; sides 
parallel and almost straight ; humeri not in the least exposed ; base equal to 
the pronotal base ; disk not distinctly impressed and but slightly more than 
one-third wider than long. Abdomen only slightly but distinctly narrower 
than the elytra, scarcely longer than the anterior parts ; sides straight and 
parallel, feebly convergent toward apex ; first five segments exactly equal in 
length. Legs, coxae and tarsi as in angusticentris. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 
0.5 mm. 



304 Coleopierological Notices, F. 

California (Lake Tahoe and Truckee). 

A much smaller species than laticoUis, with more rounded apical 
angles of the prothorax and somewhat longer elytra ; the pronotal 
sculpture is coarser than in angustiventris. 

ISOGLOSSA n. gen. 

Body rather stout, subfusiform, convex. Head small, not at all 
constricted at base, well inserted, the eyes large, sparsely setose, at 
less than their own length from the base ; labrum very short, trans- 
versely arched and feebly produced in the middle in a rounded lobe 5 
infralateral carina strong. Antennae long, very feebly incrassate, 
the first three joints long, subequal in length ; fourth feebly obconi- 
cal, longer than wide; outer joints moderately close, scarcely visibly 
wider than long; eleventh conoidal, pointed, barely as long as the 
two preceding. Mentum large, transversely trapezoidal, truncate; 
ligula with a slender deflexed and simple terminal process; labial 
palpi slender, three-jointed. Maxillary palpi normal, the fourth 
joint long and distinct. Prothorax feebly transverse, the basal 
angles rounded ; hypomera subhorizontal, in part visible from the 
side. Elytra large and well developed. Abdomen feebly narrowed 
from the base, the first three segments impressed at base; fifth 
longer than the fourth. Anterior coxae very large; intermediate 
almost completely contiguous. Metasternum large, the side-pieces 
moderate in width, parallel, not extending beyond the elytra. Legs 
long ; tibiae densely clothed with even and equal stiff inclined setae, 
not in the least spinulose ; tarsi 5-5-5-jointed, slender, the posterior 
distinctly shorter than the tibiae, with the basal joint very long, 
equal to the last and rather longer than the next two together ; 
claws long, slender, feebly arcuate. 

The feeble inflexion of the hypomera seems to ally this genus to 
Thiasophila and Stichoglossa, particularly the latter, but the antennae 
are much more elongate and the sculpture and facies very different. 

I. arciiata n. sp. — Stont, polished througliout, dark pieeous-brown, the 
antennae concolorous but paler toward base; abdomen black, with the apices 
of the first three segments slightly pale ; legs pale flavate throughout ; head 
and pronotum very minutely, extremely sparsely punctate, the elytra rather 
more reticulate, the reticulations transverse, more strongly, rather closely 
punctate ; abdomen finely, not densely punctate, the punctures extremely re- 
mote toward apex ; head, pronotum and abdomen coarsely, extremely sparsely 
pubescent, the elytra more finely and decidedly densely so. Head barely 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 305 

three- fourths as wide as the prothorax, distinctly transverse ; antennae much 
longer than the head and prothorax combined, the eleventh joint not paler. 
Prothorax transversely snbelliptical, one- half wider than long ; sides sub- 
parallel, a little more convergent anteriorly, strongly arcuate from above; 
base slightly wider than the apex, strongly, evenly arcuate throughout, not 
at all sinuate near the basal angles, which are very obtuse and distinctly 
rounded ; apical angles strongly deflexed, even somewhat inflexed, broadly 
rounded ; disk strongly convex, with the median line very feebly impressed 
and a large rounded and rather strongly impressed dent in the middle just 
before the base. Elytra large, but slightly wider than long, one-fifth wider 
and nearly one-half longer than the prothorax, at base fully as wide as the 
pronotal disk ; humeri very slightly visible, rounded ; sides subparallel, 
slightly arcuate; apex subtruncate, the lateral sinuations distinct; disk sub- 
convex, broadly, strongly impressed along the suture, especially toward base. 
Abdomen quite distinctly shorter than the anterior parts, not more than three- 
fourths longer than the elytra when moderately contracted, at base slightly 
narrower than the elytra ; sides convergent and just visibly arcuate to the 
apex, the apex of the fifth segment barely two-thirds as wide as the first ; 
border strong. Length 3.0 mm. ; width 0.95 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe). 

The large elytra, transversely elliptical and polished pronotum, 
with the pronounced rounded subbasal indentation and long antennae 
will readily distinguish this species. 



OCYUSA Kraatz. 

The following species agrees satisfactorily in form and structural 
characters with 0. procidua, but has a totally different system of 
sculpture ; there appears, however, to be considerable disparity 
among the European species, which have been separated into sub- 
genera by Rey. 

O. asperula n. sp. — Subparallel, rather stout, compact and convex, 
black, the legs and basal parts of the antennae dark rufo-testaceous, polished, 
the punctures of the head and pronotum fine, not very dense and strongly 
granuliform, of the elytra sparse, strongly asperate, of the abdomen coarser, 
nearly normal, not dense but coarser and very dense on the fourth and fifth 
segments toward base ; pubescence fine, sparse but rather long. Head trans- 
versely orbicular, distinctly shorter and narrower than the prothorax ; sides 
parallel and rounded ; eyes at rather more than their own length from the 
base ; antennae nearly as long as the prothorax and elytra, thick toward apex, 
second joint fully one-half longer than the third, the latter obconical, twice 
as long as wide, fourth obconical, slightly longer than wide, four to ten sub- 
equal in length but evenly, perfectly gradually and conspicuously increasing 
in width, the tenth strongly transverse, eleventh ogival, obtuse. Prothorax 



306 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

large and evenly, strongly convex, nearly one-half wider than long, widest 
just before the middle, the sides feebly convergent and nearly straight thence 
to the base, broadly rounded to the apex which is broadly arcuate ; base 
arcuate, rather wider than the apex ; basal angles obtuse and slighty rounded. 
Elytra strongly transverse, slightly shorter than the prothorax, at base just 
visibly narrower than the latter but equal at apex, the sides very feebly 
divergent, nearly straight. Abdomen a little longer than the anterior parts, 
as wide as the elytra ; sides subparallel but convergent behind ; border thick 
toward base; first three segments impressed at base; fifth longer than the 
fourth. Legs moderate ; tarsi all distinctly five-jointed, the posterior slender, 
distinctly shorter than the tibise, the first joint fully as long as the next two ; 
middle coxae very slightly separated, the mesosternal process acute, prolonged 
for nearly two-thirds their length, with the apex slightly free. Ungues long, 
very slender, feebly and evenly arcuate. Length 1.6-1.75 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Iowa ; Rhode Island. 

Rather abundant and probably occurring in moss. The infra- 
ocular ridge is very strong and well developed, the hypomera 
feebly inflexed and visible from the side. 

PHLCCOPORA Erichs. 

A specimen before me labeled " North Carolina," agrees very well 
with the original description of latens Er,, but has the elytra gradu- 
ally paler from base to apex and the body rather smaller, measuring 
only 1.8 mm., while Erichson gives the length as "IJ lin. ;" the 
first four segments of the abdomen are almost equally impressed 
at base. The following is a larger, more linear species, altogether 
different in facies, but having all the principal structural features of 
Phloeopora : — 

P. fermginea n. sp. — Pale yellowish-ferruginous, the head a little 
darker ; abdomen brighter rufous, with a subapical piceous cloud ; legs pale ; 
antennae fuscous, pale toward base ; head and pronotum finely, densely reticu- 
late and dull, very minutely, indistinctly punctate, the latter almost opaque ; 
elytra a little less dull, very minutely, densely but quite distinctly punctate, 
the abdomen shining, finely, subasperately, rather closely punctate, with the 
pubescence long, sparse but distinct ; pubescence of the anterior parts fine, 
short, dense and distinct but not conspicuous. Head much shorter and nar- 
rower than the prothorax, the antennse as long as the head and prothorax, 
not very stout ; eyes at their own length from the base. Prothorax fully one- 
third wider than long, widest just before the middle, the sides broadly, evenly 
rounded to the apex which is broadly and feebly arcuate, distinctly conver- 
gent and very feebly sinuate to the base, the latter broadly arcuate and 
slightly wider than the apex ; basal angles obtuse ; disk evenly convex. 
Elytra distinctly wider than long, scarcely perceptibly wider and longer than 



Coleopterological Notices, V. ' 30t 

the protliorax ; sides subparallel, yery feebly arcuate ; humeri slightly ex- 
posed ; disk indefinitely impressed along the suture toward base. Abdomen 
long, very much longer than the anterior parts, slightly narrower than the 
elytra ; sides straight and parallel ; border thick ; dorsal plates scarcely twice 
as wide as long. Length 2.3 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 

Pennsylvania. 

The large opaque prothorax, about as wide before the middle as 
the elytra, and long testaceous abdomen with subapical cloud, will 
render the identification of this species at all times easy. It is 
probable that ferrvginea will be regarded as forming a subgenus 
of Phloeopora, and I therefore give below some of its more im- 
portant structural characters: — 

Body linear, thick and convex. Head parallel at the sides, 
rounded and constricted behind, not deeply inserted, the neck not 
quite two-thirds as wide as the head ; eyes moderate, before the 
middle ; infralateral carina obsolete. Antennae short, slender, very 
feebly incrassate, the second joint about as long as the next two; 
third obconical, twice as long as wide ; outer joints strongly trans- 
verse, not very densely pubescent and with intermixed short stiff 
setse ; eleventh small, compressed, conoidal, as long as the two pre- 
ceding. Mentum moderate, transverse, trapezoidal. Maxillary palpi 
normal. Ligula with a cylindrical process, which is extremely 
minutely cleft at apex. Pronotal hypomera feebly inflexed and 
distinct viewed laterally, narrowed but not obsolete near apex and 
thence widening and distinct along the oblique apical parts to the 
neck. Abdomen with the first four segments equally and rather 
strongly impressed at base ; fifth very slightly longer than the 
fourth. Intermediate coxae very narrowly separated. Metaster- 
num ample, the episterna moderate, parallel ; epimera nearly as 
wide behind as the episterna, disappearing under the elytra at the 
middle. Legs rather short, femora noticeably stout; tibiae slender; 
tarsi 5-5-5-jointed, the posterior very slender, three-fourths as long 
as the tibiae, with the first joint as long as the next two, the fifth as 
long as the first two together. 

IVASIREMA n. gen. 

. Body slender, parallel, rather convex Head orbicular, feebly 
constricted at base, the neck very wide ; eyes small, at twice their 
length from the base ; infralateral carina very feeble, not entire ; 
labrum short and transverse. Antennae strongly thickened toward 



308 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

apex, distant at base, the second joint much longer than the third, 
the latter strongly obconical, not twice as long as wide ; third to 
tenth very short, perfoliate and transverse ; eleventh oblong, not 
compressed, obtuse at apex, rather longer than the two preceding ; 
pubescence toward tip very short dense and uniform, without trace 
of erect setae. Maxillary palpi moderate, normal ; second and third 
joints equal in length ; fourth oblique, distinct. Mentum very short 
and transverse, trapezoidal, truncate. Ligula with an acutely 
triangular median process; labial palpi small, very slender, three- 
jointed, the last joint as long as the two preceding. Prothorax 
small, the hypomera feebly inflexed, distinct when viewed laterally, 
terminating *at apical fourth. Elytra well-developed. Abdomen 
parallel, the first three segments equally and strongly impressed at 
base ; fifth much longer than the fourth ; second not longer than 
the first. Mesosternal process extending between the narrowly 
separated coxa; for nearly two-thirds of their length, with the apex 
slightly blunt. Metasternum large. Legs short, rather stout, 
hairy ; tarsi 5-5-5-jointed, the posterior short, very much shorter 
than the tibiae, the first joint not longer than the next two together, 
the fifth longer than the preceding tw^o; ungues long, slender, sim- 
ple and feebly arcuate. 

This genus is closely allied to Phloeopora, but differs in its less 
depressed body, thicker and non-setulose antennae, much more 
abbreviated hypomera, smaller eyes, broader neck, and in having 
only three of the abdominal segments deeply impressed at base. 

W. limtlilis n. sp. — Narrow, rufo-ferruginous, the head and abdomen 
except at apex darker, more piceous ; antennae throughout and legs flavate ; 
integuments feebly shining, finely, moderately densely, subasperately punc- 
tate, distinctly and rather densely pubescent, the hairs subrecumbent, and, 
on the pronotum, streaming transversely from the median line. Head small, 
nearly as long as wide, much smaller than the prothorax, convex, even, the 
antennae as long as the prothorax and elytra. Prothorax small, but slightly 
wider than long, widest just before the middle, the sides broadly arcuate and 
feebly convergent anteriorly to the apex, feebly convergent and slightly sinuate 
behind the middle to the basal angles, which are obtuse and slightly blunt; 
base broadly, feebly arcuate ; disk evenly, rather strongly convex, very obso- 
letely, transversely impressed near the base before the scutellum. Elytra 
slightly wider than long, two-fifths longer and fully one-third wider than the 
prothorax; sides parallel, very feebly arcuate ; humeri distinctly exposed at 
base. Abdomen longer than the anterior parts, in the middle subequal in 
width to the elytra ; sides parallel, slightly arcuate ; border thick ; surface 
transversely convex, more shining. Basal joint of the hind tarsi not as long 
as the next two. Length 2.0 mm.; width 0.5 mm. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 309 

Pennsylvania. 

The single representative is probably a female, bnt the species is 
very easily recognizable by reason of the peculiar form of the pro- 
thorax, and the disposition of its vestiture. 

IV. parviceps n. sp. — Slender, thick, convex, black, the legs and an- 
tennae throughout dark rufo-testaceous ; integuments rather shining; pubes- 
cence fine, somewhat long, siibrecumbent and conspicuous ; punctuation 
minute, moderately close, not conspicuous. Head small, orbicular, evenly 
convex, much shorter and distinctly narrower than the prothoras ; eyea 
moderate, at nearly twice their length from the base ; antennae stout, nearly 
as long as the prothorax and elytra ; second joint as long as the next two, 
third strongly obconical, longer than wide, four to ten forming a long, evenly 
cylindrical, subperfoliate club, transverse, eleventh oblong, obtuse ; joints 
from the fourth clothed with minute dense and even pubescence, without 
sparse setse. Prothorax very nearly as long as wide, widest at apical third, 
thence broadly arcuate around the entire apex, feebly convergent and nearly 
straight to the obtuse basal angles ; base broadly arcuate ; disk evenly con- 
vex, the pubescence oblique. Elytra parallel, slightly wider than long, one- 
third longer and nearly one-half wider than the prothorax ; humeri distinctly 
exposed and transverse at base ; disk strongly impressed just behind the 
scutellum. Abdomen parallel, slightly but noticeably narrower than the 
elytra, subequal in length to the anterior parts, the first three segments 
deeply, the fourth very feebly impressed at base ; fifth a little longer than 
the fourth. Legs moderate ; basal joint of the hind tarsi as long as the next 
two combined. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Rhode Island. 

Readily distinguishable from the preceding by its entirely black 
coloration, slightly less slender form, much longer prothorax, widest 
more anteriorly, and by many other characters. 

OCALIA Erich. 

The species here brought to notice resembles the European punc- 
ticoUis in general habitus, but differs apparently in the extremely 
short and broadly angulate metasternal process behind the middle 
coxae. 

0» vancoilTefi n. sp. —Moderately narrow, convex, black, the legs and 
basal parts of the antennae rufo-testaceous ; integuments polished ; head and 
pronotum very finely and rather sparsely punctate, the elytra more coarsely 
and decidedly densely so, the abdomen very finely and sparsely; pubescence 
short, decumbent, moderately close, very sparse on the abdomen. Head orbicu- 
lar, as long as wide, slightly shorter and narrower than the prothorax, con- 
vex ; eyes at a little more than their length from the base ; antennae long and 



310 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

slender, very slightly incrassate, rather more than attaining the middle of the 
elytra, the first three joints elongate, subequal, the first slightly the stoutest, 
fourth distinctly longer than wide, tenth just visibly wider than long, eleventh 
small, conoidal, pointed, not as long as the two preceding. Prothorax but 
slightly wider than long, widest just before the middle, the sides broadly 
arcuate and distinctly convergent anteriorly, much more feebly convergent 
and distinctly sinuate to the base which is broadly arcuate and much wider 
than the apex ; apical angles greatly defiexed and rounded ; basal obtuse and 
distinctly rounded ; disk strongly convex, very obsoletely impressed along the 
median line, with a feeble rounded impression in the middle just before the 
base. Elytra large, quadrate, two-fifths wider and longer than the prothorax ; 
sides subparallel ; humeri broadly exposed at base ; surface strongly, broadly 
impressed just behind the scutellum ; suture excessively finely margined. 
Abdomen rather longer than the anterior parts, distinctly narrower than the 
elytra ; sides parallel, becoming feebly convergent near the apex ; border 
rather deep ; first three segments strongly, the fourth feebly, impressed at 
base ; fourth and fifth subequal ; sixth exposed, rounded. Legs moderate in 
length, slender ; posterior tibiae very slender, nearly equally thick through- 
out, the tarsi much shorter, filiform, the basal joint rather longer than the 
next two and fully as long as the last. Length 4.0 mm. ; width 0.95 mm. 

Yancouver Island. Mr. Wickham. 

The middle coxas are large oblique and narrowly separated, the 
acetabula deep and acutely limited on all sides except the long 
isthmus, which separates the acute apex of the prosternal process — 
extending two-thirds the length of the coxae — from the extremely 
short obtuse metasternal process, the latter scarcely entering at all 
between the coxae. The neck is much wider than in puncticollis. 

CALI.ICERUS Grav. 

It is difficult to understand just why this genus is still placed 
among the allies of Atheta, for in my specimen of rigidicornis 
from the Caucasus, the anterior tarsi are as distinctly five-jointed 
as in any species of Aleochara ; the facies also indicates its affinity 
with ll3^obates. 

C. pilljerulUS n. sp. — Subparallel, moderately stout, convex, slightly 
shining, the abdomen polished, dark brown, the elytra, apices of the tergites, 
legs and basal parts of the antennae paler, obscure rufous ; punctuation of the 
head rather strong and moderately sparse, of the pronotum finer, very dense 
and rather feeble, of the elytra coarser, rather close and subasperate, of the 
abdomen moderately sparse but distinct, subasperate, extending to the base 
of the segments ; pubescence rather long, dense and conspicuous, sparse on 
the abdomen. Head orbicular, longer than wide, only slightly but distinctly 
narrower than the prothorax, even, convex ; eyes at much more than their own 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 311 

length from the base ; antennae long, feebly incrassate, rather loose, extend- 
ing almost to tli<e end of the elytra, the basal joint a little lunger and thicker 
than the second or third, the latter similar, subequal and elongate, four to 
ten feebly obconical, very slightly increasing in width, the latter barely per- 
ceptibly wider than long, eleventh not wider, as long as the two preceding 
together ; ligular process slender, elongate, apparently simple ; labial palpi 
well developed, the two basal joints subequal in width and strongly united. 
Prothorax but slightly wider than long, widest near apical third where the 
sides are broadly subangulate, feebly convergent and rounded to the apex, 
equally convergent and straight to the base, the latter broadly, strongly 
arcuate and as wide as the subtruncate apex ; apical angles deflexed, narrowly 
rounded ; basal obtuse but distinct ; hypomera greatly visible from the side, 
not extending to the apex ; disk transversely convex, very broadly, feebly 
impressed in the middle toward base. Elytra large, slightly wider than long, 
one-half wider and nearly one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides parallel, 
very feebly arcuate ; humeri broadly exposed at base ; disk evenly convex, 
not impressed, the suture strongly margined. Abdomen distinctly narrower 
than the elytra but wider than the prothorax, much longer than the anterior 
parts ; sides perfectly straight and parallel from the base to the apex of the 
fifth segment, the latter fully one-half longer than the fourth ; first four 
strongly impressed at base. Legs long, slender ; posterior tarsi long, a little 
shorter than the tibiae, the first joint as long as the next two and rather longer 
than the fifth. Length 4.7 mm. ; width 1.2 mm. 

New York. 

The middle coxsb are narrowly separated, the mesosternal process 
very long and slender, subacute at apex, the metasternal short, but 
slightly prolonged, rounded at tip and not attaining the apex of the 
mesosternal, the isthmus short. This species appears to be con- 
generic with rigidicornis, but the antennae are much less incrassate 
and the terminal joint is more slender. 

ECHIDNOGLOSSA Woll. 

In conformity with the views of Mr. Fauvel, I have placed the 
species previously described under the name Colusa Csy., in Wollas- 
ton's genus, although it is difficult to understand the statement under 
the original diagnosis of Echidnoglossa, to the effect that the elytra 
are "greatly abbreviated," if the two genera are identical. Key 
introduced some confusion, which seems to be still maintained in 
the European catalogues, by placing the Corsican representative in 
a hypothetical Echidnoglossa, having four-jointed anterior tarsi and 
allied to Falagria ; the tarsi in the American species are all five- 
jointed without the slightest doubt, and they are so described also by 
Wollaston for the type-species occurring in the Island of Teneriffe. 



312 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

In the United States the genus, whatever it may prove to be, is 
somewhat widely diffused and diversified in species, extending from 
the Pacific coast to the Great Lakes ; I have not yet seen it from 
the Atlantic regions however, although it possibly occurs here. 

The characters employed in my former tabular statement are 
variable and difficult to observe, and the species may be much more 
conveniently distinguished as follows : — 

Abdomen strongly narrowed toward base. 
Tarsi with two long slender divergent claws. 
Elytral suture much longer than the pronotum. 

Antennae long, very much exceeding in length the head and prothorax 
combined. 
Larger and stouter, very densely punctate species, the first two ven 

tral plates densely and strongly cribrate..... Talida 

Smaller and more slender, the abdomen beneath finely and sparsely 
punctate, only the basal segment more coarsely so {exilis Csy.). 

eximia 
Antennae short and slender, not longer than the head and prothorax, 
the outer joints strongly transverse ; species small ...brevicorilis 
Elytral suture scarcely perceptibly longer than the pronotum. 

Body rather less slender, the head semi-circularly rounded behind, 

Michigan laCUStris 

Very slender, the head narrower and more parabolic behind from eye 

to eye. Pacific coast gracilis 

Tarsi with a single claw, composed of two somewhat shorter claws closely 
united or connate, the dividing suture fine but distinct throughout the 
length ; body slender, the elytral suture scarcely visibly longer than the 

pronotum brendeli 

Abdomen much wider, very feebly narrowed toward base. 

Punctuation normal, the abdomen sparsely pubescent ; prothorax normal, 
fully as long as wide. 
Antennae longer, slender ; head finely, rather sparsely punctate. 

monticola 
Antennae shorter and more incrassate, but slightly longer than the head 
and prothorax ; head finely but densely and strongly cribrate through- 
out lativentris 

Punctuation of the upper surface excessively fine and dense throughout, 
the abdomen extremely minutely, densely pubescent ; prothorax larger, 
wider than long graildicollis 

Exilis cannot be maintained as a distinct species, and there 
appears to be very noticeable sexual variation in the size of the 
prothorax and color of the body, the former being ralatively larger 
in the male, and the female often being paler. The following species 
of the above table are believed to be hitherto undescribed : — 



Goleoplerological Notices, V, 313 

E. 'brevicorilis.— Somewhat stout, convex, black ; legs and basal parts 
of the antennae paler, dark rufous ; integuments polished, very minutely, 
sparsely punctate, the elytra rather more strongly and closely so ; pubescence 
moderate in length, sparse on the abdomen. Head fully as wide as the pro- 
thorax, the neck two-fifths as wide as the width across the eyes, the latter 
rather large, at rather more than their own length from the base ; antennae 
short, the first joint slightly shorter than the second, the latter more than 
twice as long as wide and distinctly longer than the third, which is obconical, 
four to ten subequal in length but greatly increasing in width, the latter twice 
as wide as the fourth and nearly twice as wide as long, eleventh as long as 
the two preceding. Prothorax as long as wide, widest at two-fifths from tlie 
apex, where the sides are strongly rounded and rather prominent, thence 
rapidly convergent to the neck and feebly convergent and very slightly sinuate 
to the base, the latter very feebly arcuate ; disk strongly convex, even, with 
a slight transverse impression near the base. Elytra large, quadrate, three- 
fourths wider and nearly one-half longer than the prothorax, the sides parallel 
and straight, convergent and rounded near the apex ; humeri rounded, promi- 
nent and widely exposed ; disk strongly, broadly impressed on the suture 
behind the. scutellum. Abdomen moderate in length, at base three-fifths, and 
at the apex of the third segment four fifths, as wide as the elytra; segments 
equal in length, the first three very strongly impressed and coarsely, densely 
sculptured at base. Legs and tarsi normal. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 0.55 mm. 

California. 

The smallest species of the genus and decidedly aberrant, not 
only in its shorter antennae but much broader neck and truncate 
median parts of the base of the head. A single specimen. 

E. lacustris. — Slender, convex, dark rufo-piceous or paler, the last two 
segments of the abdomen blackish ; legs pale rufo-testaceous ; antennae slightly 
paler toward base ; punctures fine and well separated but strong and distinct, 
more asperate on the elytra, finer and very sparse on the abdomen except in 
the basal impressions, which are coarsely and closely sculptured as usual ; 
pubescence rather long, subrecumbent, not very dense. Head as long as wide, 
fully as wide as the prothorax, the neck slightly exceeding one-third of the 
width at the eyes, the latter small, at much more than twice their length from 
the base ; antennae long and slender, although distinctly incrassate, extending 
nearly to the middle of the elytra, the first three joints elongate, subequal in 
length, four to ten shorter, subequal in length, the first much longer than 
wide, the latter very slightly transverse, eleventh gradually pointed toward 
apex, barely as long as the two preceding. Prothorax fully as long as wide, 
widest at two-fifths from the apex, where the sides are narrowly rounded, 
thence rapidly convergent to the neck and feebly convergent, broadly and 
distinctly sinuate to the base, the latter subtruncate, fully twice as wide as 
the apex ; disk strongly, evenly convex, not impressed, the punctures more 
densely crowded toward the median line as usual. Elytra one-half wider and 
slightly longer than the prothorax, the sides parallel, nearly straight, con- 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Oct. 1893.— 21 



3.14 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

vergent and arcuate in posterior third ; humeri rounded to the prothorax, 
exposed, each elytron very feebly, obliquely sigmoid at apex, the external 
angles prolonged as usual ; disk convex, feebly, narrowly impressed on the 
suture behind the scutellum. Abdomen not as long as the anterior parts, at 
base three-fourths as wide as the elytra, and, at the tip of the third segment, 
fully as wide as the latter. Legs long, slender, the posterior tarsi short, the 
basal joint elongate. Length 3.0 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

Michigan. 

The description is taken from the male, which, throughout the 
genus, has the sixth ventral plate relatively small and acutely tri- 
angular in form. The female is paler, rather stouter and somewhat 
more densely punctate. In both sexes, but especially in the female, 
the pronotum is extremely obsoletely impressed along the median 
line. The posterior tarsi, as usual, are about three-fifths as long as 
the tibiae, with the basal joint fully as long as the next two, the 
following three equal among themselves. 

£.°brendcli. — Slender, convex, piceous-black, the abdomen feebly rufes- 
cent toward base ; legs throughout and antennae toward base dark rufous ; 
integuments polished, finely, somewhat strongly, rather closely punctate, the 
abdomen very sparsely so except at the base of the segments, the elytra 
strongly and conspicuously but not very densely punctate ; pubescence rather 
long and distinct, extremely sparse on the abdomen. Head fully as long as 
wide, rather longer than the prothorax, the neck one-third as broad as the 
width across the eyes, the latter moderate, at scarcely twice their length from 
the base ; antennae long, the three basal joints subequal in length, the first 
slightly thicker, fourth much longer than wide, tenth about as long as wide. 
Prothorax nearly as in lacustris, the disk feebly impressed and more densely 
punctate along the median line. Elytra two-fifths wider and scarcely percep- 
tibly longer than the prothorax ; sides parallel, convergent and rounded 
toward apex ; humeri rounded, exposed ; disk strongly convex, strongly im- 
pressed on the suture behind the scutellum. Abdomen nearly as long as the 
anterior parts, at base three-fourths as wide as the elytra, fully as wide as the 
latter at the apex of the third segment. Legs long and slender ; tarsi normal, 
the first joint of the posterior fully as long as the next two ; claws connate 
throughout their length, rather shorter than usual. Length 3.0 mm. ; width 
0.65 mm. 

Iowa (Cedar Rapids). Dr. E. Brendel. 

The extraordinary character relating to the tarsal claws is con- 
firmtd by a careful examination of all the twelve tarsi of the two 
males in my cabinet; otherwise, the species is perfectly normal, 
differing from lacustris only in its more slender form, smaller pro- 
thorax, smaller and especially shorter elytra, and relatively larger 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 315 

head, showing that connate tarsal claws are of even less taxonomic 
significance here than in some parts of the Barini. 

E. monticola. — Somewhat stout, convex, black, shining ; abdomen 
subrufescent toward base ; legs dark rufous ; antennae rufo-piceous toward 
base ; punctuation fine and very dense, a little coarser on the elytra, sparser 
on the abdomen, fine and not extremely dense on the head ; pubescence rather 
long, dense and conspicuous, sparser on the abdomen, where it is however 
closer than in the preceding species. Head rather longer than wide, the neck 
one-third of the width, rather wider than the prothorax, convex ; eyes very 
distant from the base, well developed ; antennae extending to the middle of 
the elytra, slender, feebly incrassate, the first three joints elongate, subequal 
in length, tenth scarcely visibly wider than long. Prothorax fully as long as 
wide, widest at two-fifths from the apex, the sides there strongly rounded, 
rapidly convergent to the neck, and rather strongly convergent and nearly 
straight to the base, the latter feebly arcuate and distinctly more than twice 
as wide as the apex ; disk strongly convex, with a rather strong subquadrate 
impression in the middle before the base. Elytra large, quadrate, two-thirds 
wider and one-third longer than the prothorax ; sides parallel and straight 
except very near the apex ; humeri very widely exposed ; disk strongly im- 
pressed on the suture behind the scutellum. Abdomen much shorter than the 
anterior parts, at base four-fifths as wide as the elytra, and, at the apex of 
the third segment, fully as wide as the latter, coarsely, densely punctate in 
the three basal impressions as usual. Legs long, slender ; tarsi and claws 
normal, the latter long, slender, feebly arcuate and moderately divergent. 
Length 3.25 mm. ; width 0.8 mm. 

Colorado. 

Readily distinguishable from the preceding species by the broader, 
less narrowed abdomen, which is however only a ditference of 
degree; in generic structure it agrees perfectly with the others. A 
single male. 

K. lativentris* — Broader, black throughout ; antennae scarcely piceous 
toward base ; legs dark rufo-piceous, the tarsi paler ; integuments polished, 
rather sparsely but strongly punctate, the punctures of the entire upper sur- 
face of the head, and of the pronotum toward the median line, coarser, very 
deep, dense and perforate, on the abdomen fine and sparse except in the im- 
pressions ; pubescence rather sparse but distinct, still sparser on the abdomen. 
Head rather longer than wide with the neck one-third as wide, rather wider 
than the prothorax ; eyes moderate, before the middle as usual ; antennae 
extending to about basal third of the elytra, incrassate toward apex, first 
three joints elongate, subequal in length, tenth quite distinctly wider than 
long. Protho7'ax about as long as wide, formed as in the preceding species, 
the sides broadly sinuate as well as convergent in basal three- fifths. Elytra 
not quite as long as wide, two-thirds wider and about one-fourth longer than 
• the prothorax, the sides parallel and feebly arcuate ; humeri widely exposed; 



316 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

disk convex and impressed througliout on the suture. Abdomen mucli shorter 
than the anterior parts, at base four-fifths as wide as the elytra, but, near the 
apex, only slightly wider than at base. Legs moderate ; tarsi normal, the 
first joint of the posterior fully as long as the next two ; two to four equal, or 
the second rather shorter than the fourth ; fifth longer than the first. Length 
2.9 mm. ; width 0.8 mm. 

Montana (Mullan). Mr. H. F. Wickham. 

Allied to monticola, but differing in its shorter, more sparsely 
punctured elytra, smaller prothorax, without the deep subbasal 
fovea and with merely a feeble transverse erosion, more coarsely 
deeply and densely punctured head and rather shorter antennae. 



Myrmedoniides. 

Antennae 11-jointed ; tarsi 4-5-5-jointed. 

This is the largest, and by far the most complex and difficult 
division of the Aleocharini. 

TO^OTUS Sharp. 

This remarkable genus greatly resembles Deinopsis in the outline 
of the body, but has the pronotum very strongly convex and deeply 
indented in the male. The individuals vary greatly in size. The 
two species known to me may be readily separated as follows: — 

Abdomen with elongate punctures ; head broadly, deeply excavated nearly 
throughout its width in the male caTiceps 

Abdomen with coarsely and regularly imbricate sculpture ; head in the male 
broadly", evenly convex and normal imlbricatllS 

The sculpture of the integuments is strong, pronounced and beau- 
tifully regular. 

T. caviceps n. sp. — Rather broad, subfusiform, thick, flattened above, 
the pronotum very convex ; integuments feebly shining, black, the legs 
throughout and antennse toward base dark rufo-testaceous ; pubescence short, 
recumbent, moderately dense, very coarse, pale fulvous and distinct, sparser 
on the abdomen, each segment with a long porrect fringe at apex ; anterior 
parts finely, strongly reticulate, the abdomen polished ; punctures of the head 
and pronotum fine, of the elytra rather coarse and rugose, not very dense, of 
the abdomen not dense, each composed of two long deep parallel striae united 
anteriorly at the point of attachment of the hair. Head small, three-fifths as 
wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderate, at nearly their own length from the 
base ; antennae rather longer than the head and prothorax, somewhat thick, 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 317 

tlie second and third joints equal, the latter obconical, more than twice as 
long as wide, fourth slightly wider, quadrate, fifth to tenth transverse, the 
latter nearly twice as wide as long, eleventh conoidal, slightly compressed, 
nearly as long as the three preceding. Prothorax nearly twice as wide as 
long, transversely subelliptical in outline, strongly convex, with a large deep 
median dent which does not difi"er at all in the nature of its pubescence. 
Elytra rectangular, parallel, three-fifths wider than long, equal in length and 
width to the prothorax, broadly, strongly emarginate at base in circular arc. 
Abdomen much longer than the anterior parts, at base nearly as wide as the 
elytra ; sides feebly arcuate, evenly, feebly convergent from the base ; border 
thick and strong ; surface nearly flat : first and second segments deeply, trans- 
versely impressed, the third more feebly ; fifth a little longer than the fourth ; 
under surface convex, finely, densely punctate. Legs rather slender, the 
posterior tarsi distinctly shorter than the tibiae. Length 1.8-2.5 mm. ; width 
0.6-0.85 mm. 

Nevada (Reno). 

The female differs from the above-described male in its slightly 
larger size and more robust form, unexcavated head, and in having 
a simple, equal, broadly and feebly impressed line along the middle 
of the pronotum from base to apex. 

T. imbricatllS n. sp. — Nearly similar in form to caviceps, piceous-black, 
the legs^ base of the antennae and apices of the abdominal segments paler ; 
head and pronotum dull, very minutely reticulate, strongly and densely so in 
the pronotal dent ; elytra more coarsely reticulate, more shining and more 
strongly, rather densely punctate ; abdomen polished, finely punctate and 
evenly imbricate ; pubescence of the anterior parts short, coarse, rather dense, 
very dense, longer and conspicuous in the pronotal indentation, sparse on the 
abdomen. Head small, scarcely three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, feebly, 
evenly convex ; eyes large, at less than their length from the base ; antennse 
barely as long as the head and prothorax, feebly incrassate, second and third 
joints equal, the latter obconical, three times as long as wide, as long as the 
next two, eleventh conoidal, not longer than the preceding two. Prothorax 
twice as wide as long; sides evenly convergent from base to apex, broadly, 
evenly arcuate ; base much wider than the apex, broadly arcuate ; basal 
angles obtuse but not blunt, very distinct ; disk convex, with a large abrupt 
median excavation occupying one-third of the width, extending from the base 
nearly to the apex. Elytra very slightly longer and wider than the prothorax ; 
sides subparallel, broadly arcuate. Abdomen — extended — nearly twice as long 
as the anterior parts, at base nearly as wide as the elytra ; sides gradually 
convergent from the base ; border thick but not very deep ; surface nearly 
flat ; first three segments moderately impressed at base ; fourth broadly 
emarginate at apex and much shorter than the fifth ; middle coxae widely 
separated, the mesosternal process broadly truncate. Length 1.6-2.4 mm. ; 
width 0.55-0.7 mm. 



318 Coleopterblogical Notices, V. 

New York (Catskill Mts.). 

The description is taken from the male ; in the female the prono- 
tum is almost perfectly even, without an impressed median line but 
with two large feeble and approximate impressions near the base 
before the scutellum, and, apparently, an extremely obsolete median 
impression near the apical margin. I place with this species a 
single male from Austin, Texas, which is very similar but a little 
more robust and with more finely and densely punctate elytra. 

The evenly imbricate sculpture of the abdomen above and beneath 
is a very striking feature. 

MICRODO]¥IA n. gen. 

Body parallel, rather depressed. Head broadest behind the eyes, 
the latter situated at their own length from the base, convex and 
rather prominent, the tempora rounded, slightly more prominent 
than the eye ; neck moderate in width, the occiput adjacent to the 
pronotum nearly throughout. Labrum short, broad, truncate. 
Antennae rather long, incrassate, inserted in small foveas very near 
the eyes. Mentum large, flat, trapezoidal, truncate at apex. Max- 
illary palpi normal, the fourth joint subulate, oblique, distinct. 
Ligula with two minute slender parallel and approximate processes 
at apex, the labial palpi distinct, the two basal joints cylindrical, the 
second the shorter, third nearly as long as the two preceding, very 
slender, arcuate near the base. Intraocular carina completely want- 
ing. Prothorax nearly flat, rather abruptly declivous at the sides, 
the acute lateral line very feeble ; hypomera moderately inflexed 
and greatly visible from the side. Abdomen parallel, the basal 
segment alone transversely impressed and impunctate at base ; 
second a little longer than any of the others; fourth and fifth nearly 
equal Intermediate coxae moderately but distinctly separated, the 
mesosternal process very short, parabolic, indefinitely limited at 
apex, the metasternal also short but acute, separated from the 
mesosternal by quite a long polished transversely convex isthmus ; 
middle acetabula apparently deep and sharply defined. Meta- 
sternum well developed, the episterna wide, parallel, the epimera 
large, broad behind and extending slightly behind the elytra, gradu- 
ally attenuate anteriorly and disappearing under the elytra at the 
middle of the latter. Tibiae rather long, the anterior very slender, 
not at all spinose, the terminal spurs small and slender ; tarsi with 
4-5-5 joints, the posterior very long and slender, as long as the 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 319 

tibiae, with the first joint greatly elongate ; ungues small, slender, 
arcuate, simple and divergent. 

Microdonia belongs evidently to the subgroup Myrmedoniates of 
Rey, as shown by general organization and by the great develop- 
ment of the metasternal epimera, but is immediately distinguishable 
from any of the genera known to me by the small parallel and de- 
pressed body, subtriangular head, complete absence of infraocular 
carina and many other characters. 

HI. occipitalis n. sp. — Reddish-brown, the elytra paler, more flavate ; 
abdomen with a large blackish cloud occupying segments three, four, the 
apex of two and base of five ; anterior parts dull, the abdomen shining. Head 
subtriangular, rather coarsely, densely, evenly punctate, the punctures round, 
very shallow, distinctly defined but variolate and slightly umbilicate ; antennae 
rather longer than the prothorax and elytra, second joint longer than the 
third, the latter strongly obconical, one-half longer than wide, outer joints 
transverse and perfoliate, the tenth fully one-half wider than long, eleventh 
nearly as long as the preceding three, conoidal, compressed. Prothorax dis- 
tinctly wider than the head, punctured like the latter, two-fifths wider than 
long, the sides very feebly convergent from near the apex to the base and 
very nearly straight ; base broadly, evenly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse and 
slightly blunt ; disk broadly impressed toward each side except anteriorly, 
also in the middle before the scutellum. Elytra just visibly longer but dis- 
tinctly wider than the prothorax, rectangular, nearly one-half wider than 
long, flat, more finely and rather less densely punctate. Abdomen as long as 
the remainder of the body, slightly narrower than the elytra, parallel and 
straight at the sides, feebly convex, the border strong ; punctures fine, rather 
distinct, somewhat close though very sparse toward tip. Length 2.3 mm. ; 
width 0.6 mm. 

Texas (Austin). 

The pubescence of the anterior parts of the upper surface is very 
minute, stiff, recumbent and rather dense but not conspicuous, of 
the abdomen sparser but longer and more visible. A single speci- 
men, perhaps somewhat immature; the singular impressions near 
the sides of the pronotum are however probably normal. 

DIIVOCORYNA n. gen. 

Parallel, rather stout. Head well inserted, nearly as in Myrme- 
donia, the eyes well developed, the tempora rapidly convergent 
behind them ; infralateral carina wholly obsolete. Antennae stout, 
the first joint ver}^ large, robust, constricted at base, as long as the 
next three j second very small, barely longer than wide, as long as 



320 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

the third but scarcely more than one-half as wide ; third rapidly 
obtrapezoidal, as wide at apex as joints four to ten, which form a 
compact cylindrical mass, each joint twice as wide as long and 
deeply received in the excavated apex of the preceding, the sides 
almost parallel ; eleventh conical, compressed, at base not quite as 
wide as the tenth, as long as the preceding three. Mentum nearly 
as long as wide, trapezoidal. Maxillary palpi well developed, the 
third joint very much longer and thicker than the second; fourth 
distinct. Ligula with a long slender, apparently almost simple 
process, the palpi rather slender, three-jointed, the first joint longer 
than the second and subequal to the more slender third. Prothorax 
transverse, the anterior margin transverse and deeply bisinuate, the 
median lobe narrowly rounded, the apical angles somewhat ante- 
riorly prominent; hypomera moderately indexed, visible from the 
side, broadly triangular, not attaining the apex. Elytra large and 
well developed. Abdomen parallel, with the sides strongly, evenly 
arcuate ; border moderate ; first two segments very large, together 
constituting three-fifths of the abdomen, the first slightly the larger; 
three to five very short ; sixth abruptly extremely narrow and but 
slightly exposed. Coxae all large, the intermediate distinctly but 
not very widely separated, the metasternal process extending ante- 
riorly for nearly one-half their length, narrowly subtruncate at tip 
and separated from the apex of the mesosternal, — which cannot be 
clearly seen in the unique type, — by a short depressed isthmus. 
Legs short, stout, covered with long stiff subdecumbent pubescence, 
the tarsi filiform but stout, somewhat compressed, long, 4-5-5-jointed, 
the posterior about as long as the tibiae, with the first joint elongate, 
the first four rapidly decreasing in length, the fifth somewhat longer 
than the first; ungues very long, extremely slender, feebly, evenly 
arcuate and but slightly divergent. 

This remarkable genus is evidently myrmecophilous, or still more 
probably, termitophilous, and is allied to Myrmedonia. The basal 
tergite is broadly, deeply impressed and polished at base, the others 
without trace of impression. 

D. Ilisiiiliata n. sp. — Moderately short and stout^sulbparallel, pale flavo- 
testaceous throughout, the elytra rather albesceut ; Integuments polished, not 
in the least reticulate ; head and pronotum coarsely, sparsely punctate, the 
elytra very minuely sparsely and indistinctly so, the abdomen subimpunc- 
tate, except along the apices of the tergites, where there is a row of close-set, 
elongate, tubercular punctures bearing very long stiff setse, the under surface 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 321 

covered throughout with long coarse hairs ; pubescence very sparse and in- 
conspicuous, the abdomen bristling with long setae ; there are also a few long 
erect setse toward the sides of the pronotum and elytra, and near the base of 
the latter. Head large, transverse, four-fifths as wide as the prothorax, the 
occiput feebly impressed in the middle ; antennae extending fully to the middle 
of the elytra, the club nearly one-third as wide as the head, not compressed. 
Prothorax four-fifths wider than long, widest at the apex, the sides rather 
strongly convergent and broadly arcuate to the basal angles, which are ex- 
tremely obtuse, rather indistinct ; base much narrower than the apex, sub- 
truncate ; marginal line of the flank extremely fine ; disk without trace of 
marginal bead, the edges convex, broadly impressed along the middle. Elytra 
transverse, slightly wider and one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides sub- 
parallel, nearly straight ; humeri moderately exposed at base. Abdomen at 
base much narrower, in the middle slightly narrower, than the elytra, shorter 
than the anterior parts ; sides parallel and strongly arcuate ; surfaces of 
tergites two to five broadly, feebly reflexed toward apex. Length 1.7 mm. ; 
width 0.7 mm. 

Florida. 

The sex of the type cannot be clearly distinguished, and the 
abdomen seems to be exserted in its basal parts but drawn in toward 
apex, w^hich may account in part for the great preponderance in 
length of the two basal segments. 



The genera more or less resembling Myrmedonia, which are 
represented by the material in my cabinet, may be defined as fol- 
lows : — 

Mesosternal process very short, not extending between the coxae for more than 
one-third of their length, more or less broad at apex and separated from 
the metasternal process by a short broad isthmus, which is on the same 

level and not depressed Myrmedonia. 

Mesosternal process longer, extending to the middle of the coxae. 

Mesosternal process broad, very broadly rounded at apex, the latter soldered 
to the apex of the metasternal by a short broad undepressed isthmus : 
front before the line of the antennae abruptly and strongly declivous to 
the subhorizontal clypeus ; eyes as in Myrmedonia, large and near the 

base ; occiput thrown up in a strong transverse ridge IVototaplira. 

Mesosternal process narrow, very acute, not in the least blunt at apex, the 
latter free and detached from connecting isthmus ; head long, oval ; front 
normal ; eyes small, distant from the base Anepsiota 

In all of these genera the side-pieces of the metasternum are 
broad, the epimera greatly developed and extending posteriorly 
behind the elytra. 



322 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

MYRMEDOIVIA Erichs. 

Even within our own faunal limits, this interesting genus varies 
wonderfully in the degree of separation of the intermediate coxse, 
which is usually a character of considerable taxonomic value. It 
is only a striking example, however, of the fact frequently observed 
in large groups of arthropods, that characters unquestionably of 
general significance in defining genera may, in certain parts of the 
series, abruptly and unexpectedly lose all such weight. 

The few species known to me may be distinguished by the fol- 
lowing characters : — 

Punctures of the pronotum extremely fine. 

Apex of the mesosternal process moderate in width. 

Basal joint of the antennae large, extremely robust and pyriform ; pro- 
thorax strongly transverse; middle coxae rather narrowly separated 

(Platyusa Csy.) SOnomse 

Basal joint of the antennae more slender, sometimes moderately constricted 
at base ; middle coxae more widely separated. 
Prothorax transverse, the sides not at all sinuate toward base. 

caliginosa 
Prothorax but slightly wider than long, the sides broadly sinuate 
toward base. 
Third antennal joint greatly elongated, nearly as long as the next 

two; tenth but slightly wider than long fauveli 

Third joint much shorter, but slightly longer than the second ; tenth 
very strongly transverse ; eleventh large, nearly as long as the 

preceding three combined ailgustllla 

Apex of the mesosternal process extremely wide, straight, truncate and 

rather wider than the distance separating the antennae loricata. 

Punctures of the pronotum normal but coarse and sparse, somewhat as in 

Zyras huworthi but less remote and more even in distribution Olbliqiia 

Punctures of the pronotum sparse, strong and tuberculiform, at least in the 
male. 
Elytral punctures very coarse, deep and rather sparse ; abdomen coarsely 

sparsely and unevenly punctate, testaceous in color rudis 

Elytral punctures fine and dense ; abdomen subimpunctate planifer 



**Confertim subtilissime punctata, fusca, antennarum basi, thoracis lateribus, 
pedibus elytrisque testaceis, his sutura, basin versus latius, angulisque 
apicalibus oblique late infuscatis ; thorace transverso, obsoletius canalicu- 
lato, basi leviter transversim foveolato. Long. 1^ lin. Lat, | lin. Penin- 
sula Kenai." aiigularis 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 323 

I have not been able to identify angularis Makl., and transcribe 
the original short diagnosis ; it is evidently a species allied to cali- 
ginosa, but differing in the pale sides of the prothorax. Fauveli 
Shp. is abundant throughout the United States from Pennsylvania 
to Los Angeles, Cal. ; I have taken it at Galveston and Waco in 
Texas. Rudis Lee. is a large and very distinct species, with ex- 
tremely coarse and rugose pronotal sculpture. 

Jff. caliginosa n. sp. — Parallel, black, the legs and antentise toward 
base dark rufo-testaceous ; apices of the two or three basal tergites sometimes 
very briefly pale ; elytra fusco-testaceous, feebly, triangularly clouded toward 
base and toward the lateral apical angles with piceous ; head and pronotum 
minutely reticulate, alutaceous, extremely finely and not very densely punc- 
tate ; elytra and abdomen polished, the former finely but distinctly, densely 
punctate, the latter impunctate, with the exception of a few fine punctures 
near the apical margins ; pubescence fine, extremely short and inconspicuous, 
each tergite with a sparse apical fringe of longer hairs. Head slightly wider 
than long, fully three-fourths as wide as the prothorax, constricted at base ; 
eyes \qtj large, at less than one-half their length from the base ; antennae 
rather compressed, separated at base by the length of the eye, thick, mode- 
rately incrassate, a little longer than the head and prothorax, basal joint 
moderately thick, as long as the next two, third obconical, barely twice as 
long as wide, four to nine equal in length, gradually much wider, loosely 
perfoliate, the latter twice as wide as long, tenth equal in width but a little 
longer, eleventh conoidal, pointed, rather longer than the two preceding. 
Prothorax fully three-fourths wider than long, the sides subparallel, broadly 
arcuate, becoming straight and feebly convergent toward base, the basal 
angles very obtuse and blunt ; the apical rounded ; base broadly arcuate, 
about as wide as the apex ; disk even, with a very fine, frequently entirely 
obsolete, impressed line, without antebasal impression. Elytra transverse, 
slightly but distinctly wider and longer than the prothorax ; humeri some- 
what exposed ; suture not impressed. Abdomen subequal to the anterior parts, 
very slightly narrower than the elytra ; sides subparallel, feebly arcuate ; 
first three segments deeply equally and not very widely impressed at base ; 
fifth shorter than the fourth. Legs slender ; posterior tarsi long but much 
shorter than the tibiae, the first joint as long as the next two. Length 3.0 
mm. ; width 0.85 mm. 

New York (Catskill Mts.); Indiana. 

A somewhat common species, resembling a stout Atbeta and 
easily recognizable by the large prominent eyes. • 

M. anglistula n. sp. — Narrow, parallel, convex, polished throughout, 
dark piceous ; pronotum slightly paler and rufescent ; elytral humeri and a 
narrow apical margin, first three abdominal segments except at base, legs and 
antennae pale flavate ; head, pronotum and elytra extremely minutely, evenly. 



324 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

rather sparsely and not distinctly punctate ; abdomen impnnctate, excepting 
a widely spaced series bearing longer setse along the apex of each segment ; 
pubescence fine and rather inconspicuous above, longer and more distinct on 
the under surface of the abdomen. Head wider than long, slightly narrower 
than the prothorax, convex ; eyes moderate, at nearly their own length from 
the neck ; tempera moderately convergent, broadly arcuate ; antennae extend- 
ing fully to the middle of the elytra, the basal joint elongate, oval, not as long 
as the next two, outer joints rapidly wider, rather closely connected, strongly 
transverse, eleventh long, pointed. Prothorax but slightly wider than long, 
widest at apical third, where the sides are rounded and moderately convergent 
to the apex, distinctly convergent and broadly sinuate thence to the basal 
angles, which are nearly right and only slightly blunt ; base a little narrower 
than the apex, both broadly, equally arcuate ; disk rather strongly, evenly 
convex, not distinctly impressed. Elytra one-half wider than long, two-fifths 
wider than the prothorax but not distinctly longer than the latter ; humeri 
broadly exposed at base ; surface not impressed. Abdomen in the middle about 
as wide as the elytra ; sides parallel and quite distinctly arcuate ; basal seg- 
ments only finely impressed along the basal margins ; fifth shorter than the 
fourth. Legs moderate in length, slender ; posterior tarsi very long and 
filiform but shorter than the tibiae, the basal joint as long as the next two. 
Length 2.3 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Florida. 

This species resembles fauveli in general appearance, but is 
smaller and narrower, and may be known by its much more trans- 
verse penultimate joints of the antennae. 

]fl, loriCRtia, n. sp. — Parallel, rather convex, dark blackish-castaneous, 
the antennae dark rufo-piceous, paler toward base; abdomen black, the apices 
of the three basal segments paler ; legs piceous, the tarsi pale ; head and 
pronotum very finely, the former sparsely, the latter more closely, punctate ; 
elytra finely but strongly and distinctly, not' densely punctate, the punctures 
becoming dense toward the inner basal angles ; abdomen impunctate, except 
sparsely along the apices ; integuments strongly shining, the abdomen highly 
polished ; pubescence fine, rather short, distinct. Head wider than long, 
four-fifths as wide as the prothorax, the occiput rather tumid ; eyes large, 
prominent ; antennae extending nearly to the middle of the elytra, strongly 
incrassate, feebly compressed, rather compact, the outer joints contiguous, 
basal joint slender, as long as the next two, third elongate, obconical, twice 
as long as the second and as long as the next two, the latter equal, as long 
as wide, five to ten gradually increasing in length and greatly in width, the 
tenth nearly parallel, two-fifths wider than long, eleventh conical, not as long 
as the two preceding. Prothorax one-fourth wider than long, widest at apical 
third where the sides are very broadly, feebly arcuate, feebly convergent and 
slightly sinuate in basal half; base broadly, strongly arcuate, subequal to 
the apex, which is transverse, becoming feebly sinuate near the sides ; basal 
angles slightly obtuse, strongly marked, not at all blunt ; disk convex, the 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 825 

median line finely and feebly impressed throngliont. Elytra transverse, one- 
third wider but not at all longer than the prothorax ; sides feebly arcuate ; 
humeri broadly rounded and exposed ; disk broadly, feebly impressed at base. 
Abdomen at base much narrower than the elytra and as wide as the prothorax ; 
sides subparallel, broadly arcuate ; border thin and deep ; first three segments 
finely, deeply impressed ; fifth shorter than the fourth ; under surface sparsely, 
coarsely pubescent, finely punctate. Legs moderate ; posterior tarsi long but 
much shorter than thetibise, the basal joint somewhat thicker than usual and 
very long, nearly as long as the next three. Length 3.6 mm. ; width 1.0 mm. 

Canada (Grimsby); Ohio. 

The distinguishing character of this species is the very wide 
truncate sternal piece between the coxae, much exceeding in width 
that of any other known to me. The degree of separation of the 
middle coxae bears no relation whatever to the width of the body, 
for, in sonomae, which is a very much stouter species, the coxae are 
unusually narrowly separated. 

Hf. obliqiia n. sp.— Stout, subparallel, polished, black, the antennse red- 
brown, paler toward base ; elytra pale rufous, clouded with blackish in a 
basal subtriangular area and also broadly toward the external apical angles ; 
apices of all the tergites and the legs throughout pale flavate ; head distinctly 
but extremely remotely, the pronotum strongly, rather coarsely and decidedly 
sparsely, punctate ; elytra rather coarsely, roughly but not densely so, the 
punctures becoming however very dense toward the scutellum ; abdomen 
finely, sparsely punctate throughout, with the pubescence long and fine, 
coarser and more evident beneath ; pubescence anteriorly coarse and some- 
what long but sparse, closer and more evident on the elytra. Head as long 
as wide, three-fourths as wide as the prothorax, the eyes moderate, at their 
own length from the base ; tempora feebly convergent to the base ; antennse 
longer than the head and prothorax, the basal joint slightly thick, not as 
long as the next two, third elongate, one-half longer than the second, not as 
long as the next two, fourth quadrate, four to ten very evenly and moderately 
increasing in width, the tenth rather shorter than the ninth, one-half wider 
than long, eleventh thick, obtusely ogival, as long as the preceding two. 
Prothorax fully two-fifths wider than long, widest at apical third, where the 
sides are rather strongly rounded and convergent to the apex, somewhat 
strongly convergent and nearly straight in basal half; base and apex sub- 
equal, the former strongly, the latter feebly arcuate ; basal angles very obtuse 
but evident, not distinctly blunt ; disk with a smooth, impunctate but unim- 
pressed median line and a small deep impression in the middle before the 
base. Elytra one-half wider than long, two-fifths wider but only slightly 
longer than the prothorax ; sides feebly divergent and slightly arcuate from 
base to apex ; humeri obliquely, strongly rounded to the prothorax, not be- 
coming transverse ; disk scarcely at all impressed. Abdomen broad, as wide as 
the elytra ; sides parallel and just visibly arcuate ; border thick and not very 



326 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

deep ; first three segments finely impressed at base, the impressions becoming 
almost obsolete near the sides ; fifth a little longer than the fourth. Leg^s 
moderate ; posterior tarsi long, filiform, shorter than the tibiae, with the first 
joint not thicker but distinctly longer than the next two. Length 3.8 mm. ; 
width 1.3 mm. 

New York. 

A fine species, somewhat suggestive of the subgenus Zyras, but 
with much less coarse and dispersed elytral sculpture. One speci- 
men, apparently female. 

M, planifer n. sp. — Moderately stout, subparallel, polished throughout, 
rufo-piceous, the elytra darker except near the humeri ; abdomen black, the 
first two segments in great part, and the third narrowly at the margin, 
pale ; legs pale throughout ; antennae fuscous, pale toward base ; head finely, 
sparsely, the pronotum still more finely sparsely and obsoletely, punctate, the 
latter with the flattened median area sparsely but strongly and asperately so ; 
elytra finely but strongly, sparsely, subasperately punctate, more strongly 
but scarcely more densely toward the scutellum ; abdomen subimpunctate, 
except very obsoletely and remotely along the apical margins ; pubescence 
fine, sparse, rather more distinct on the under surface of the abdomen. Head 
much wider than long, four-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderate, 
at nearly their own length from the base ; antennae stout, strongly incrassate, 
longer than the head and prothorax, the basal joint stout, nearly as long as 
the next two, third longer than the second, obconical, twice as long as wide, 
four to seven increasing in width, seven to ten subsimilar, rather compact, 
subparallel, nearly one-half wider than long, eleventh conical, as long as the 
two preceding. Prothorax transverse, three-fifths wider than long, widest at 
apical third where the sides are distinctly rounded to the apex, plainly con- 
vergent and straight — from above — in basal two-thirds ; base and apex equal, 
the former strongly, the latter very feebly, arcuate ; basal angles obtuse but 
not blunt; disk with a large flattened median region, the median line finely 
but distinctly impressed. Elytra transverse, two-fifths wider but only just 
visibly longer than the prothorax ; sides feebly divergent and arcuate from 
the humeri, which are rather broadly exposed ; disk slightly impressed near 
the sides behind the middle. Abdomen rather longer tban the anterior parts, 
quite distinctly narrower than the elytra ; sides parallel, slightly arcuate 
behind ; border thin and deep ; first two segments widely and deeply iurpressed 
at base, the third finely and very feebly so ; fourth and fifth subequal. Legs 
slender ; posterior tarsi much shorter tiian the tibiae, with the basal joint as 
long as the next two. Length 3.2 mm. ; width 1.0 mm. 

North Carolina (Asheville). 

The description is evidently drawn from the male, and in the 
female the asperate flat median area of the pronotum is probably 
wanting in great part ; the male has, in addition, the sixth tergite 
feebly emarginate and unevenly serrulate, a somewhat more isolated 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 327 

median projection having three short teeth. This species is evi- 
dently allied to some of the Mexican forms described by Dr. Sharp. 

JVOTOTAPHRA n. gen. 

Body rather narrow, thick and subparallel. Head somewhat as 
in Myrmedonia, constricted at base throughout the width, the occi- 
put transversely prominent; eyes moderate; infralateral carina not 
distinct. Antennse long, loose, subparallel from the fourth joint, 
not incrassate, pilose, but devoid of erect setae. The gular sutures 
diverge toward the base of the maxillae, and from between them 
there extends forward a large flat plate, gradually narrowed toward 
the truncate apex ; this plate is the mentum and its support fused 
in one and without trace of transverse suture. The lobes of the 
maxillae are very long and slender. Ligula rather short, the termi- 
nal process small, gelatino-membranous, easily distorted but seem- 
ingly bilobed at apex. Labial palpi apparently two-jointed, the 
basal joint thick, cylindrical, less than twice as long as wide, the 
second a little shorter, slender and affixed obliquely. Proihorax 
narrowed and sinuate to the base, the hypomera feebly inflexed and 
in part visible from the side. Elytra well developed. Abdomen 
with the side margins thin and extremely deep. Middle coxae dis- 
tant, the mesosternal process broadly rounded at apex, the meta- 
sternal acutely angulate but widely separated at tip from the meso- 
sternal. Legs slender ; tarsi 4-5-5-jointed, slender, the posterior 
shorter than the tibiae, with the first joint more or less elongate. 

If my interpretation of the structure of the labial palpi be correct 
this genus is really very isolated ; the structure of the front before 
the antennae, of the mentum and its support, and the more prolonged 
mesosternal process will however, in any event, readily distinguish 
it from Myrmedonia. It seems to have some relationship also with 
the comparative giants described by Dr. Sharp under the name 
Platonica. Our two representatives may be readily separated as 
follows : — 

Basal joint of the hind tarsi as long as the next two; blue-black, the pro- 
thorax and first three segments of the abdomen very pale yellowish-red. 

lauta 

Basal joint of the hind tarsi but slightly longer than the second ; black, the 
elytra slightly picescent lllguliris 

N. iailta n. sp. — Rather slender, parallel, convex, minutely reticulate 
and rather alntaceous throughout, the elytra dullest ; pale rufo-liavate, the 



328 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

head rnfo-piceoiis ; elytra and abdominal apex black ; legs very pale ; antennae 
feebly infuscate toward tip ; punctures throughout extremely minute, dense 
but scarcely visible, rather more distinct on the elytra ; pubescence consisting 
of extremely short fine appressed hairs, distributed thickly over the entire 
surface including the abdomen, becoming sparse toward the apex of the latter. 
Head as long as wide, not quite as wide as the prothorax, deflexed ; eyes 
moderate, prominent, at one-half their length from the base ; depressed epis- 
toma polished, glabrous ; antennse extending nearly to the tip of the elytra, 
rather thick, loose, cylindrical, pubescent but without bristling set?e, basal 
joint small, stout, pyriform, third longer than the second, obconical, not twice 
as long as wide, its apex oblique, four to ten somewhat asymmetrically obconi- 
cal, tenth as long as wide, eleventli small, conoidal, not as long as the two 
preceding. Prothorax transverse, three-fourths wider than long, widest at 
apical third where the sides are strongly rounded, becoming parallel and 
straight in basal half; base and apex equal, broadly arcuate; basal angles 
obtuse and slightly blunt ; disk rather abruptly declivous laterally, the 
median half from base to apex occupied by a v^ry large deep indentation, 
which does not differ in sculpture or vestiture. Elytra large, one-half wider 
than long, one-half wider and one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides feebly 
divergent and straight ; humeri broadly exposed. Abdomen much narrower 
than the elytra, parallel, the three basal segments broadly, deeply impressed, 
polished and glabrous at base ; fifth shorter than the fourth. Length 2.8 mm. ; 
"width 0.8 mm. 

New York. 

The male, from which this description is taken, has the posterior 
part of the first tergite broadly, feebly swollen. The second bears 
a large strongly elevated tubercle, occupying median third, the 
posterior wall of which is vertical, clothed with longer hair and 
having its face furrowed from summit to base ; the anterior wall is 
likewise vertical and its foot is at the margin of the impression. 
The third segment also has a strongly elevated abrupt elevation, 
occupying a little more than median third and apical two-thirds, the 
upper surface of which is flat and declivous posteriorly throughout, 
its anterior wall vertical and deep. I have not seen the female. 

IV. lugublis n. sp. — Moderately stout and convex, somewhat shining; 
punctures throughout almost invisible ; pubescence extremely minute, mode- 
rately dense ; body black, the elytra feebly piceous ; legs piceous-black, the 
tarsi slightly paler ; antennse dark red-brown. Head as long as wide, deflexed, 
nearly as wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderate ; antennse thick, extending 
to the middle of the elytra, the basal joint thick and pyriform, much shorter 
than the next two, second small, a little longer than wide, third large, rather 
wider than long, asymmetric, four to ten scaicely differing in width and about 
as wide as the apex of the third, tenth more than one-third wider than long, 
eleventh moderate, conoidal, not quite as long as the two preceding. Pro- 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 329 

thorax two-thirds wider than long, widest just before the middle where the 
sides are broadly, evenly arouate, becoming convergent and straight in basal 
lialf; base and apex equal, the former feebly arcuate, the latter truncate; 
basal angles obtuse ; disk with a large and very deep oval excavation, occupy- 
ing more than median third and extending from base to apex. Elytra large, 
nearly one-half wider and longer than the prothorax, the humeri broadly ex- 
posed. Abdomen distinctly narrower than the elytra, the sides straight, just 
visibly convergent from the base, the fourth and fifth segments equal in length. 
Length (abdomen strongly contracted and reflexed) 2.1 mm. ; width 0.9 mm. 

Colorado. 

The abdomen is strongly reflexile in both of these species, and 
the male described above has large discal processes on the second 
and third segments, almost precisely similar to those of the preced- 
ing species. So close a resemblance in these peculiar sexual marks 
is indeed singular, in view of the great differences in antennal and 
tarsal structure and coloration of the body. I think that these 
large tuberosities may possibly have some function in limiting the 
reflexibility of the abdomen. 



AlVEPSIOTA n. gen. 

Body parallel, moderately stout and rather feebly convex. Head 
oval, longer than v^ade, well inserted but borne on a neck which is 
not more than one-half as broad as the width across the eyes, the 
latter small, at nearly twice their length from the base, the tempora 
broadly rounded and convergent behind them. Antennae long, 
moderately incrassate, loose, the erect setae extremely short, the 
basal joint slightly longer and thicker than the second; third rather 
longer than the second, both elongate, obconical and similar; fourth 
to tenth increasing in width, the former longer than wide, the latter 
slightly wider than long ; eleventh long, ogival, finely pointed, 
barely as long as the two preceding. Mentum moderate, trape- 
zoidal, the transverse suture at its base almost obsolete but better 
marked at the sides because of the lateral impressions of the men- 
tum. Ligula stout, short, the apical process well developed, split 
to its base, the two lobes subparallel, long and moderately slender. 
Labial palpi three-jointed, the basal joint stout, cylindrical, long, 
more than twice as long as the second, which is a little narrower 
and not longer than wide ; third slender, oblique, not as long as 
the first. Maxillary palpi long and well developed, the third joint 
obconical, a little longer than the second. Infralateral carina obso- 
An^'als N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Oct. 1893.— 22 



330 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

lete except near the base. Prothorax rectangular, the hypomera 
feebly inflexed, wide and greatly visible from the side. Elytra 
rather short and transverse. Abdomen wide, the segments short 
and equal, the first two finely impressed at base. Metasternal epi- 
mera large, extending distinctly behind the elytra. Legs short, the 
tarsi 4-5-5-jointed, the posterior very long, almost as long as the 
tibiae, with the basal joint not as long as the next two, although 
elongate, the second fully as long as the last. 

The acute mesosternal process, extending one-half the length of 
the coxae with its apex free, the smaller eyes, more distant from 
the prothorax, narrower neck and many other structural characters 
necessitate a separation of this genus from Myrmedonia, although 
it is apparently somewhat allied ; it is more closely allied, however, 
to Atheta, Thoms. QuadricoUis is the type of the genus. 

A. qiiadricollis n. sp. — Parallel, polished throughout, pale rufo-testa- 
ceous, the head piceous ; abdomen blackish except indefinitely toward base 
and at apex ; legs pale throughout ; antennae black, testaceous toward base ; 
head and pronotum very finely sparsely and indistinctly punctate ; elytra 
more distinctly and closely, subasperately so ; abdomen throughout finely, 
subasperately and moderately closely punctate ; pubescence short stiff and 
sparse, longer on the abdomen, where it is still denser beneath. Head rather 
narrow, two-thirds as wide as the prothorax, the occiput declivous at base 
but not prominent ; antennae attaining the apices of the elytra. Prothorax 
transversely rectangular, two-fifths wider than long ; sides parallel, broadly 
arcuate anteriorly, broadly sinuate behind the middle ; basal angles obtuse 
and rounded ; base distinctly wider than the apex, broadly arcuate, the apex 
truncate, the angles rather broadly rounded ; disk broadly, feebly convex, 
slightly impressed in the middle before the base. Elytra two-thirds wider 
than long, slightly shorter than the prothorax, and, at apex, just visibly 
wider than that part ; sides feebly convergent to the base, the humeri not 
exposed at base, obliquely, feebly rounded ; disk impressed on the suture 
behind the scutellum. Abdomen — contracted — not quite as long as the anterior 
parts, at base fully as wide as the elytra and behind the middle somewhat 
wider; sides parallel, very slightly arcuate; border moderately thick, not 
very deep. Length 3.0 mm. ; width of abdomen 0.9 mm., of the elytra 0.8 mm. 

Vancouver Island. 

The deep emargination at the base of the first tergite, with its 
connecting membrane largely exposed when in a horizontal posi- 
tion, shows that the abdomen is strongl}^ reflexile. I can observe 
no sexual marks about the single type specimen, which is probably 
a female. 

The two following species are provisionally attached to Anepsiota 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 331 

although the posterior tarsi are decidedly shorter with the four basal 
joints differing much less in length. 

A. insignis Csy. — Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., I, p. 310 (Oxypoda). 

This species is allied rather closely to wickhami, but differs con- 
spicuously in the wider and deeper impressions of the abdomen, the 
impression of the second tergite, for instance, occupying more than 
basal third, while in wickhami it is very narrow and feeble along 
the basal margin ; in insignis the prothorax is relatively smaller 
and shorter and more strongly punctate, the elytra longer, and the 
antennae rather shorter and less incrassate. 

A, Tl^icklia-IIli n. sp. — Compact, parallel, somewhat stout, feebly convex, 
minutely reticulate but strongly shining, the abdomen polished ; dark piceous- 
brown, the head and abdomen throughout black ; legs pale, yellowish ; antennae 
black, testaceous toward base ; head and pronotum finely, very feebly and 
remotely punctulate ; elytra finely but more distinctly, subasperately and 
rather closely so ; abdomen finely, feebly and remotely punctulate through- 
out ; pubescence rather long, decumbent and sparse. Head nearly circular, 
fully three-fourths as wide as the pronotum, strongly convex, feebly, coales- 
cently biimpressed just behind the line of the antennae, and also with a small 
impression at the center of the vertex between the eyes, the latter moderate, 
at more than their length from the base ; antennae attaining the middle of the 
elytra, moderately incrassate, the basal joint thicker and much longer than 
the second, the latter as long but not quite as thick as the third, both elongate, 
fourth a little longer than wide, tenth scarcely visibly wider than long, eleventh 
ogival, pointed, as long as the two preceding. Prothorax subquadrate, nearly 
one-half wider than long; sides parallel, ftebly arcuate, becoming straight 
in basal half, distinctly convergent and broadly rounded toward apex ; base 
broadly arcuate, distinctly wider than the truncate apex ; basal angles obtuse 
and blunt ; disk scarcely impressed. Elytra one-half wider than long, slightly 
longer than the prothorax, and, at apex, nearly one-fourth wider ; sides dis- 
tinctly divergent and nearly straight from the humeri, which are broadly 
rounded and oblique but not much exposed at base ; disk broadly impressed 
on the suture throughout. Ahdomeii a little longer than the anterior parts, 
fully as wide as the elytra, the sides parallel and nearly straight ; first three 
segments distinctly, subequally but rather narrowly impressed transversely at 
base ; fourth and fifth equal in length. Legs moderate ; first joint of the ante- 
rior tarsi much shorter than the second. Length 3.7 mm. ; width 0.95 mm. 

British Columbia (Stickeen River Canon). Mr. H. F. Wickham. 

In this species the elytra are much more developed than in quad- 
ricollis ; it also has a more distinctly athetoid appearance. The 
mesosternal process is acute, prolonged to the middle of the coxae 
and free at apex ; the metasternum is not produced at all between 



332 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

the coxae, and its anterior line is only very feebly arcuate behind 
the narrow intercoxal space. The surface between the metasternura 
and the mesosternal process is occupied by a large and long- subtri- 
angular isthmus, moderately compressed anteriorl}^ where it extends 
under the apex of the latter, and subtubercularly elevated at its 
centre. This is probably the structure also in quadricoUis, but in 
the type of that species these parts are concealed. 

TARPHIOTA n. gen. 

Body subparallel, moderately wide, flattened above, opaque. 
Head well inserted, very slightl}^ constricted at base, the eyes 
rather large and somewhat convex ; labrum transverse, truncate ; 
infralateral carina completely wanting. Antennae slender, filiform, 
scarcely visibly enlarged near the apex, setose, moniliform, the 
joints generally held slightly asunder by the narrow cylindrical 
basal peduncles ; first three joints rapidly decreasing in length, the 
first thicker ; four to six equal in width, the former slightly elon- 
gate-oval, the latter subglobular ; seven to ten feebly transverse and 
just visibly increasing in width ; eleventh as long as the two pre- 
ceding, conoidal, compressed at tip. Mentum ample, trapezoidal, 
the apex rather broadly, feebly produced and feebly sinuato-trun- 
cate in the middle. Ligula with a deeply bifid process and two 
discal setae, the labial palpi three-jointed, the first and last joints 
longer than the intermediate. Maxillary palpi with the third joint 
a little longer than the second ; fourth distinct, rather stout, bulbose 
at base and apparently with an excessively minute bisetose apical 
appendage. Prothorax transversely subquadrate, narrower than 
the elytra, the hypomera feebly inflexed, broadly triangular and 
greatly visible from the side. Elytra greatly developed. Abdo- 
men linear, the first four tergites impressed at base, the first two 
rather more strongly ; fifth just visibly longer than the fourth. 
Coxae moderately large, the intermediate extremely approximate 
but not contiguous, the mesosternal process long, finely acute and 
attenuate, extending two-thirds of their length, the metasternal 
process acutely produced beneath the mesosternal, the coxae well 
imbedded. Metasternum large, the side-pieces narrow, the inner 
margin arcuately approaching close to the elytra posteriorly. Legs 
rather short, somewhat stout ; anterior and middle tibiae strongly 
spinose externally ; tarsi 4-5-5-jointed, the posterior three-fourths 
as long as the tibiae, with the first four joints slightly elongate and 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 333 

exactly equal, the fifth longer than the two preceding ; ungues long, 
rather strongly, almost evenly arcuate, divergent and irregular, 
being strongly compressed toward the middle, with the inner edge 
thinned out and very acute. 

This interesting genus is probably more closely related to Alianta 
Thorns, than any other, but differs in its spinulose tibiae, longer and 
compressed tarsal claws, much more finely acuminate mesosternal 
process, less incrassate antennae and many other characters. From 
Heterota, Rey, it differs greatly in antennal structure, in the short 
basal joint of the hind tarsi, as well as in sevei:al features enumerated 
under Alianta. From Halobrectha Thorns, it differs in its almost 
filiform antennae and other characters. It is confined to the sea- 
beaches of the Pacific coast. 

T. pa.llidipes u. sp. — Moderately depressed, intense black throughout, 
the antennse piceous-black, paler at base ; legs extremely pale and uniformly 
flavate throughout ; integuments opaque, finely and strongly granulato-reticu- 
late, the abdomen less strongly, more coarsely so and somewhat shining ; 
anterior parts finely and extremely obsoletely, though rather densely, punc- 
tulate, the punctures of the elytra almost wholly obsolete, the abdomen more 
strongly and distinctly, evenly and somewhat closely punctate ; pubescence 
short, rigid, dense, cinereous and conspicuous, longer, finer and less distinct 
on the abdomen. Head as long as wide, slightly but distinctly narrower than 
the prothorax, the eyes convex, at rather more than one-half their length from 
the base ; tempera behind them feebly convergent and arcuate to the base ; 
antennae slender, extending to basal fourth of the elytra. Prothorax scarcely 
more than one-third wider than long ; sides subparallel, broadly, feebly arcuate 
anteriorly, slightly convergent and nearly straight in basal half; basal angles 
slightly obtuse but scarcely at all rounded ; base broadly arcuate, distinctly 
wider than the truncate apex ; disk widest slightly before the middle, broadly 
flattened toward the middle, the median line sometimes obsoletely impressed. 
Elytra large, quadrate, about as long as wide, one-third wider and three-fifths 
longer than the prothorax ; sides subparallel ; humeri rather broadly exposed 
at base. Abdomen distinctly narrower than the elytra and slightly wider than 
the prothorax, as long as the anterior parts ; sides parallel and nearly straight ; 
border moderately thick. Length 2.9 mm. ; width 0.75-0.8 mm. 

California (San Francisco to San Diego). 

This is one of the characteristic aleocharinides of the southern 
California sea-beaches, and the large series in my cabinet indicates 
scarcely any variation. It is allied to the Alaskan Tachyusa fuci- 
cola Makl., — afterwards referred to Homalota Er. nee Mann., — but 
differs in its clear and uniform flavate legs, fucicola having the legs 
piceous, with the knees and tarsi paler. 



334 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Besides these two species, the genus will probably include Homa- 
lota geniculata Makl., specimens of which, or of an extremely closely 
allied form, I have taken abundantly at San Francisco and San 
Diego ; it probably follows the general rule, as observed in Mots- 
chulskium smuatocolle, Aleochara sulcicollis and several other 
well-known species, and extends along the entire coast from Alaska 
to Lower California. This distribution of sea-beach species is 
exactly what might be expected, as the cold inshore current from 
the north maintains the water at practically the same temperature 
throughout. I am at a loss to understand the reference of genicu- 
lata to Eudera Fvl. in our most recently published check-list; it 
does not remotely resemble the representatives of that genus, which 
are related closely to Falagria. 

EURYPRONOTA n. gen. 

Body rather broad, convex. Head moderately inserted, the nuchal 
constriction concealed ; eyes moderate, not prominent, at more than 
their own length from the base, the tempora parallel, nearly straight; 
labrum short, transverse, truncate. Antennae inserted in small foveae 
at a noticeable distance from the eye, feebly incrassate, the basal 
joint compressed ; second and third subequal, the latter obconical, 
more than twice as long as wide ; tenth about as long as wide ; 
eleventh conoidal, as long as the preceding two. Maxillary palpi 
moderate, the third joint much longer than the second ; fourth 
oblique, slender, one-half as long as the third. Ligula with a 
slender apical process forked at apex, the labial palpi apparently 
three-jointed, with the third joint long and slender. Infralateral 
carina obsolete. Mentum trapezoidal, the apex feebly emarginate. 
Prothorax very large, transversely orbicular, the hind angles very 
broadly rounded ; hypomera strongly inflexed, not visible from the 
side. Elytra moderate, much narrower than the prothorax. Abdo- 
men with the basal segment alone impressed ; second longer than 
the first or third ; fifth longer than the fourth. Mesosternal pro- 
cess acute, extending slightly beyond the middle of the coxse, the 
latter contiguous, with the acetabula apparently shallow and ill- 
defined. Metasternum ample ; the episterna parallel ; epimera not 
extending beyond the elytra, moderate, the suture almost obsolete, 
disappearing under the elytra behind the middle. Legs short; tibiae 
moderate, pubescent ; tarsi short, 4-5-5-jointed, the basal joint of 



Coleopferological Notices, V. 335 

the posterior very short, three-fourths as long as the second ; fifth 
fully as long as the two preceding ; ungues small, arcuate, simple. 

The anterior tarsi seem at first sight to be five-jointed, which 
w^ould place this singular genus among the Oxypodates of Rey, 
where its very short basal joint of the hind tarsi would completely 
isolate it. There can be but little doubt, however, that the appa- 
rent fourth joint of the anterior tarsus is rigidly connected with the 
fifth, of which it forms the troublesome basal node, and that Eury- 
pronota is more appropriately placed in the vicinity of Colpodota, 
from which it is readily distinguishable by its very large prothorax 
and short basal joint of the tarsi. 

E. discreta u. sp. — Black, the pronotum, eljtra, legs and antennae 
toward base pale testaceous ; integuments polished, sparsely pubescent, the 
abdomen bristling with long setae toward apex. Head wider than long, sub- 
orbicular, three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, finely, sparsely punctate ; 
antennae nearly one-half as long as the body, joints five to eleven equal in 
width. Prothorax large, transversely subelliptical in form, nearly one-half 
wider than long, the base broadly, evenly arcuate, nearly continuous in cur- 
vature with the sides ; apex truncate, the angles very obtuse and rounded ; 
disk evenly, broadly convex, with feeble trace of a fine longitudinal impressed 
line toward the middle, finely feebly and sparsely punctate. Elytra more 
closely and strongly punctate, transverse, parallel, broadly emarginate at 
base, much narrower than the prothorax and with the suture scarcely more 
than three-fourths as long as the latter. Abdomen as long as the anterior 
parts, as wide as the elytra, parallel, feebly narrowed toward apex, finely, 
very sparsely punctate, more closely so toward base ; border moderate. Length 
1.7-1.9 mm.; width 0.45-0.5 mm. 

Iowa (Cedar Rapids). Dr. E. Brendel. 

Readily recognizable by the very large prothorax, which is visibly 
larger in the male than in the female. The European Colpodota 
fungi Grav., possesses some structural features nearly similar to 
those of the present species, the pronotum for example being trans- 
versely subelliptical, with nearly obsolete hind angles, but the basal 
joint of the hind tarsi is much longer, the prothorax not wider than 
the elytra, and the fourth and fifth abdominal segments equal. 

E» SCOpilla n. sp. — Moderately slender and convex, pale flavo-testaceous, 
the head black ; elytra slightly less pale and more brownish ; abdomen with a 
blackish spot occupying the fourth segment more or less ; integuments shin- 
ing, finely subasperately and closely punctate, the head a little more sparsely 
and the elytra rather more densely and strongly than the pronotum ; abdo- 
men moderately closely punctate; pubescence dense, moderately long, even 
and erect, longer sparser and decumbent on the abdomen, the latter bristling 



336 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

-with long Llack sparse setse toward tip. Head wider than long, three-fifths as 
wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderate, at their own length from the protho- 
rax ; infralateral carina fine and entire ; antennze slender, feebly incrassate, 
as long as the prothorax and elytra, bristling with long sparse setse, first joint 
a little longer and thicker than the second, the latter slightly longer than the 
third, which is nearly twice as long as wide, four to ten feebly obconical, the 
latter slightly wider than long, eleventh ogival, as long as the two preceding. 
Prothorax large, three fourths wider than long, widest at basal third, the sides 
broadly arcuate, gradually convergent toward apex ; base slightly wider than 
the apex, both broadly arcuate; basal angles obtuse and rounded but not 
obliterated ; disk evenly convex, without trace of impression. Elytra as long 
as the prothorax and distinctly narrower, one-half wider than long ; sides 
very feebly divergent from the base, scarcely visibly arcuate; disk slightly 
impressed on the suture behind the scutellum. Abdomen a little longer than 
the anterior parts, slightly narrower than the elytra ; sides subparallel, becom- 
ing gradually convergent behind ; first segment impressed at base, the second 
feebly, the third unimpressed ; fifth a little longer than the fourth. Length 
1.6 mm. ; width 0.4 mm. 

Rhode Island (Boston Neck). 

This species is apparently congeneric with the preceding, although 
the vestiture is erect and not decumbent, and the posterior tarsi 
shorter, with the two basal joints subequal in length, 

COLPOSURA n. gen. 

Body narrow, elongate, rather convex, with a somewhat pro- 
nounced longitudinal development of abdomen. Head triangular, 
widest behind, not inserted, borne on a distinct but somewhat wide 
and very short neck, the base nearly in contact with the pronotum 
throughout; eyes moderate; infralateral carina completely want- 
ing. Antennae rather short, very feebly incrassate, the three basal 
joints more or less elongate. Gular sutures straight, convergent 
from the base nearly to the support of the mentum, then divergent 
to the sides of the buccal opening. Mentum small, transversely 
trapezoidal, truncate. Ligula with a small rounded thick median 
lobe, apparently perfectly simple, the labial palpi three-jointed, with 
the middle joint shortest. .Maxillary palpi with the second joint 
rather small, slender, the third much longer, thicker, oval, con- 
stricted at base ; fourth small, subulate. Prothorax parallel, the 
hypomera moderately inflexed, partially visible from the side. 
Elytra well developed. Abdomen long, the first tergite rather 
widely but feebly, the second and third narrowly and obsoletely, 
impressed at base, the fifth much longer than the fourth; sixth 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 337 

segment large and greatly exposed, the ventral plate folded over 
dorsally for an unusually great distance ; seventh with rather com- 
plex lateral lobes. Coxae moderate in size, the intermediate large, 
approximate but not contiguous, the mesosternal process short and 
broadly triangular, advancing for one-half their length, the point 
free, extremely fine and attenuate. Metasternum ample, not pro- 
duced at all between the coxae, there being simply a very feeble 
arcuation opposite the coxal opening, the space thence to the meso- 
sternum transversely convex. Legs short; tibiae rather slender; 
tarsi 4-5-5-jointed, the posterior distinctly shorter than the tibiae, 
with the first joint moderately elongate, the first four decreasing 
distinctly and uniformly in length ; ungues small, arcuate and 
simple. 

The general structure of this genus allies it intimately with 
Amischa Thoms., from w^hich it differs in the more elongate 
abdominal segments, much more developed sixth segment, and, 
especially, in the structure of the metasternum between the middle 
coxae, which in Amischa is produced and acute. It is confined 
apparently to the arid mountain regions of the west. The three 
species described below may be thus distinguished among them- 
selves : — 

Elytral suture not in the least longer than the pronotum. 

Head at base but slightly narrower than the pronotum praBlonga 

Head scarcely two-thirds as wide as the pronotum parviceps 

Elytral suture slightly longer than the pronotum angusta. 

In reality only the first of these species can be regarded as the 
type of Colposura, parviceps and angusta having the metasternum 
finely produced between the coxae ; these therefore are much closer 
still to Amischa. I have attached them provisionally to Colpo- 
sura, however, because of their general resemblance to prselonga, 
and because they differ from Amischa in their absolutely contigu- 
ous middle coxae and more elongate ventral segments. 

C praelonga n. sp. — Narrow, parallel, pale ochreous-yellow throughout, 
the head piceous ; first five tergites blackish except at apex ; anterior parts 
finely reticulate, moderately shining, finely, feebly, rather closely but almost 
imperceptibly punctate, the abdomen more shining, coarsely but feebly, sub- 
imbricately sculptured ; pubescence throughout fine short and decumbent. 
Head triangular, not quite as long as wide, the neck scarcely two-fifths as wide 
as the subbasal width, the latter but slightly, though distinctly, less than the 
prothorax ; base subtruncate ; basal angles rather narrowly rounded ; sides 



338 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

thence convergent, the eyes at one-half more than their own length from the 
base ; antennse very slightly longer than the head and prothorax, cylindrical, 
rather slender and loose, the first two joints elongate, suhequal, the third 
shorter, obconical, strongly constricted at base and longer than wide, fourth 
wider, slightly transverse, five to ten still "a little wider, equal, moderately 
transverse, eleventh suboval, barely as long as the two preceding, the apex 
obliquely obtuse and asymmetrically pointed. Prothorax one- third wider than 
long ; sides parallel, feebly, evenly arcuate ; apical angles rounded ; apex 
strongly oblique to the neck ; basal angles very obtuse and blunt ; base 
broadly arcuate ; disk feebly convex, with a rather large and feeble impres- 
sion in the middle before the base. Elytra slightly transverse, just percepti- 
bly wider and longer than the prothorax ; sides subparallel ; humeri scarcely 
at all exposed ; disk transversely, feebly convex, not impressed. Abdomen 
much longer than the anterior parts, very slightly narrower than the elytra ; 
sides perfectly parallel and straight to the apex of the fifth segment, the latter 
as densely sculptured as the others. Length (abdomen strongly exserted) 
2.8 mm. ; width 0.4 mm. 

Wyoming (Cheyenne). Mr. H. F. Wickham. 

The antebasal abdominal tergite is exserted, corneous and well 
developed in this species. A single specimen, probably the female, 
the anal segment having an ogival median lobe and quite complex 
lateral alse. 

C parTiceps n. sp. — Slender, dark brown, the head and abdomen 
blackish except at the apices of the segments ; antennse toward base and legs 
pale ; anterior parts densely reticulate and feebly shining, the head and pro- 
notum rather densely but feebly and indistinctly punctate, the elytra more 
distinctly but finely, very densely, granularly punctate ; abdomen more shin- 
ing, closely, imbricately punctate ; pubescence very short, fine, rather dense. 
Head small, as long as wide, two-thirds as wide as the prothorax, widest at 
base, the neck deeply, acutely constricted across the dorsal surface at the base 
of the occiput ; eyes before the middle ; antennjB scarcely longer than the 
head and prothorax, the third joint scarcely perceptibly shorter than the 
second, evenly, strongly obconical, twice as long as wide, outer joints scarcely 
increasing in width, loosely connected, distinctly transverse, eleventh sub- 
quadrate, as long as the two preceding, obliquely, asymmetrically acuminate 
at apex. Prothorax one-half wider than long ; sides subparallel, broadly 
evenly and feebly arcuate ; base broadly arcuate, rather wider than the apex ; 
basal angles distinct but rounded ; disk broadly, strongly convex, broadly 
flattened in the middle toward base, just before which there is a distinct sub- 
transverse impression. Elytra wider than long, just visibly wider and slightly 
longer than the prothorax ; humeri not exposed at base. Abdomen much longer 
than the anterior parts, distinctly narrower than the elytra ; sides straight 
and parallel to the apex of the fifth segment. Posterior tarsi very slender, 
only slightly shorter than the tibise. Length 2.4 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 339 

Washington State (Spokane). Mr. Wickham. 

Distinguishable readily from the preceding by its broader form, 
more transverse prothorax, smaller and slightly less triangular head, 
relatively longer third antennal joint, and darker color. The type 
seems to be a female, and the sixth segment is, on the median line, 
very nearly as long as the jfifth. 

C» anglista n. sp. — Slender, dark brown, the head and abdomen darker 
except at the apices of the segments ; legs and antennae pale, the latter slightly 
infuscate toward tip ; anterior parts finely, densely reticulate and somewhat 
dull, the head and pronotum finely and very indistinctly punctulate, the 
elytra more distinctly but still very finely and densely so ; abdomen uniformly 
and closely, imbricately sculptured throughout, more shining; pubescence 
fine, short and close, less dense on the abdomen. Head nearly as long as wide, 
only slightly but distinctly narrower than the prothorax, gradually narrowed 
anteriorly from the rounded basal angles, the neck only feebly constricted at 
the base of the occiput ; eyes before the middle ; antennae distinctly longer 
than the head and prothorax, in structure similar to the preceding species, 
the third joint scarcely visibly shorter than the second, outer joints equal in 
width, distinctly transverse. Prothorax one-third wider than long ; sides 
parallel, broadly, feebly, evenly arcuate ; base broadly arcuate, equal in 
width to the apex ; basal angles distinct but rounded ; disk convex, not 
flattened in the middle, but with a deep transversely oval impression before 
the base. Elytra scarcely visibly wider but distinctly longer than the pro- 
thorax, wider than long, the sides nearly parallel and straight ; humeri 
obliquely, feebly rounded, not exposed at base ; disk feebly impressed behind 
the scutellum. Abdomen much longer than the anterior parts, distinctly 
narrower than the elytra, the sides parallel and straight. Length 2.0 mm. ; 
width 0.4 mm. 

Nevada (Elko). Mr. Wickham. 

This species is smaller than the others and the elytra are longer, 
the antennae are also more elongate. 

TRICHIUSA n. gen. 

Body stout, compact, convex, bristling with long sparse hairs. 
Head rather small, deflexed, the eyes well developed, at their own 
length from the base ; labrum transverse, truncate with rounded 
angles. Mandibles moderate, the apices very slender and extremely 
acute, simple. Infralateral carina obsolete. Antennae incrassate, 
bristling with very long setag, the basal joint thicker and very much 
longer than the second, the latter distinctly larger and longer than 
the third, both the latter constricted at base ; four to ten gradually 
wider, transverse; tenth nearly twice as wide as long; eleventh 



340 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

very obtuse, barely as long as the two preceding ; outer joints 
somewhat distant and perfoliate. Mentum ample, trapezoidal, 
truncate. Maxillary palpi with the third joint very much longer 
and thicker than the second ; fourth small, very slender, oblique. 
Ligula with two minute and subparallel slender processes descend- 
ing subvertically from the apex, also with two long setae ; labial 
palpi distinctly three-jointed, the first stouter and much longer than 
the second ; third slender, nearly as long as the first two. Protho- 
rax rather small, transverse, the hypomera strongly inflexed but in 
part visible from the side. Elytra wide, well developed, transverse. 
Abdomen broad, parallel, the first three dorsals narrowly and deeply 
impressed at base, fourth and fifth equal. Middle coxae very widely 
separated, the mesosternal process scarcely more than one-third as 
wide as the interval separating them, gradually, feebly deflexed, 
abruptly and obtusely pointed or narrowly rounded at apex, ex- 
tending through three-fourths of the coxal length, with its apex 
superposed upon the broadly rounded apex of the very short and 
wide metasternal process. Metasternum well developed, the side- 
pieces parallel, the epimera projecting slightly behind the elytra. 
Legs short but slender, the tarsi short, slender, distinctly 4-5-5- 
jointed, the four basal joints of the posterior equal, the fifth longer 
than the preceding two combined ; ungues rather long, slender, 
feebly arcuate. 

The wide vacant space separating the middle coxae from the sides 
of the mesosternal process is probably a constant feature. This 
genus belongs near Hoplandria, from which it differs in habitus, in 
the parallel sides and distinct basal angles of the prothorax, much 
longer antennae with a longer basal joint, entire absence of the 
terminal appendage of the fourth palpal joint, and, especially, in 
the form of the ligula, which in Hoplandria has a long slender 
almost simple terminal process ; it also differs in its narrow, 
obtusely pointed mesosternal process and parallel abdomen. 

Several of the South and Central American species described 
under the name Brachida, will probably have to be referred to 
Trichiusa ; in fact the tuberculate external apical angles of the 
elytra in Brachida batesi Shp,, points almost unmistakably to a 
relationship with Hoplandria.* In the European representative of 

^ In this connection the small tubercles near the inner apical angles of the 
elytra in Brachida notha are remarkable, in view of the four-jointed middle 
tarsi. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 841 

Brachida noiha before me, the middle tarsi are clearly four-jointed, 
but they are equally plainly five-jointed in Trichiusa, and the two 
genera differ completely in the form and relations of the intermeso- 
coxal sclerites. 

Although most closely allied to Hoplandria, the species of Tri- 
chiusa bear a striking resemblance to Gyrophaena, having the same 
stout compact form, but may be known by the long hirsute vesti- 
ture and the distinctly five-jointed middle tarsi. Of the following 
five species, the first is to be considered the type; they are however 
all congeneric: — 

Aiiteimse strongly incrassate and stout from the fourth joint, which is strongly 
transverse COmpacta 

Antennae not so thick, more gradually and feebly incrassate, the fourth joint 
subglobular and only slightly transverse. 
Body black throughout. 

Prothorax at base nearly as wide as the elytra, the humeri scarcely at 
all exposed. 
Deflexed apical angles of the prothorax obtuse but only very narrowly 
rounded ; elytral vestiture shorter, coarser and sab3.eeumbent, a few 

long erect setae bristling along the sides of the body setigera 

Deflexed apical angles rounded ; vestiture throughout the body con- 
sisting of long equal closely placed and erect hairs, without longer 

bristling setse along the sides , pilosa 

Prothorax at base narrower than the elytra, the humeri distinctly ex- 
posed ; vestiture rather long but decumbent ; lateral setse subobsolete. 

robustula 

Body pale rufo-testaceous throughout, with a small piceous spot toward the 

middle of the fourth tergite ; prothorax small ; humeri broadly exposed ; 

vestiture very long, sparse but shaggy parTicollis 

The species appear to be rather numerous, and others are perhaps 
known at present in cabinets. 

T, compacta n. sp. — Stout, subparallel, convex, shining, the elytra 
polished, black, the antennse toward base, elytra, apical parts of the first 
three tergites and legs paler, rufo-testaceous ; head and pronotum very 
minutely sparsely punctate, the former with some larger punctures, the 
latter with a few scattered large punctures toward base ; elytra rather 
coarsely, sparsely and somewhat irregularly punctured ; abdomen sparsely, 
minutely granulato-punctate, the impressed parts subimpunctate ; pubescence 
rather long, sparse and coarse. Head three-fourths as wide as the prothorax, 
wider than long, with a feeble central impression, the antennae longer than 
the prothorax and elytra, strongly incrassate. Prothorax a little less than 
twice as wide as long ; sides subparallel, arcuate ; base and apex broadly, 
strongly arcuate ; apical angles moderately deflexed, broadly rounded ; basal 



342 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

obtuse but distinct, not blunt ; disk strongly convex, finely beaded at tbe 
sides and base, very obsoletely impressed in the middle before the base. 
Elytra much wider than long, one-fourth wider and two-fifths longer than the 
prothorax ; sides parallel, feebly arcuate ; humeri slightly exposed. Abdomen 
longer than the anterior parts, very nearly as wide as the elytra ; sides parallel, 
just visibly arcuate ; border moderate ; under surface densely, coarsely fulvo- 
pubescent. Legs clothed sparsely with long hairs, the upper sides of the 
femora and trochanters polished, impunctate and glabrous. Length 2.0 mm. ; 
width 0.7 mm. 

District of Columbia. 

One of the three specimens has the pronotum also rufous, and 
another has the pronotum and elytra black ; this latter specimen 
has the prothorax somewhat smaller, the elytra fully one-third 
wider than that part, and with longer, more erect pubescence. It 
is probably a variable species, with considerable sexual disparity 
also, although the sexual marks at the apex of the venter are appa- 
rently very feeble, and there are none on the tergum in the examples 
before me. 

T. setigera n. sp.— Moderately stout and convex, thick, subparallel, 
black, the legs and antennae toward base pale, flavescent ; integuments feebly 
reticulate throughout but polished, the head and pronotum finely, sparsely 
punctate, the elytra more strongly but simply and not very densely so, the 
abdomen sparsely and asperately ; pubescence long and conspicuous. Head 
wider than long, only slightly but distinctly narrower than the prothorax ; 
eyes rather prominent ; tempora equal to them in length and feebly convergent 
and arcuate to the base ; surface flattened ; antennae strongly setose, feebly, 
gradually incrassate, about attaining basal third of the elytra, the first joint 
much longer than the second, the latter thicker and a little longer than the 
third, fourth slightly wider than long, subquadrate, tenth twice as wide as 
the fourth and rather strongly transverse. Prothorax transversely subrect- 
angular, nearly two-thirds wider than long ; sides parallel, broadly arcuate ; 
base and apex subequal, broadly, strongly arcuate ; basal angles slightly 
obtuse and distinct ; disk strongly, evenly convex, very feebly impressed in 
the middle toward base. Elytra transverse, about one-fourth wider and nearly 
one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides quite perceptibly divergent from 
the base ; disk feebly convex. Abdomen, at the middle, as wide as the elytra, 
but at base distinctly narrower, a little longer than the anterior parts; sides 
parallel and arcuate ; segments short, transverse, all equal in length, the 
first three strongly, subequally impressed at base; border strong. Length 
1.65 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

New Jersey. 

Smaller and rather more slender than compacta, to which it is 
perhaps most strongly allied, and with strikingly different antennal 
structure. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 343 

T. pilosa n. sp. — Suboval, convex, polished, black throughout ; legs and 
antennae toward base pale ; integuments finely, rather strongly reticulate 
throughout ; head and pronotum subimpunctate ; elytra finely, very feebly, 
rather closely so, the abdomen finely, very sparsely and granularly ; pubes- 
cence even in length, long, erect, moderately dense, conspicuous. Head nearly 
as long as wide, small, not more than two- thirds as wide as the prothorax ; 
eyes prominent ; tempora longer than the eye, feebly convergent and straight 
behind them, rounded at base : surface broadly, strongly impressed in the 
middle ; antennse stout, bristling, but slightly longer than the head and pro- 
thorax, the first joint distinctly longer than the second, the latter much longer 
than the third, which is scarcely at all longer than wide, constricted at base, 
fourth a little wider than long, four to six difl"ering but little, seven to ten 
larger, more pubescent, increasing more rapidly in width, tenth about twice 
as wide as long, eleventh scarcely as long as the two preceding. Prothorax 
fully two-thirds wider than long, sides strongly cojivergent and arcuate from 
base to apex ; base very much wider than the apex, both strongly arcuate ; 
basal angles very obtuse but distinct ; disk strongly convex, with three ex- 
tremely obsolete parallel median longitudinal impressions, and a very obsolete 
transverse impression before the base. Elytra wider than long, one-third 
wider and nearly one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides perceptibly 
divergent from the base and broadly arcuate ; disk impressed behind the 
scutellum. Abdomen in the middle as wide as the elytra, at base very slightly 
narrower, as long as the anterior parts. Length 1.4 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 

Rhode Island (Boston Neck). 

A very interesting species, wholly different from the preceding 
in the form of the prothorax, and from robustula in its narrower 
form, erect hirsute vestiture and other structural characters. Two 
specimens. The impressions of the pronotum are extremely feeble, 
and join the transverse subbasal impression ; in one of the specimens 
the longitudinal impressions are obsolete, and at best they can be 
only faintly seen. 

T. rol>llstllla n. sp. — Rather stout and convex, suboval, black, the legs 
and antennse toward base pale ; integuments densely and strongly reticulate 
and alutaceous, the head and abdomen less strongly so and shining ; head 
subimpunctate ; pronotum very minutely and feebly so, the elytra more 
strongly densely and subasperately but still very finely, the abdomen sparsely, 
extremely finely and subasperately ; pubescence rather long, decumbent, con- 
spicuous, ashy in color, very sparse on the head and abdomen. Head rather 
small, convex, impressed in the centre, scarcely three-fourths as wide as the 
prothorax, wider than long ; eyes at somewhat more than their own length 
from the base, not very prominent, the tempora perfectly parallel and straight 
behind them, then broadly rounded to the base ; antennse attaining basal 
third of the elytra, the basal joint longer than the second, the latter as long 
as the next two, fourth slightly wider than long, outer joints gradually 



344 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

strongly transverse and perfoliate. Prothorax transversely oval, tliree-fourtlis 
wider than long, the sides rounded and convergent anteriorly, becoming par- 
allel and nearly straight in basal half ; base slightly bnt distinctly wider than 
the apex, both strongly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse and blunt ; disk strongly 
convex, the median line feebly impressed and with a feeble transverse impres- 
sion before the base. Elytra transverse, nearly one-half wider and two-fifths 
longer than the prothorax ; sides slightly divergent and arcuate from the 
humeri, the latter narrowly rounded, rather broadly exposed at base ; disk 
convex, very broadly, feebly impressed near the scutellum. Abdomen short, 
when moderately contracted not as long as the anterior parts, as wide as the 
elytra ; border rather strong and thick. Length 1.35 mm.; width 0.55 mm. 

Iowa (Cedar Rapids). Dr. E. Brendel. 

The large series before me exhibits scarcely any variation, ev^en 
in size. A specimen which I took at Galveston, Texas, differs but 
very slightly and is probably conspecific. 

T. parvicollis n. sp. — Oblong, convex, pale rufo-testaceous throughout, 
with the exception of a small piceous cloud on the fourth tergite ; integuments 
strongly shining, the head and pronotum subimpunctate, the elytra very 
minutely, rather closely but scarcely distinguishably, the abdomen minutely, 
rather closely and subasperately ; vestiture long, erect, ashy and bristling 
from every part of the body. Head wider than long, strongly impressed in 
the centre, fully three-fourths as wide as the prothorax, the eyes rather large, 
at scarcely more than their own length from the base ; tempora feebly con- 
vergent and arcuate behind them to the very broad neck ; antennae longer, 
unusually slender, extending to the middle of the elytra, the first joint longer 
than the second, the latter scarcely longer but thicker than the third, four to 
six moniliform, subglobular, nearly similar, seven to ten very slightly increas- 
ing in width, the tenth slightly transverse, eleventh small, ovoidal, obtusely 
acuminate, only one-half longer than the tenth. Prothorax small, transverse, 
three-fifths wider than long, the sides strongly convergent, evenly and moder- 
ately arcuate from base to apex ; base much broader and more strongly arcuate 
than the apex ; basal angles obtuse and blunt ; disk strongly convex, feebly 
impressed along the median line toward base only. Elytra strongly transverse, 
three-fifths wider and two-fifths longer than the prothorax ; sides but feebly 
divergent and slightly arcuate from the humeri, which are right, scarcely 
rounded and broadly, transversely exposed at base. Abdomen scarcely as long 
as the anterior parts, in the middle as wide as the elytra, but at base distinctly 
narrower ; sides parallel and arcuate ; border thick ; posterior margins of 
tergites three and four broadly, feebly sinuate in circular arc throughout the 
width ; fifth distinctly longer than the fourth, transverse at apex. Posterior 
tarsi two-thirds as long as the tibiae, the first four joints equal, the fifth as long 
as the preceding two. Length 1.7 mm. ; width 0.65 mm. 

Delaware. 

This species is somewhat aberrant in its longer, more slender and 
less incrassate antennae, and longer fifth ventral segment. It is 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 345 

however congeneric without doubt. A single specimen of undeter- 
mined sex. 

PLATAiVDItIA n. gen. 

Body rather broad, fusiform. Head well inserted, not constricted 
at base, the eyes large, oval ; infralateral carina strong, entire. 
Antennse rather short, slender, becoming gradually strongly incras- 
sate in apical half. Mentum rather large, transversely trapezoidal, 
broadly sinuato-truncate at apex. Ligula with a slender process 
which is deeply forked at apex, each lobe bearing at its apex a 
slender flexible and attenuate appendage. Labial palpi three-jointed, 
the basal joint thick, long, cylindrical, obliquely truncate at apex; 
third slender, with a terminal appendage. Maxillary palpi well 
developed, the third joint slightly longer than the second, the fourth 
long and distinct, with a slender supplementary appendage. Pro- 
thorax nearly as in Hoplandria, the hypomera strongly inflexed and 
invisible from the side. Elytra well developed. Abdomen gradu- 
ally narrowed from the base ; border strong, the two basal tergites 
strongly but rather narrowly impressed at base, the third finely and 
very feebly so ; fifth much longer than the fourth ; sixth distinct 
and wide. Middle coxas large, oblique, deeply inserted, narrowly 
separated, the mesosternal process very long and acutely attenuate, 
extending very nearly to the tips of the coxse, with its apex free 
and overlapping the apex of the rather short but acute metasternal 
process. Metasternum large, the parapleurae moderately wide, per- 
fectly parallel, the epimera extending scarcely at all behind the 
elytra. Legs moderate in length, the tibiae slender ; tarsi long, 
slender, 4-5-5-jointed, the posterior very nearly as long as the tibiae, 
with the basal joint elongate, the first four decreasing rapidly in 
length, the fifth somewhat longer and much more slender than the 
first; ungues moderately long, slender, rather strongly arcuate and 
divaricate. 

The paraglossse are not distinct in the type and appear to be 
much less developed than in Hoplandria and Platonica, with which 
this genus is to be associated. It differs from the first in the form of 
the ligula and structure of the tarsi, and from the latter altogether 
in the structure of the mesocoxal sclerites. In Hoplandria ochracea 
the process of the ligula is long and slender, perfectly cylindrical, 
but bearing at its extreme tip two very minute subparallel and 
apparently setiform appendages, almost exactly as in the American 
species of Echidnoglossa. 

Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Oct. 1893.— 23 



346 Coleopterological Notices, F, 

P. mormoilicsi n. sp. — Rather broad, somewhat shining, the abdomen 
polished, dark rufo-piceous in color, the abdomen black throughout ; legs dark, 
rufescent ; antennse black, pale toward base ; head and pronotum minutely, 
not densely, evenly punctate, the elytra hardly less minutely and rather more 
sparsely, but more distinctly so ; abdomen finely, evenly, somewhat closely 
punctate throughout, and with somewhat well-marked imbricate sculpture ; 
pubescence short, subrecumbent, rather dense but not conspicuous, longer 
and sparser on the abdomen. Head small, nearly as long as wide, slightly 
more than one-half as wide as the prothorax, the eyes at about one-half of 
their length from the base ; antennse about as long as the head and prothorax, 
the first three joints subequal in length, the first stouter, cylindrical, third 
one-half longer than the fourth which is distinctly longer than wide, fifth 
subquadrate, joints five to ten gradually and rapidly broader, the tenth twice 
as wide as long, eleventh as long as the two preceding, moderately pointed at 
apex. Prothorax three-fourths wider than long, the sides rounded and parallel 
near the base, then strongly convergent and nearly straight to the apex ; basal 
angles very obtuse and blunt ; base broadly evenly and strongly arcuate, 
much wider than the subtruncate apex : disk strongly convex, perfectly even, 
unimpressed. Elytra two-fifths wider than long, at apex about one-fifth wider 
than the prothorax, nearly one-half longer than the latter ; humeri obliquely, 
feebly rounded externally ; disk broadly, indefinitely impressed behind the 
scutellum. Abdomen at base quite distinctly narrower than the elytra, much 
longer than the anterior-parts. Length 2.7 mm. ; width 0.8 mm. 

Utah (Provo). Mr. H. F. Wickham. 

The single type before me is a male, having a long distinct carina 
on the fifth tergite and another, only slightly shorter, on the sixth ; 
elytral angles and second segment not in the least modified. 

GNYPETA Thoms. 

A genus allied to Tachyusa and comprising but few species at 
present. 

Cr. atrolucens n. sp. — Polished, intense black, throughout; base and 
apex of the tibiae and tarsi paler ; antennae not paler at base ; pubescence 
not very dense, short, stiflf, erect, pale brown in color and not conspicuous. 
Head slightly wider than long, finely, sparsely punctate, the vertex broadly, 
feebly impressed in the middle ; eyes large, somewhat convex, setose, at less 
than their own length from the base ; tempora broadly rounded at base to the 
very wide neck ; antennse long, slender, feebly incrassate, nearly two-fifths as 
long as the body. Prothorax about one-third wider than long, widest at apical 
third where the sides are narrowly rounded and somewhat prominent, thence 
feebly convergent and distinctly sinuate to the basal angles, the latter obtuse 
but not rounded ; base broadly arcuate, wider than the apex ; disk convex, 
feebly impressed in a transversely oval discal area before the scutellum. 
Elytra nearly one-half wider and longer than the prothorax, moderately trans- 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 347 

verse, parallel, each broadly feebly and obliquely sigmoid at apex; humeri 
broadly exposed and transverse at base ; disk minutely, feebly punctate like 
the pronotura, broadly impressed behind the scutellum. Abdomen parallel, 
slightly longer than the anterior parts, much narrower than the elytra, rather 
wider than the prothorax, finely, feebly, almost evenly, not densely punctate, 
the transverse impressions of the three basal segments equal, strong, coarsely 
but very sparsely punctate ; border thick, not very deep. Legs rather long 
and slender, the tarsi moderate in length. Length 2.6 mm. ; width 0.75 mm. 

New York. 

Closely resembles the European carbonaria Mann., but differs in 
its relatively larger head and smaller prothorax, much more widely 
exposed elytral humeri and shorter, much less conspicuous pubes- 
cence. 

ANEUROTA n. gen. 

Body linear and rather depressed. Head large, transverse at 
base, feebly sinuate in the middle, borne on an extremely short, 
narrow neck which is less than one-fourth as wide as the base; eyes 
large, feebly convex, before the middle ; tempora long, parallel, 
feebly arcuate. Antennae widely separated, feebly incrassate, the 
second joint nearly as long as the next two; third strongly obconi- 
cal, nearly twice as long as wide; tenth slightly wider than long. 
Labrum short, truncate. Infralateral carina completely obsolete ; 
gular sutures distant, parallel. Mentum very short, strongly trans- 
verse, trapezoidal, deeply sinuate at apex, the sinus filled with a 
transparent hypoglottis. Maxillary palpi rather small and slender, 
the fourth joint minute, oblique. Ligula not distinct, the labial 
palpi very small, apparently three-jointed. Prothorax small, cordi- 
form, the flanks feebly inflexed and not separated by a fine line; 
base finely and distinctly margined, the basal angles sharply defined. 
Elytra well developed. Abdomen much shorter than the anterior 
parts, the sides straight and almost imperceptibly divergent from 
base to apex ; first three segments deeply impressed and impunctate 
at base ; fourth and fifth equal and a little longer, unimpressed. 
Prosternum moderately developed before the coxae. Middle coxae 
separated by one-third of their width, the acetabula deep and well- 
defined ; mesosternal process narrowly truncate and extending 
slightly beyond the middle. Legs short but rather slender ; tarsi 
4-5-5-jointed, the posterior distinctly shorter than the tibiae, with 
the basal joint moderate, not longer than the next two. 

The type of this genus is a minute species having a peculiar 



848 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

linear depressed form. It is allied to Cardiola, but differs in its 
parallel form, in the more elongate second antennal joint, more 
prolonged mesosternal process, shorter basal joint of the hind tarsi, 
and in having a fine distinct basal margin of the pronotum with 
well-defined basal angles. It resembles Cardiola in the absence of 
a dividing line between the pronotum and its inflexed flanks. 

A. SUlcifrons n. sp. — Polislied, piceous-black, the antennae concolorous 
tlirougliout ; elytra and legs dark piceous-brown ; punctures very minute 
sparse and subgranuliform, except on the abdomen, where they are a little 
larger, more distinct and nearly simple or slightly asperate ; pubescence fine 
and sparse but rather long and distinct. Head slightly longer and much 
wider than the prothorax, the eyes at one-half more than their own length 
from the base ; antennae about as long as the head and prothorax ; surface 
with a coarse deeply excavated groove extending from the apical margin 
behind the middle, there becoming finer to the base. Prothorax fully as long 
as wide, widest at apical fourth where the sides are very strongly rounded, 
thence extremely oblique to the neck and distinctly convergent and nearly 
straight to the base, the latter truncate ; disk transversely convex, with a 
deep median sulcus extending from base to apex. Elytra about as large as the 
head, distinctly wider and longer than the prothorax, subquadrate, parallel 
and straight at the sides ; humeri broadly exposed at base ; disk flat, narrowly 
impressed along the suture. Abdomen at base distinctly narrower than the 
elytra, but, at apex, subequal in width ; border thin, nearly vertical. Length 
1.4 mm. ; width 0.3 mm. 

Florida. 

The deep sulcus of the front may be a sexual peculiarity, in part 
at least. 

BOLITOCHARIDES. 
Antennae 11 -jointed ; tarsi 4-4-5-jointed. 

APHELOOLOSSA n. gen. 

Body elongate, subparallel and subdepressed. Head rather large, 
transverse, narrowed toward base but scarcely constricted, the eyes 
rather large, convex, setose and prominent, at less than their own 
length from the base ; infralateral carina feebly traceable, inter- 
rupted and nearly obsolete, antennae rather long, thick, feebly incras- 
sate, finely pubescent, bristling w^ith long sparse setae, the basal 
joint thicker and much longer than the second or third, the latter 
equal, elongate ; fourth subquadrate ; tenth one-third wider than 
long ; eleventh ogival, as long as the two preceding. Mentum 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 349 

large, feebly transverse, trapezoidal, broadly impressed laterally, 
the apex strongly emarginate throughout the width. Ligula appa- 
rently with a small acuminate apical process ; labial palpi very 
long, two-jointed, the second about twice as long as the first, slen- 
der, somewhat contorted toward apex. Maxillary palpi normal. 
Prothorax sabparallel, the sides feebly convergent toward base, 
and, viewed sublaterally, broadly, strongly sinuate before the basal 
angles; hypomera feebly inflexed, broadly visible from the side, 
entire, broad behind. Elytra well developed, parallel. Abdomen 
parallel, the first three segments impressed at base, the fourth and 
fifth equal. Anterior coxae moderate ; intermediate widely sepa- 
rated, the mesosternal process extending to the middle, flat, broadly 
rounded at apex, the latter slightly superposed on the tip of the 
broad metasternal process ; acetabula deep, sharply defined, Meta- 
sternum large and long, the side pieces moderate in width, parallel. 
Legs rather short ; tibiae clothed densely and evenly with short 
stiff inclined setae, with a very long black seta just behind the 
middle and another near the tip externally; tarsi 4-4-5 jointed, 
slender, the last joint of the anterior and intermediate much longer 
than the basal three ; posterior much shorter than the tibiae, but 
very slender, the four basal joints exactly equal, fifth very long but 
distinctly shorter than the first four together ; claws very long, 
slender, feebly arcuate. 

This genus appears to be allied to the European Diestota, but 
differs in the subobsolete infralateral carina of the head, longer, less 
incrassate antennae, emarginate mentum, more developed proster- 
num and longer terminal joint of the tarsi. Diestota fanehr is Shp., 
will probably have to be referred to Apheloglossa. 

A. rufipennis n. sp. — Sabparallel, black, basal parts of the antennae 
and legs throughout dark rufo-testaceous ; elytra rufous, clouded with blackish 
in a broad subtriangular basal area and externally toward apex ; head and 
pronotum minutely, strongly granulato-reticulate and perfectly opaque, finely, 
closely but almost imperceptibly punctate ; elytra finely reticulate, more aluta- 
ceous, minutely, very densely, subasperately but not very plainly punctate, 
the abdomen shining, finely, closely, distinctly punctate, more sparsely toward 
tip ; pubescence anteriorly short, suberect, dense but not conspicuous, still 
denser on the elytra, longer but sparse on the abdomen. Head transverse, 
fully four-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; antennae nearly as long as the pro- 
thorax and elytra together, very widely distant at base. Prothorax transverse, 
three-fifths wider than long, the sides from above subparallel, broadly, evenly 
arcuate; apex truncate, just visibly narrower than the base, the apical angles 
obtuse but distinct from above ; base broadly, feebly arcuate ; basal angles 



350 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

obtuse but very distinct, not in tbe least blunt; disk even, unimpressed, 
feebly convex. Elytra transverse, nearly one-third wider and one-half longer 
than the prothorax ; sides parallel, feebly arcuate; humeri broadly exposed 
at base ; disk flattened, very feebly, broadly impressed on the suture toward 
base. Abdomen distinctly longer than the anterior parts, much narrower than 
the elytra ; sides parallel, nearly straight ; border thick ; under surface 
finely, densely punctate and densely clothed with long decumbent pubescence. 
Posterior tarsi three-fourths as long as the tibiae. Length 3.3-3.6 mm. ; width 
0.85 mm. 

Arizona (Benson). Mr. G. W. Dunn. 

The general appearance of this insect suggests a community of 
habit with the large Maseocharee of the same regions. 

PLACUSA Erichs. 

The following species perfectly resembles the European compla- 
nata, but is narrower, with shorter antennae, and denser and still 
more obscure sculpture. 

P. tacomaB n. sp. — Oblong-elongate, strongly depressed, black through- 
out, the legs and antennae piceous, the elytra frequently paler; integuments 
extremely dull opaque and minutely, densely granulato-reticulate, the elytra 
rather less opaque, the abdomen shining ; head and pronotum very minutely, 
extremely densely and almost undistinguishably punctate, the elytra rather 
less minutely, extremely densely and more visibly so, the abdomen distinctly 
bat very densely punctate, more sparsely near the apex ; pubescence very 
minute and scarcely noticeable. Head large, wider than long, distinctly nar- 
rower than the prothorax, the surface flat ; antennae one-half longer than the 
head, the basal joint a little longer and thicker than the second, the latter 
longer and much thicker than the third, which is longer than wide and 
strongly constricted at base, four to ten very strongly transverse, seven to ten 
equal in width, about twice as wide as long, eleventh obtuse, as long as the 
preceding two. Prothorax twice as wide as long, the sides just visibly conver- 
gent from base to apex and broadly, strongly arcuate ; base broadly, strongly 
arcuate, becoming feebly sinuate near the basal angles, which are obtuse but 
well marked ; disk not distinctly impressed. Elytra at base a little narrower, 
at apex somewhat broader, than the prothorax, about one-third longer ; sides 
straight ; humeri completely concealed at base ; apex transversely truncate ; 
disk flat. Abdomen distinctly longer than the anterior parts, evidently nar- 
rower than the elytra, the sides subparallel at base, becoming gradually con- 
vergent behind ; border rather thick, the first tergite very narrowly and 
feebly, the others not perceptibly, impressed at base ; fifth much longer than 
the fourth ; ante-basal infraelytral tergite corneous and frequently exserted. 
Legs short ; tarsi long, the posterior evidently shorter than the tibiae, with the 
first joint about as long as the next two. Length 1.9 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 351 

Washington State (Spokane). 

The male from which the above description is taken, has the apex 
of the sixth termite prolonged in the middle in a short broad trun- 
cate ligula, and, between this and each side, there is a slender spine 
as long as the ligula, which is gradually and feebly bent toward the 
middle. This species was taken by Mr. Wickham, apparently in 
considerable numbers. 

P. complanata is said by Mr. Fauvel to occur in Massachusetts ; 
among other differences it has the joints of the antennae much less 
transverse than tacomae. 



SILUSA Erichs. 

S. vesperis n. sp. — Stout, subparallel, rather thick and convex, blackish, 
the elytra rather more rufo-piceous ; legs pale ; antennae dark red-brown, 
paler toward base ; integuments strongly shining throughout, the abdomen 
highly polished ; head and pronotum extremely finely and very sparsely 
punctate ; elytra strongly densely and subasperately punctate, the abdomen 
finely, sparsely so, almost impunctate toward apex ; pubescence rather coarse, 
not dense but distinct, very sparse on the abdomen. Head distinctly wider 
than long, scarcely four-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderate, setose, 
at rather less than their length, from the base ; antennae long and rather 
strongly^ incrassate, finely pubescent and bristling with long erect setse, fully 
as long as the pronotum and elytra, second joint a little shorter than the 
third, the latter elongate but shorter than the first, fourth and fifth feebly 
obconical, the former a little longer than wide, the latter as wide as long, 
tenth about one- third wider than long, eleventh as long as the two preceding. 
Prothorax transverse, three-fifths wider than long, widest at the middle ; sides 
broadly arcuate anteriorly, feebly convergent and slightly sinuate toward 
base ; apex truncate, slightly narrower than the base, the latter broadly, 
distinctly arcuate, becoming straight or very feebly sinuate near the basal 
angles, which are obtuse but distinct ; disk broadly convex, with a small 
transverse impression in the middle near the base. Elytra nearly one-half 
wider than long, just visibly wider and distinctly longer than the prothorax ; 
sides parallel, very feebly arcuate ; humeri slightly rounded to the pronotum ; 
lateral apical sinuations strong ; disk feebly impressed along the suture. 
Abdomen at base slighty narrower than the elytra, as long as the anterior 
parts ; sides subparallel toward base, feebly convergent behind ; border rather 
thick ; first three tergites transversely impressed at base ; fourth and fifth 
equal in length. Legs moderate ; first joint of the hind tarsi slightly longer 
than the second, the fifth as long as the preceding three; fourth joint of the 
intermediate rather longer than the other three together. Length 2.8 mm. ; 
width 0.85 mm. 



352 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

California (Humboldt Co.). 

The labial palpi are very long and slender, composed apparently 
of two closely connected joints, forming an obtuse angle, the second 
about one-half longer than the first and feebly acuminate toward 
tip. This species agrees tolerably well in form and size with rubi- 
ginosa, but the sides of the prothorax are more convergent and 
sinuate toward base, and the basal angles are much more pro- 
nounced ; the antennse, also, are longer, rather looser and more 
incrassate. 

Silusa gracilis Sachse, is a more slender parallel and less convex 
species, with the second joint of the labial palpi much shorter, not 
longer than the first, and somewhat claviform. I have specimens 
agreeing very well with the description from Pennsylvania and 
Iowa. The following is a species more nearly resembling gracilis, 
but much smaller still : — 

S. nanilla n. sp. — Rather narrow, tliick, subparallel, moderately shin- 
ing, the head coarsely, very densely but inconspicuously punctate, the punc- 
tures round, very shallow, variolate and somewhat umbilicate ; pronotum 
reticulate, finely densely and granularly punctate ; elytra coarsely deeply 
and densely so, the punctures normal but giving a somewhat rugose appear- 
ance ; abdomen finely but strongly, granularly and rather densely punctured 
toward base; pubescence fine, suberect, dense but not conspicuous ; abdomen 
with long bristling pubescence toward apex, especially beneath ; color very 
dark red-brown, the abdomen feebly rufescent toward base, pale at tip ; legs 
pale flavate ; antennae dusky, the basal joints and also the eleventh paler. 
Head transverse, fully three-fourths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes moderately 
prominent, at their own length from the base ; antennae short, feebly incras- 
sate, but slightly longer than the head and prothorax, bristling with long 
sparse setae, basal joint much longer and thicker than the second, tlie latter 
longer than the third, which is twice as long as wide, fourth subquadrate, 
outer joints becoming strongly transverse, also more and more obconical and 
with a corona of dense ashy pubescence, the tenth scarcely twice as wide as 
long, eleventh large, conoidal, as long as the two preceding. Protliorax three- 
fourths wider than long ; sides parallel, almost evenly, distinctly arcuate, 
becoming straight and convergent in basal half; base and apex subequal, 
the former more arcuate ; basal angles very obtuse but distinct ; basal beaded 
edge conspicuous and rather abruptly defined ; disk very obsoletely, broadly 
flattened in the middle before the base. Ehjtra subquadrate, one-fourth wider 
and fully one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides nearly straight, the 
humeri slightly visible. Abdomen narrower than the elytra but wider than 
the prothorax; sides parallel and nearly straight ; first three segments im- 
pressed at base; fifth longer than the fourth. Legs moderate; posterior tarsi 
short, the first two joints oblong, equal. Length 1.7 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 353 

Rhode Island (Boston Neck). 

The description is drawn from the male, this sex having a small 
but rather strong carina near the apex of the fifth dorsal segment, 
and another, more feeble, near the apex of the sixth. 



There is a remarkable and isolated group of genera inhabiting 
the northern beaches of the Pacific coast, having the elytra ex- 
tremely short, the tibiae short, completely devoid of lateral spin- 
ules, and clothed with long sparse erect hairs, the tarsi very short, 
thick, 4-4-5-jointed, the first four of the posterior equal or with the 
first just visibly longer than the second, the prothorax narrowed 
toward base, with the hypomera feebly inflexed, and the labial palpi 
two-jointed. They may be defined as follows: — 

Metasternum invisible except between the apices of the middle coxse, which 
extend to or slightly upon the bases of the posterior ; labial palpi greatly 
developed, the basal joint stout, cylindrical, more than twice as long as 
the second and as long as the second maxillary ; integuments extremely 
opaque and densely granulato-reticulate throughout. 
Body broad, the abdomen inflated, with no segment at all impressed at 
base, the raetasternal side-pieces extending behind the elytra ; labrum 
very strongly transverse, four times as wide as long, truncate ; mentum 
strongly transverse, the apex transversely truncate and with an abrupt 
shallow emargination occupying median third, with its bottom transverse ; 
ligula with a slender deflexed terminal process, the supports of the palpi 
separated by a rather wide parallel intermediate piece ; mandibles serru- 
late from the internal submedian tooth nearly to the apex ; infralateral 

carina partially obsolete L.iparocepliaIUS 

Body narrow, the abdomen not inflated although rather broader than the 
anterior parts, the first three segments transversely impressed at base ; 
metasternal side-pieces not extending behind the elytra ; labrum smaller, 
twice as wide as long, rounded ; mentum narrower, more rounded at apex, 
with a small median emargination in circular arc; process of ligula not 
visible in the types ; supports of the labial palpi very approximate, 
separated by a slender acute process ; mandibles smaller, not serrulate 

within ; infralateral carina feeble but almost entire Diaulota 

Metasternum longer, the apices of the intermediate separated from the bases 
of the posterior coxae by a conspicuous interval ; labial palpi long but much 
more slender, the basal joint slightly longer and only very slightly thicker 
than the second ; eyes extremely small, rudimentary ; integuments more 
finely sculptured but dull Ainblopusa 

In these genera the middle coxae are contiguous and their aceta- 
bula indefinitely limited behind ; in Liparocephalus and Diaulota the 



354 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

coxae are all very large but are mueh smaller in Amblopusa. They 
would be allied to Sipalia if the labial palpi were three-jointed and 
the middle acetabula sharply defined. 

I.IPAROCEPHAI.US Makl. 

Of this singular genus there are two species very closely allied 
but undoubtedly distinct, as follows : — 

Body black throughout ; antennae shorter, barely as long as the head and 
prothorax, the outer joints slightly wider than long ; prothorax slightly 
transverse, moderately constricted behind, more than twice as long as the 
elytra breTipeunis Makl. 

Body black, the head and prothorax rufo-testaceous ; antennse distinctly 
longer than the head and prothorax, the outer joints not wider than long ; 
prothorax strongly transverse, very strongly constricted at base and not 
more than twice as long as the elytra cordicollis Lee. 

These differences appear to be independent of sex, the sixth ven- 
tral being broadly lobed in the middle in the four specimens which 
I have examined ; these specimens are from Washington State and 
Queen Charlotte Island. 

In placing the genus Liparocephalus in the Psederini, Maklin 
evidently had in view only the peculiar dull lustre, a characteristic 
feature in Lithocharis and some allied genera ; the shape of the 
head also reminds us of some paederides. 

DIAULOTA n. gen. 

Although greatly resembling Liparocephalus in general organi- 
zation, dense granulose sculpture and large coxae, the species of 
Diaulota can be distinguished readily by their narrow parallel body 
with undilated abdomen, more convex eyes, shorter antennae, nar- 
rower and more elongate head, much less constricted prothorax and 
many other characters as given in the table. In my cabinet there 
are representatives of two species : — 

Tibiae clothed a little more thinly with longer hair ; prothorax relatively 
longer, less narrowed behind and much narrower than the elytra. 

densissima 
Tibiae clothed with shorter hair ; pubescence of the upper surface shorter and 
less conspicuous ; prothorax at its widest part fully as wide as the elytra. 

insolita 

I>. densissima n. sp. — Black throughout, the anterior parts densely 
opaque, the abdomen dull but more alutaceous ; pubescence moderately 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 355 

dense, fine, erect, not very conspicuous. Head narrow, elongate, the sides 
parallel and feebly arcuate ; eyes small, rather coarsely faceted, convex, at 
twice their length from the base ; antennae short, one-third longer than the 
head, moderately incrassate, the second joint thick, nearly as wide as the 
first, much thicker than the third, but slightly longer than wide, third 
strongly obconical, slightly longer than wide, four to ten transverse, gradu- 
ally wider, eleventh small, conoidal. not as long as the preceding two. Pro- 
thorax but very slightly wider than the head and about as long, fully as long 
as wide ; sides subparallel, broadly feebly and evenly arcuate, but slightly 
more convergent toward base than apex ; disk evenly convex, widest slightly 
before the middle ; apex broadly arcuate and just visibly wider than the base. 
Elytra short, fully twice as wide as long, one-half as long as the prothorax 
and nearly one-fifth wider ; sides feebly convergent from apex to base and 
feebly, evenly arcuate. Abdomen thick, parallel, fully as wide as the elytra, 
nearly twice as long as the anterior parts ; sides nearly straight ; border 
thick; surface transversely and feebly convex. Tibiae moderate in length; 
posterior tarsi barely one-half as long as the tibiae, the first four joints very 
short, equal ; ungues long, slender, evenly and rather strongly arcuate. 
Length 2.7 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

Alaska (mainland opposite Ft. Wrangel). Mr. H. F. Wickham. 

The single specimen serving as the type is apparently a female. 
The other species is nearly similar, but differs in the following 
characters : — 

D. insolita n. sp. — Black throughout and very dull, body narrower. 
Prothorax wider than the head, not quite as long as wide, wider just before the 
middle where the sides are broadly arcuate to the apex, distinctly convergent 
but not sinuate to the base, which is noticeably narrower than the apex. 
Elytra barely twice as wide as long, equal in width to the prothorax and 
rather more than one-half as long. Abdomen long, at base as wide as the 
elytra; sides straight, gradually .divergent behind, so that the apex of the 
fourth segment is fully one-third wider than the elytra; border thick. Length 
(extended) 2.8 mm. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Queen Charlotte Ivsland. 

The male has the sixth ventral plate prolonged in the middle in 
a rounded triangular lobe. In both of these species the last three 
joints of the antennae form a kind of club, the ninth and tenth being 
longer as well as wider than those preceding them. 

The label states that the type specimen was taken near low water 
on the beach. 

AMBLOPUSA n. gen. 

Body extremely slender, parallel, linear, thick and slightly con- 
vex. Head oval, parallel, the sides broadly arcuate ; labrum mode- 



356 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

rately transverse, rounded; infralateral carina obsolete, feebly trace- 
able very near the base. Eyes rudimentary, consisting of five or 
six coarse facets in a cluster behind the mandibles. Antennas rather 
short, moderately incrassate ; outer joints subsimilar, strongly trans- 
verse; second cylindrical, as long as the next two and about as 
thick. Mentum large, very slightly wider than long, trapezoidal, 
the sides feebly sinuate ; apex rather more than one-half as wide as 
the base and evenly sinuate in circular arc throughout the width. 
Ligula not distinct in the type. Maxillary palpi normal, the third 
joint longer than the second. Prothorax narrowed toward base, 
the hypomera scarcely inflexed beyond the vertical, large, evanes- 
cent far behind the apex. Elytra very short. Abdomen long, par- 
allel ; first five segments equally impressed at base; fifth longer 
than the fourth ; sixth distinct, a little narrower than the fifth but 
as long as the fourth. Middle coxae contiguous, the mesosternal 
process short, triangular, acute, extending barely to the middle. 
Metasternal side-pieces rapidly widening behind. Legs very short, 
sparsely hairy, the tibise not at all spinulose ; tarsi very short, 
stout, the posterior three-fifths as long as the tibiae, with the first 
joint very slightly longer than the second ; ungues very small, 
slender, moderately arcuate. 

A."brevipes n. sp. — Slender, pale rufo-testaceous throughout, except the 
abdomen above and beneath, which is piceous-black with the apex pale ; 
integuments dull and minutely, strongly reticulate, the abdomen less strongly 
so and more shining ; anterior parts finely, indistinctly punctate, the abdomen 
minutely, not densely but more distinctly so ; pubescence distinct, rather long 
and moderately dense. Head convex, ovalo-conoidal, a little longer than wide, 
rather longer than the prothorax and fully as wide or a little wider ; antennae 
nearly one-half longer than the head. Prothorax very slightly wider than long, 
widest at the apical angles, the sides thence moderately convergent and nearly 
straight to the basal angles, which are obtuse and slightly blunt ; apex broadly 
evenly and rather strongly arcuate, distinctly wider than the base ; disk 
broadly flattened toward the middle. Elytra three-fourths as long as the pro- 
thorax, and, at apex, not at all wider ; sides convergent and scarcely arcuate 
from apex to base. Abdomen as wide as the elytra, parallel, one-half longer 
than the anterior parts ; sides straight ; border moderate, equal ; surface 
transversely and feebly convex. Length 1.7 mm. ; width 0.3 mm. 

Alaska (Ft. Wrangel). Mr. Wickham. 

I have seen only a single specimen, probably a male, the sixth 
ventral plate being broadly, very obtusely lobed behind. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 357 

THECTUROTA n. gen. 

The body is extremely slender, parallel and subdepressed. Head 
large, flat, slightly broader toward base, the eyes small, far before 
the middle and slightly prominent. Antennae short, feebly incras- 
sate. Mentum small, transverse. Ligula with the apical process 
short, cylindrical, thin and perfectly simple, the labial palpi three- 
jointed, with the first joint nearly as long as the next two, cylin- 
drical ; second thinner, longer than wide; third still more slender 
and a little longer than the second. Maxillas well developed, the 
cardo large, the lobes very small, short, the palpi small, the third 
joint but slightly longer than the second, but thick and obconical ; 
fourth distinct, oblique. Gular sutures long, straight and parallel ; 
infralateral carina wholly obsolete. Prothorax slightly narrowed 
toward base, the hypomera visible from the side. Middle coxae 
moderately large, contiguous, the mesosternal process very slender 
and acute. Metasternum large, the side-pieces rather narrow, par- 
allel anteriorly but with the inner line approaching the elytra pos- 
teriorly, becoming very acute and narrow at the elytral apex. Legs 
very short; tarsi short and stout, plainly 4-4-5-jointed, the first four 
joints of the posterior equal, short, thick, the last moderate in length ; 
claws moderate, slender, evenly arcuate. 

The extremely small and slender forms referred to this genus 
remind us of Hydrosmecta Thoms., but are allied closely to Thec- 
tura, and resemble the latter in the peculiar posteriorly attenuate 
met-episterna, but diJGfer in the complete absence of any of the 
caudal spines so characteristic of that genus. Several of the spe- 
cies have a deep transverse pit at the extreme base of the occiput, 
and the types of one or two have the head thrown back slightly, 
obscuring this part, but it is probably a generic character. In 
Hydrosmecta subtilissima the middle tarsi are five-jointed, and 
the gular sutures converge from the base. 

The species of Thecturota are among the smallest, and are prob- 
ably the most slender, of the Aleocharini ; they will prove to be 
tolerably numerous, and the four in my cabinet may be separated 
by the following characters : — 

Head gradually perceptibly wider behind, the eyes very small and the upper 

surface coarsely and distinctly punctured tenuissillia 

Head parallel or very nearly so, the eyes larger and the surface finely, feebly 
and very indistinctly punctate. 



358 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Head and prothorax equal in width and distinctly narrower than the elytra. 
Elytra distinctly longer than the prothorax ; pubescence denser. 

capito 
Elytra not longer than the prothorax ; pubescence sparse ; body slightly 

more slender demissa 

Head and prothorax subequal in width to the elytra ; pubescence dense ; 
elytra much longer than the prothorax exigua 

I have not been able to discern any marked sexual modifications. 

T. tenuissima n. sp. — Linear, strongly shining throughout, dark pice- 
ous-brown, the pronotum, tip of the abdomen and legs pale flavate ; antennae 
dusky, pale toward base ; pubescence sparse, moderately long, subrecumbent, 
coarse, not conspicuous ; head coarsely, sparsely, conspicuously but not very 
deeply punctate, the punctures wanting along the median line ; pronotum 
and elytra very minutely sparsely and inconspicuously punctate, polished, 
not at all reticulate ; abdomen finely, sparsely but more distinctly and sub- 
asperately punctured. Head large, fully as wide as the prothorax and as long 
as wide, the sides behind the eyes straight and feebly divergent to basal 
fourth, then broadly rounded to the wide neck ; surface with a small deep 
elongate impression in the middle just behind the eyes ; antennae one-third 
longer than the head, feebly incrassate, the basal joint much longer than the 
second, the latter as long as the next two, obconical and nearly twice as long 
as wide, fourth to tenth very strongly transverse, close but somewhat perfo- 
liate, feebly increasing in width and also in length, eleventh slightly longer 
than wide, obtusely rounded at tip, as long as the preceding two. Prothorax 
about one-third wider than long, the sides feebly convergent and straight 
from near the apex to the obtuse and indistinct basal angles ; base scarcely 
as wide as the apex ; disk feebly convex, with a very feeble but entire median 
impressed line. Elytra nearly as long as wide, equal in width to the protho- 
rax and quite distinctly longer ; sides straight and parallel. Abdomen linear, 
rather longer than the anterior parts, at base very slightly narrower, but at 
the apex of the fourth segment somewhat wider, than the elytra ; first four 
segments feebly impressed at base ; fifth much shorter than the fourth ; sixth 
large and distinct. Length (abdomen strongly extended) 1.1 mm. ; width 
less than 0.2 mm. 

Rhode Island. 

The coarse punctures of the large, posteriorly enlarged head, 
minute size and linear form, will render the identification of this 
species quite certain. 

T. capito n. sp. — Piceous to blackish, the legs pale flavate ; antennae 
dusky, paler toward base ; integuments feebly shining, the head somewhat 
strongly reticulate, very minutely, somewhat closely punctate ; pronotum 
and elytra minutely and more densely punctate ; abdomen more asperately ; 
pubescence rather dense, sparse and longer on the abdomen. Head fully 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 359 

as wide as the prothorax, nearly as in the preceding species "but rather less 
dilated behind and with somewhat larger eyes ; upper surface broadly im- 
pressed in the middle anteriorly, and with a small deep impression near the 
centre, also with a deep transverse sulcus at the extreme base of the occiput ; 
antennse nearly as in tenuissima, hut with the fourth joint less transverse, 
tenth more than twice as wide as long. Prothorax one-tlurd wider than long ; 
sides feebly convergent from apex to base and broadly, feebly arcuate ; basal 
angles very obtuse ; disk broadly, feebly impressed along the median line. 
Elytra quadrate, distinctly wider and two-fifths longer than the prothorax ; 
humeri obliquely rounded to the prothorax and slightly visible. Abdomen 
scarcely as long as the anterior parts, very little narrower than the elytra; 
sides subparallel, the tip of the fourth segment scarcely visibly wider ; fifth 
slightly longer than the fourth; border moderate. Length 1.1 mm.; width 
0.2 mm. 

Texas (Galveston). 

This infinitesimal animal seems to be widely diffused, for I have 
taken specimens, either of it or of a species so similar as to be 
almost uudistinguishable with my present material, also at Austin 
and Waco in Texas, and Tucson in Arizona. The transverse 
sulcus at the occipital base receives the anterior margin of the 
pronotum when the head is thrown back. 

T. demissa n. sp. — Minute, slender, rather convex, strongly shining 
throughout, the abdomen still more polished, black, the pronotum feebly 
picescent, the elytra still paler, rufescent ; antennse black, piceous toward 
base ; legs pale flavate ; anterior parts finely but not strongly reticulate, 
minutely, subobsoletely punctate, the elytra scarcely more distinctly so, the 
abdomen very minutely, sparsely and subgranularly ; pubescence short, rather 
sparse, not conspicuous, very sparse on the abdomen. Head large, rather 
longer than wide, fully as wide as the prothorax, the sides parallel ; eyes at a 
little more than their own length from the base ; surface deeply concave along 
the middle anteriorly, and with a deep conspicuous fovea at the centre ; 
antennae short, feebly incrassate, scarcely visibly longer than the head and 
prothorax, the basal joint thicker and nearly as long as the next two, second 
longer than wide and nearly as long as the third and fourth, constricted at 
base, outer joints distinctly transverse. Prothorax not more than one-fourth 
wider than long ; sides broadly arcuate, becoming gradually almost straight 
and slightly convergent in about basal half; apical angles deflexed and 
broadly rounded ; basal obtuse and more narrowly rounded ; base broadly 
arcuate, scarcely as wide as the apex ; disk convex, narrowly and rather 
strongly impressed along the median line throughout. Elytra much shorter 
than wide, toward apex distinctly wider than the prothorax, not longer, the 
sides feebly divergent from the slightly exposed humeri. Abdomen, contracted, 
subequal to the anterior parts, at base distinctly narrower than the elytra ; 
sides straight and just perceptibly divergent from the base, the apex of the 



360 Coleopterological Notices, V, 

fiftli appreciably wider than the base ; fourth and fifth segments equal in 
length and each distinctly longer than one to three. Legs very short, stout. 
Length 1.0 mm. ; width scarcely 0.2 mm. 

New York (Catskill Mts.). Mr. H. H. Smith. 

The more polished, more sparse!}^ pubescent integuments, less 
transverse prothorax and shorter elytra, will readily distinguish 
this species from capito. 

T. exiglia n. sp. — Extremely slender, parallel and linear, moderately 
convex, shining, minutely, rather closely but not conspicuously punctate, the 
pubescence ratlier long, close and distinct, streaming obliquely on the elytra 
and transversely on the pronotum ; color rather pale brown, the head piceous, 
the abdomen black toward apex ; legs and antennae toward base pale, flaves- 
cent. Head large, rather convex, deeply impressed just before its centre; 
sides parallel ; eyes at fully one-half more than their own length from the 
base ; antennae nearly as in demissa. Prothorax one-third wider than long ; 
sides feebly convergent and straight from apex to base ; base and apex broadly, 
strongly arcuate, the former slightly the narrower ; disk strongly, rather 
widely impressed along the median line. Elytra quadrate, barely wider than 
long, one-third longer but scarcely perceptibly wider than the prothorax ; 
sides parallel, straight; humeri very slightly exposed. Abdomen, extended, 
a little longer than the anterior parts, at base perceptibly narrower than the 
elytra ; sides straight ; apex of the fifth segment distinctly wider than the 
first and fully as wide as the elytra ; first four tergites impressed at base, 
the impressions successively and uniformly decreasing in depth and width. 
Legs very short, stout. Length 1.3 mm. ; width 0.2 mm. 

Iowa (Cedar Rapids). Dr. E. Brendel. 

Almost as extremely slender as tenuissima, but with a minutely 
punctate and parallel head. I can find only a single specimen 
amongst my material, and the sex of the type is undetermined. 

TIIECTIJRA Thorns. 

The anterior and middle tarsi in this genus are distinctly four- 
jointed, the posterior five-jointed, the basal joints very short and 
equal and the last joint long ; its position among the allies of 
Colpodota is therefore erroneous, and it should be transferred to 
the neighborhood of Homalota Mann , with which however it can- 
not be united because of its three-jointed labial palpi. The follow- 
ing species is closely related to cuspidata Er. : — 

T. americaiia n. sp. — Slender, parallel, linear, very strongly depressed, 
piceous-black ; antennae toward base and legs pale; anterior parts dull and 
alutaceous, the head strongly, sparsely punctured, the pronotum and elytra 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 361 

excessively finely and indistinctly so, the abdomen witli a few scattered aspe- 
rate punctures ; pubescence fine, rather dense but not conspicuous, longer and 
sparse on the abdomen. Head very nearly as wide as the prothorax, wider 
than long, the sides parallel ; eyes well developed, convex and prominent ; 
antennae distinctly incrassate, short, barely as long as the head and prothorax, 
the last joint as long as the two preceding. Prothorax one-third wider than 
long, the sides just visibly convergent and almost straight from near the apex 
to the rounded basal angles ; base arcuate ; disk broadly, feebly impressed 
along the middle. Elytra fully as long as wide, not wider than the protho- 
rax and one-half longer, parallel and straight at the sides ; humeri exposed. 
Abdomen as long as the anterior parts, slightly narrower than the elytra, 
parallel and straight at the sides, the border strong. Length 1.6 mm. ; 
width 0.3 mm. 

New York. 

The middle spine of the sixth dorsal plate is as well developed as 
in cuspidata, but is more inclined backward ; its apex is notched 
anteriorly, the posterior spur more abruptly bent forw^ard over the 
tip than in cuspidata ; lateral spines small and distinct. The male 
has, at the middle of the second tergite, two small tubercles distant 
by one-half the width, on the third two rather stronger tubercles 
distant by two-thirds the width, on the fourth two much feebler 
tubercles distant by barely one-third the width, the fifth broadly 
impressed in the middle. A single male. 

This species differs from cuspidat&. in its slightly more incrassate- 
antennae with longer terminal joint, in its wider and distinctly more- 
transverse prothorax, and in the position of the tubercles of the 
fourth dorsal, which are distant by one-half the discal width in the- 
European species; also by the more posteriorly inclined terminal 
spine, somewhat differently modified at apex, and in the entire- 
absence of the discal impression of the sixth segment at the base- 
of the spine. 

OI.IGUROTA n. gen. 

Body minute, parallel, subdepressed. Head large, quadrate, the- 
eyes moderate, convex and prominent, before the middle ; infra- 
lateral carina completely obsolete. Antennee short, incrassate, the 
basal joint large, thick ; second shorter ; second and third strongly 
constricted at base, the former much the larger ; outer joints trans- 
verse. Mentum very small, transversely trapezoidal. Ligula 
with a minute, apparently simple terminal process and two stiff 
bristles, the palpi well developed, three-jointed, the first thick, elon- 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Oct. 1893.— 24 



362 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

gate, cylindrical, the second narrower and much shorter ;• third 
slender, as long as the first. Maxillary lobes small, short, thick, 
ciliate within ; the palpi small, with the third joint longer than the 
isecond ; fourth minute. Grular sutures perfectly straight and par- 
;allel throughout. Prothorax quadrate, the hypomera narrow but 
entire, feebly inflexed and distinct from the side. Elytra mode- 
rate. Abdomen normal, parallel, not at all spinose at apex, the 
four basal segments feebly, narrowly impressed at base ; fourth 
and fifth equal and longer than the others. Prosternum rather 
welLdeveloped before the coxse. Intermediate cox89 small, approxi- 
mate, the mesosternal process short, angulate. Metasternal side- 
pieces wide, parallel, the epimera well developed, disappearing under 
the. elytra at basal third. Legs and tarsi very short, the tarsi 4-4-5- 
jointed, the basal joint of the middle and posterior slightly longer 
than the second ; last longer ; claws small, slender. 

This genus is allied to Thectura, but differs in the absence of 
.caudal spines, in its shorter elytra and metasternum, and especially 
in the conformation of the metaparapleurae, which in Thectura are 
quite remarkalble, being narrow and parallel anteriorly, but with 
the inner margin oblique toward the elytra behind, so that they 
'become exceedingly narrow at the elytra! apex, the epimera invis- 
ible. In both of these genera the coxse are unusually small for the 
ipresent tribe. 

O. pusio n. sp. — Parallel, pale piceous-brown, the head and abdomen 
darker, blackish, the tip of the latter, legs and antenna paler ; integuments 
rather shining, coarsely and feebly reticulate, not densely and almost imper- 
ceptibly punctate throughout ; pubescence rather long and sparse but distinct. 
Mead just perceptibly wider and distinctly longer than the prothorax, as long 
as wide, the neck two-thirds as wide; sides parallel; surface with a small 
impression in the middle between the eyes ; antennse one-half longer than the 
head. Prothorax nearly one-third wider than long ; sides parallel, nearly 
straight, the apical and basal angles rounded ; base and apex about equal, 
arcuate ; disk narrowly and feebly impressed along the median line. Elytra 
much wider than long, very slightly wider and longer than the prothorax ; 
sides nearly parallel and straight. Abdomen shorter than the anterior parts, 
slightly narrower than the elytra, parallel and straight at the sides ; border 
rather fine. Legs rather stout. Length 1.2 mm. ; width 0.2 mm. 

Indiana. 

One of the most minute of the Bolitocharides, and probably 
occurring under bark; the unique type is apparently a female. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 363 

I^EPTUSA Kraatz. 

The first species here described seems to be truly congeneric 
with the European analis, but has the prothorax much smaller and 
narrower, the elytral humeri being exposed at base. 

li. Iirevicollis n. sp. — Slender, subparallel, rather convex, shining, 
the abdomen still more polished, dark red-brown ; legs paler, more fiavate ; 
antennce concolorous ; head piceous ; abdomen brighter rufous, with a black 
subapicai cloud ; head and pronotum very feebly punctulate ; elytra coarsely, 
somewhat rugosely but not at all asperately so ; abdomen finely and sparsely ; 
pubescence sparse but rather long, subrecumbent and distinct. Head orbicu- 
lar, convex, much wider than long, distinctly narrower than the prothorax, 
the eyes rather large and prominent, at less than their own length from the 
base ; labrum truncate ; antennae as long as the pronotum and elytra, moder- 
ately incrassate, second and third joints elongate, subequal, fourth obconical, 
as long as wide, four to ten gradually wider, the latter nearly twice as wide 
as long, eleventh rather small, not longer than the two preceding. Prothorax 
transverse, fully three-fourths wider than long, widest at two-fifths from the 
apex where the sides are narrowly rounded, thence convergent and feebly 
arcuate to the apex, equally convergent and broadly sinuate to the basal 
angles, which are obtuse but sharp, the apical deflexed but also not at all 
rounded ; hypomera extending to the apex ; base transverse, equal to the 
apex ; disk strongly convex, extremely obsoletely impressed along the middle 
and transversely before the scutellum. Elytra large, parallel, slightly wider 
than long, one-fourth wider and one-half longer than the prothorax ; sides 
nearly straight ; humeri exposed at base ; suture finely beaded. Abdomen 
parallel and straight at the sides, much narrower than the elytra, as wide as 
the prothorax ; only the first three segments strongly impressed at base ; fifth 
distinctly longer than the fourth. Legs rather long, slender; posterior tarsi 
short, with the first joint distinctly longer than the second. Length 2.1 mm. ; 
width 0.55 mm. 

Pennsylvania. 

The type is a male, the fifth dorsal plate having a small feeble 
longitudinal carina in the middle. The labial palpi are apparently 
three-jointed, but the first is small and anchylosed to the second, 
which is subequal to the more slender third ; the process of the 
ligula is slender, parallel and simple at apex. The metasternum is 
large and long, with the side-pieces very narrow and parallel — 
quite different from the form occurring in Sipalia. The middle 
acetabula are deep and sharply limited by an acute beaded edge, 
except for the extremely short distance between the apices of the 
sternal processes, of which the mesosternal is acutely produced to 
the middle with its apex slightly blunted, the coxae quite appre- 



364. Coleopterological Notices, V. 

ciably separated. This species seems to be somewhat intermediate 
between Leptusa and Silasa. 

The two following species are similar in structure throughout 
and possibly belong to Leptusa, but differ considerably in facies 
from brevicoUis, because of the much longer prothorax and the 
densely opaque and lustreless anterior parts of the body ; they 
may be defined as follows : — 

Stouter, the anterior parts of the body velvety blue-hlack and perfectly 
opaque ; fourth and fifth ventral segments exactly equal in length. 

opaca 

Much more slender, the head and pronotum opaque, brown, the elytra rather 
more shining ; fifth ventral a little longer than the fourth. ..seminitens 

In opaca the conformation of the parts about the middle coxae is 
exactly as in brevicoUis, but the mesosternal process extends as 
far behind as the apex of the metasternal ; it is however free and 
not continuous on the same level. 

L(. opaca n. sp. — Stout, blackish, opaque, the abdomen shining, rufo- 
testaceous, the last two segments black ; legs pale, the posterior femora clouded 
with piceous toward apex ; anteunse blackish, pale toward base and with the 
eleventh joint abruptly pale flavate ; head aud pronotum completely lustreless, 
not punctate, minutely and extremely densely granulato-reticulate through- 
out ; elytra sericeous, indistinctly punctate ; abdomen rather strongly, not 
very densely punctate, sparsely so toward apex ; anterior parts finely, very 
indistinctly pubescent, the abdomen more sparsely but distinctly so. Head 
more than three-fourths as wide as the prothorax, the eyes rather prominent, 
at less than their length from the base ; antennse about as long as the pro- 
thorax and elytra, strongly, gradually increasing in width, the outer joints 
strongly transverse, eleventh longer than the two preceding. Prothorax two- 
fifths wider than long, widest at anterior third where the sides are strongly 
rounded and prominent, thence strongly convergent and distinctly sinuate to 
the base, which is transversely arcuate and equal in width to the apex ; basal 
angles obtuse but scarcely at all blunt ; disk convex, even, not impressed. 
Elytra slightly wider than the prothorax and about one-third longer, parallel, 
the sides nearly straight; humeri slightly exposed at base. Abdomen a little 
longer than the anterior parts, about as wide as the prothorax ; sides parallel, 
scarcely visibly arcuate ; border thick. Length 2.0 mrn. ; width 0.6 mm. 

Pennsylvania. 

The four specimens in my cabinet do not indicate any variation. 

Li, seminitens n. sp. — Slender, parallel, dark red-brown, the abdomen 
bright rufo-testaceous, with a subapical black cloud ; legs pale ; antennse 
blackish, paler toward base, the eleventh joint abruptly pale ; head and pro- 
notum opaque, feebly pubescent, impunctate and minutely, very densely gran- 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 365 

ulato-reticulate ; elytra feebly shining, indistinctly punctate, feebly pubes- 
cent ; abdomen polished, strongly, closely punctate toward base, very minutely 
and remotely so toward tip, the pubescence longer, sparse but distinct. Head 
transverse, very nearly as wide as the prothorax, the eyes small, at more 
than their length from the base ; antennae feebly incrassate, rather longer 
than the prothorax and elytra, the outer joints but slightly wider than long. 
Prothorax large, one-fourth wider than long, widest and rather strongly rounded 
at apical third, the sides strongly and distinctl}^ sinuate in more than basal 
half; base broadly arcuate, rather narrower than the apex; basal angles 
obtuse, scarcely at all blunt ; disk broadly convex, even, with a very feebly 
impressed line along the middle. Elytra slightly wider than long, equal iu 
width to the prothorax and but very slightly longer ; sides parallel ; humeri 
slightly exposed at base. Abdomen fully two-thirds longer than the anterior 
parts, perfectly parallel, about as wide as the elytra. Posterior tarsi about 
two-thirds as long as the tibi«. Length 2.4 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. • 

New York. 

Evidently allied to the preceding, but distinguishable very readily 
by the slender and more parallel form, longer abdomen, more shining 
elytra, longer and more slender antennae, smaller eyes and several 
other structural features. 



ASTHEl^ESITA n. gen. 

Body minute, parallel, not very narrow, somewhat convex. Head 
long, ovo-conoidal, convex, the eyes very small, at some distance 
from the mandibles and antennae, and at fully twice their own 
length from the base; labrum rather elongate, rounded; infra- 
lateral carina very feeble, subobsolete. Antenna? long, evenly and 
gradually incrassate, the second joint nearly as long as the next 
two ; third strongly obconical ; four to ten equal in length, trans- 
verse, gradually wider, the tenth more than twice as wide as long ; 
eleventh ovoidal, as long as the preceding two. Mentum trape- 
zoidal, truncate. Ligula with a slender terminal process which is 
distinctly bifid at apex ; labial palpi three-jointed. Maxillary palpi 
normal, the third joint much longer than the second, the fourth very 
minute, oblique. Prothorax narrowed and sinuate toward base, 
nearly as in Leptusa. Elytra well developed, broadly emarginate 
at apex, the suture not distinctly beaded. Abdomen very feebly 
narrowed toward base, the first three segments deeply impressed 
at base; fifth very much shorter than the fourth, the latter not at 
all impressed. Middle coxae and sterna as in Leptusa. Metasternal 
side-pieces narrow, parallel. Legs short ; tarsi stout, 4-4-5-jointed, 



366 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

the posterior but little more than one-half as long as the tibise, with 
the first joint just visibly longer than the second or third, the latter 
scarcely longer than wide. 

This genus is closely allied to Leptusa, but differs in the longer 
antennae with much shorter third joint, in the longer head and 
labrum, in the bifid ligula and very short fifth segment of the 
abdomen, which is not perceptibly more than one-half as long as 
the fourth ; also in the more robust tarsi and minute size. 

A. pallens n. sp. — Pale rufo-testaceous tliroughout, tlie fourth dorsal 
segment piceous-black ; iiitegumeiits slightly reticulate, feebly shining, the 
abdomen polished ; head, pronotum and elytra very minutely and scarcely 
visibly punctulate ; abdomen more sparsely but not distinctly so ; pubescence 
sparse but long, coarse and distinct. Head rather longer than wide, a little 
narrower but longer than the prothorax, convex, even ; sides parallel and 
evenly arcuate ; antennse as long as the head, prothorax and elytra, pale 
throughout. Prothorax one-third wider than long, the sides broadly, feebly 
arcuate, more convergent and nearly straight in basal half, the basal angles 
very obtuse but not rounded ; apical deflexed, right — viewed laterally — not 
rounded ; base yery feebly arcuate, slightly narrower than the apex ; disk 
convex and declivous at the sides, more flattened above, with a broad region 
along the middle which is very feebly impressed, more distinctly so toward 
base and densely granulato-reticulate and opaque throughout. Elytra dis- 
tinctly wider than long, parallel and straight at the sides, just visibly longer 
and fully one-fourth wider than the prothorax, the humeri distinctly exposed 
and transverse at base. Abdomen as long as the anterior parts, behind the 
middle as wide as the elytra, but at base distinctly narrower ; sides scarcely 
perceptibly arcuate ; border moderate, not thick ; surface transversely convex 
behind. Legs short. Length 1.25 mm. ; width 0.3 mm. 

Florida. 

In the male the fifth ventral plate is transverse at apex, with a 
short acute spicule projecting horizontally from the middle of the 
edge, the sixth lobed in the middle, 

SIPALIA Rey. 

This genus seems to be distinct from Leptusa although closely 
allied. 

S. frontalis n. sp. — Parallel, thick, rather convex, shining, the abdomen 
polished, rufo-testaceous, the antennse dusky except at base ; abdomen pice- 
ous, the fifth segment and apices of the first three, pale ; pubescence coarse, 
sparse but rather long and distinct ; head and pronotum extremely finely, 
feebly but rather closely punctulate ; elytra coarsely, more sparsely and 
asperately punctate ; abdomen sparsely so. Head orbicular, convex, slightly 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 36T 

narrower than the prothorax, fully as long as wide ; eyes at fully one-half 
more than their own length from the base ; clypeus rather prolonged in front 
of the antennae, truncate ; antennae nearly one-half as long as the body, dis- 
tinctly incrassate, second and third joints elongate, subequal, fourth to tenth 
very evenly, gradually increasing in width, the latter fully twice as wide as 
long, eleventh conoidal, longer than the preceding two. Prothorax rather 
large, strongly and evenly convex, but slightly wider than long, widest at 
apical third, the sides thence distinctly convergent and feebly sinuate to the 
base, the latter transverse and slightly narrower than the apex ; basal angles 
obtuse but not at all blunt ; apical deflexed but not at all rounded ; hypomera 
continuous to the apex. Elytra at apex as wide as the prothorax, gradually, 
feebly narrowed toward base, the two bases equal; suture just perceptibly 
shorter than the pronotutn ; sides feebly arcuate ; apex transverse and slightly 
trisinuate ; disk rather convex, not impressed on the suture, the latter finely 
beaded. Abdomen as wide as the elytra, as long as the anterior parts, parallel, 
the sides nearly straight ; border moderate ; first three segments strongly im- 
pressed and more coarsely punctate at base ; fourth scarcely at all impressed ; 
fifth distinctly shorter than the fourth. Legs moderate ; posterior tarsi slender, 
nearly two-thirds as long as the tibiae, the first joint slightly but distinctly 
longer than the second. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 

California. 

This species is allied closely to reitteri Epp., but the latter has 
the first four segments equally impressed at base and the fifth fully 
as long as the fourth. In frontalis the labial palpi have the first 
joint shorter than the second, the third nearly as long as the first 
two, the metaparapleurae very wide, with the inner margin rapidly 
divergent from the elytra, the epimera large, occupying nearly the 
entire width behind and disappearing under the elytra near basal 
third. The mesosternal process is long, acute, extending two-thirds 
the length of the very narrowly separated coxae, the apex free, the 
metasternal process short, subangulate, not attaining the meso- 
sternal, the acetabula rather shallow behind but limited every- 
where by a fine beaded edge, except along the very short inter- 
sternal isthmus. 

BRYOBIOTA n. gen. 

Body parallel and linear, somewhat thick and convex. Head 
fully as wide as the prothorax and as long as wide, with the sides 
parallel ; basal angles right but rounded ; base transverse ; neck 
scarcely one-half as wide as the head ; labrum twice as wide as 
long, truncate; eyes small, anterior; infralateral carina completely 
obsolete. Antennae long, the second joint longer than the third. 



368 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Mentnm transverse, trapezoidal, the apex feebly sinuato-truncate. 
Ligiila with a simple slender process ; labial palpi three-jointed, 
the first more robust than the second and twice as long, third thin, 
not quite as long as the first. Maxillary palpi nearly normal, the 
second joint slightly arcuate and much shorter than the third ; 
fourth very small, Prothorax narrowed toward base, the apical 
angles deflexed and very broadly rounded ; hypomera distinct lat- 
erally, not attaining the apex ; base of the pronotum superposed 
on the base of the elytra and transversely arched in the middle. 
Elytra very short. Abdomen long, parallel, as wide as the elytra, 
the first four segments impressed at base ; fourth and fifth equal. 
Middle coxa3 not distinctly separated, the acetabula being simply 
very feeble impressions posteriorly and not at all limited, the meso- 
sternal process short but acutely triangular. Legs moderate; tibiae 
rather slender, clothed with rather coarse pubescence, without trace 
of spinules ; tarsi 4-4-5-jointed, the posterior rather slender, with 
the basal joint as long as the next two ; ungues small, slender, 
arcuate. 

Bryobiota is allied to Sipalia, but differs in the feebly impressed 
and undefined middle coxal cavities. From Arena Fvl, it may be 
known at once by the distinct but rather wide neck and longer 
antennae. It is represented as far as known to me by a single spe- 
cies from the southern salt beaches of California : — 

B. Mcolor Csy.— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., I, 1885, p. 311 (Phytosus). 

This species is not at all allied to Phytosus, the tibiae being com- 
pletely devoid of spinules. 

BOI.ITOCHARA Mann. 

A widely diffused genus, decidedly isolated in general habitus and 
coloration from all those which are structurally most closely allied 
to it. It can always be recognized, among the Bolitocharides, by 
the coarse subasperate sculpture and variegated elytra. Our spe- 
cies as far as known may be separated as follows : — 

Elytra very much longer than the p)'othorax. 

Prothorax distinctly narrower than the elytra. Pacific coast. 

Elytra coarsely and less densely sculptured, usually dark only externally 
toward apex and sometimes near the scutellum. 

Abdomen sparsely punctured notata Miikl. 

Abdomen densely punctured, especially toward base. 

californica Csy. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 369 

Elytra more finely and densely punctate, black, each elytron pale at base 
except near the scutellum, also narrowly along the suture in apical 
two-thirds and along the apical margin ; abdomen finely, sparsely 

punctate lligriiia Csy. 

Prothorax on the disk as wide as the base of the elytra. Atlantic coast. 
Abdomen coarsely, densely punctate ; carina of the fifth male tergite long 

and strong lllaiicliardi n. sp. 

Adomen finely, densely punctate ; carina of the fifth tergite extremely 
small, reduced to a small point near apical fourth. 

marginella n. sp. 
Elytra shorter ; " Flligeldecken wenig langer als das Halsschild." 

alternans Sachse. 

Silusa alternans, from its indicated size and coloration, seems to 
be more appropriately placed in the present genus, but I have not 
been able to identify it ; Silusa gracilis is however a trae Silusa, 
and it may be possible therefore that Dr. Sachse vi^as not mistaken 
as to the genus of alternans, but the coloration is certainly not at 
all distinctive of Silusa, viz., '' rufo-picea, elytrorum angulo exte- 
riore abdomineque ante apicem nigricantibus." Of notaia Makl. I 
have several specimens, taken by Mr. Wickham at Fort Wrangel 
and in Vancouver ; on the whole, it is a larger, stouter form than 
californica, and differs specifically in abdominal sculpture. 

Homalota trimaculata Er. is possibly a Bolitochara allied to 
hlanchardi, but joints five to ten of the antennae are said to be 
transverse in that species. 

B, 'blancliardi. — Pale flavo-testaceous, the head, pronotum except 
feebly along the sides and base, elytra toward the external apical angles and 
feebly near the scutellum, abdomen feebly at the middle near the bases of the 
first three segments, throughout the fourth and in basal two-thirds of the fifth, 
blackish ; antennae fuscous, the last joint somewhat less dark, the first four 
pale flavate ; head feebly but distinctly, rather sparsely punctate, the pro- 
notum and elytra strongly asperately and densely so, the latter slightly the 
more coarsely ; abdomen strongly and closely but not so densely punctate ; 
pubescence fine, very short, not conspicuous. Head orbicular, convex, about 
as long as wide, nearly three-fourths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes very 
large, separated from th* base by about one-half of their own length ; antennae 
distinctly longer than the head and prothorax, incrassate, first three joints 
elongate, third a little shorter tlian the second, tenth scarcely wider than long, 
a little longer and less transverse than the ninth. Prothorax transverse, four- 
fifths wider than long, widest and broadly subangulate at basal third ; sides 
convergent and feebly arcuate thence to the apex ; base broadly arcuate, much 
wider than the apex ; basal angles distinct but blunt ; disk convex, strongly 
biimpressed in the middle near the base. Elytra slightly transverse, a little 



310 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

wider and mucli longer than the prothorax ; humeri obliquely rounded to the 
prothorax. Abdomen long, at base distinctly narrower than the elytra ; sides 
straight, feebly convergent throughout ; first three segments strongly im- 
pressed at base ; fourth and fifth equal in length. Legs moderate. Length 
2.4-3.5 mm. ; width 0.8 mm. 

New York ; Iowa. 

The male has the fifth tergite strongly carinate almost through- 
out its length, the sixth dorsal feebly emarginate, the emargination 
coarsely and obtusely crenulate. The species is dedicated with 
pleasure to Mr. Frederick Blanchard of Lowell, Mass. 

B. marginella. — Pale flavate, the head blackish ; elytra clouded with 
piceous toward each external apical angle, the dark area always separated 
from the apex by a distinct pale margin ; abdomen with a large subapical 
blackish cloud ; antennae slightly infuscate toward apex ; integuments feebly 
shining, the abdomen more polished ; head extremely minutely, sparsely 
punctate, the prothorax finely, densely, subasperately so, the elytra more 
strongly but still not very coarsely, densely punctate, the abdomen finely, 
evenly and densely so ; pubescence fine, very short, not conspicuous. Head 
orbicular, much wider than long ; eyes rather large, at one-half their length 
from the base ; antennae rather short, about as long as the head and protho- 
rax, third joint but little shorter than the second, outer joints strongly trans- 
verse, closely perfoliate, tenth a little longer than the ninth, almost twice as 
wide as long, eleventh conoidal, pointed rather longer than the two preceding. 
Prothorax four-fifths wider than long, the sides parallel and feebly arcuate in 
basal two-thirds, then gradually rounded and convergent to the apex ; base 
slightly wider than the truncate apex, broadly arcuate, becoming straight 
toward the angles which are obtuse and distinctly rounded ; disk feebly im- 
pressed in the middle before the base, the impression not geminate. Elytra 
distinctly transverse, slightly wider and much longer than the prothorax, 
the humeri obliquely, strongly rounded to the base of the latter ; sides just 
visibly divergent, very feebly arcuate ; disk slightly impressed behind the 
scutellum. Abdomen long, at base distinctly narrower than the elytra ; sides 
straight and feebly convergent throughout ; fifth segment much longer than 
the fourth. Length 2.0-2.6 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

New York (Catskill Mts.). 

The male has a very small raised point on the fifth tergite near 
apical fourth; the sixth also has a very small dorsal elevation and 
has the apex broadly emarginate and obtusely crenulate. This spe- 
cies is much smaller than blanchardi, and may be distinguished at 
once by its finer sculpture. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. STl 



THINUSA n. gen. 



Body very narrow, parallel and linear, thick, opaque. Head 
wider than long, slightly narrower than the prothorax ; sides par- 
allel toward base, the latter very broad and inserted within the 
prothorax ; eyes moderate ; labrum truncate. Antennae short, 
moderately incrassate, the second joint as long as the next two. 
Mentum transverse, trapezoidal, truncate. Maxillary palpi normal, 
the second joint shorter than the third ; labial three-jointed, the first 
joint apparently longer than the second. Infralateral ridge obso- 
lete. Prothorax strongly narrowed from near the apex to the base ; 
hypomera feebly inflexed, rather narrow but extending almost to 
the apex ; base of the pronotum superposed over the base of the 
elytra and broadly, feebly arched throughout the width. Elytra 
very short. Abdomen long, linear, as wide as the elytra, the first 
four segments impressed at base; fifth much longer than the fourth; 
sixth visible. Coxae very large, the anterior extremely so ; middle 
cavities deep, distinctly limited, approaching extremely close to the 
posterior margin. Metasternum very short, the side-pieces narrow, 
parallel to the oblique edge of the elytra. Legs stout ; tibiae very 
short, the anterior and middle spinulose externally ; tarsi short, 
stout, the first four joints of the posterior subequal. 

This genus is allied to Phytosus but distinguished at once by its 
very short elytra and extremely abbreviated metasternum. From 
Actosus it may be known by the much narrower and more lineate 
body, the narrower met-episterna, which are perfectly parallel to 
the edge of the elytra, and by the much less developed met-epimera. 
The single species is common about San Francisco. 

T. maritima Csy.— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., I, 1885, p. 312 (Pliytosus). 

The European Actosus halticus must form part of the genus 
Phytosus, or else be regarded as the type of a new genus allied 
to Thinusa ; it is altogether generically distinct from Ac. nigriven- 
tris — the type of Actosus — in its narrow parallel metasternal side- 
pieces, these being very strongly triangular in nigriventris. All 
of these genera differ, in addition, from Thinusa, in having the 
infralateral carina of the head distinct toward base and the hypo- 
mera much more dilated behind. 



372 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Hygronomides. 

Aiitennse 11-jointed ; tarsi 4-4-4-jointed. 

GYRO^YCHA n. gen. 

Body elongate, linear and depressed. Head moderate in size, 
constricted at base, the neck usually about one-half as wide ; eyes 
large, distant from the base, sparsely setose ; labrum short, trun- 
cate ; infralateral carina obsolete, feebly traceable anteriorly. An- 
tennae very lon^, slender, subfiliform or feebly and gradually incras- 
sate from near the base; basal joint elongate, longer than the second 
or third, the latter elongate and subequal ; outer joints seldom at 
all transverse. Mentum moderate, transversely trapezoidal, trun- 
cate, impressed on the disk at each side. Ligula with a stout par- 
allel apical process, the labial palpi moderate, three-jointed, the basal 
joint the longest and thickest, cylindrical. Maxillary palpi moder- 
ate, the third joint but slightly longer than the second ; fourth small. 
Mandibles simple and acute at apex. Prothorax oblong, feebly nar- 
rowed behind and broadly sinuate — viewed sublaterally — the apical 
angles abruptly and feebly deflexed ; hypomera feebly inflexed, very 
distinct from the side, entire. Elytra large, long and well devel- 
oped. Abdomen elongate and linear, the fifth segment usually 
distinctly longer than the fourth ; first four, segments more or less 
impressed at base. Middle coxae contiguous, the mesosternal pro- 
cess very acute, prolonged to the middle, the metasternal process 
extremely short, broadly angulate, scarcely at all entering between 
the coxae, the distance from its tip to a point beneath the free apex 
of the mesosternal occupied by a fine linear compressed and carini- 
form isthmus ; acetabala tolerably well defined behind. Metaster- 
num large, the side-pieces narrow, linear and parallel ; epimera 
rather small, disappearing under the elytra well behind the middle. 
Legs rather short ; anterior tibiae normal ; tarsi short, 4-4-4-jointed, 
the first joint of the posterior more or less elongate, generally not 
quite as long as the next two and subequal to the last, the latter 
rather stout but scarcely at all incrassate ; ungues well developed, 
divergent, abruptly bent downward behind the middle and some- 
what broadened at the point of flexure. 

This very interesting genus is the American representative of 
the European Hygronoma, and is probably rather extensive, ex- 
tending from the Atlantic to the Pacific and occurring in the high- 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 3t3 

lands and lowlands. In outward appearance it bears a striking 
resemblance to Calodera, but possesses none of the essential char- 
acters of that genus. From Hygronoma it is at once distinguish- 
able by the very long subfiliform antennas and abruptly bent tarsal 
claws, resembling Diglossa in this latter peculiarity. 

Gyronycha is allied also to the Central American Bamona of 
Sharp, but differs in its much more slender linear and depressed 
form, wider neck, longer, relatively narrower elytra and short 
tarsi, with a distinctly shorter basal joint. It is probable that 
some of the species assigned to Bamona by Dr. Sharp should be 
referred rather to the present genus ; in fact the sexual spine near 
the base of the abdomen in Bam. robusta Shp., proves almost con- 
clusively that this at any rate is a Gr3"ronycha. The falagrioid 
form of the body in Bamona is especially alluded to in the original 
diagnosis, but in Gyronycha there is no vestige of such a facies. 

The following species will serve as types of the genus : — 

Head narrower than the prothorax ; antennse very long. 

Third antennal joint obconical, elongate, fully as long as the second. 

Dorsal plates two and three broadly impressed and subimpanctate at base 
through about one-half of their length ; male with dorsal carinse. 
Prothorax wider than long, laterally rounded and narrowed in apical 

third Taleiis 

Prothorax nearly as long as wide, rounded and narrowed only in apical 

fourth ; body much narrower ; antennae more slender texana. 

Dorsal plates throughout feebly impressed only very near the base, fiat 
and strongly, evenly punctate throughcnt ; male apparently without 

abdominal carinse OllSClira 

Third antennal joint shorter than the second fusciceps 

Head equal in width to the prothorax ; antennae more incrassate. 

Antennae long, the outer joints barely perceptibly wider than long ; third 

elongate, slightly shorter than the second lineata 

Antennae much shorter, more compact and strongly incrassate, not much 
longer than the head and prothorax ; second antennal joint subequal 
in length to the next two together ; eyes much smaller. 

Neck rather more than one-half as wide as the head ....attenuata 

Neck slightly more than one-third as wide as the head pertenuis 

G. ValeilS n. sp. — Parallel, depressed, somewhat wider than usual, 
piceous-black, the elytra paler, clouded near tlie scutellum ; abdomen dark 
rufo-testaceous, clouded with blackish near the tip ; legs very pale throughout ; 
antennae black, paler toward base ; head and pronotum extremely minutely, 
closely punctate, feebly shining, the former more sparsely punctate toward 
the front ; elytra rather less finely, more strongly and much more excessively 
densely punctate and alutaceous ; abdomen with the first four segments closely, 



SI 4: Coleopterological Notices, V. 

comparatively coarsely and conspicuously punctate in apical half, impunctate 
in the polished basal impressions, fifth very remotely, subasperately punctate ; 
pubescence very short, extremely dense on the elytra, transverse on the pro- 
notum, longer but very sparse on the abdomen. Head slightly wider than 
long, a little narrower than the prothorax ; eyes large, rather prominent, at 
their own length from the base ; neck fully one-half as wide as the head ; 
antennae two-fifths as long as the body, slender, all the joints longer than 
wide, first three equal, very long, together constituting one-third of its length, 
remainder obconical, except the eleventh which is pointed and not as long as 
the two preceding. Prothorax slightly wider than long, the sides rounded 
anteriorly almost continuously around the apex from apical third, feebly 
convergent and straight thence to the basal angles which are obtuse and not 
rounded ; base broadly arcuate ; disk broadly, feebly flattened in the middle 
toward base. Elytra two-fifths wider and one-half longer than the prothorax, 
subquadrate ; sides parallel and straight ; humeri exposed at base ; surface 
flat, strongly impressed on the suture toward base. Abdomen quite distinctly 
narrower than the elytra, as long as the anterior parts ; sides parallel and 
straight, feebly convergent near the apex ; border moderate ; fifth segment 
much longer than the fourth. Length 3.8 mm. ; width 0.75 mm. 

Texas (Austin). 

The type is a male, having a strongly elevated carina in apical 
half of the first visible dorsal plate, the carina projecting posteriorly 
to a slight extent ; the fifth segment also has a small feeble carina 
in the middle near the base. One specimen. 

G. texana n. sp. — Narrow, parallel, pale brown, the head blackish ; 
abdomen more rufous, with a large feeble blackish cloud near the apex ; legs 
very pale ; antennse blackish, paler toward base ; head and pronotum very 
minutely, densely punctate, strongly shining ; elytra more coarsely and aspe- 
rately but not quite so densely punctate, rather shining ; abdomen polished, 
finely, moderately closely punctate, very sparsely so on the fifth segment ; 
anterior parts finely, very densely, the abdomen much more coarsely and 
sparsely, pubescent. Head distinctly shorter and narrower than the protho- 
rax, slightly wider than long, the neck one-half as wide ; eyes large, at fully 
their own length from the base ; antennse slender, a little longer than the 
prothorax and elytra, the first joint much longer than the second or third, the 
latter elongate, equal, fourth to tenth obconical, longer than wide, eleventh 
slender, pointed, scarcely as long as the two preceding. Prothorax nearly as 
long as wide, rounded near the apex, the latter feebly arcuate in the middle ; 
sides feebly convergent and straight from apical fourth to the basal angles, 
the latter obtuse but not rounded ; base very feebly arcuate, subtruncate ; disk 
almost imperceptibly impressed along the median line and feebly flattened in 
the middle before the base. Elytra quadrate, one-third wider and longer than 
the prothorax ; sides parallel and nearly straight ; humeri distinctly exposed 
at base ; disk narrowly, strongly impressed on the suture toward base. Abdo- 
men scarcely wider than the prothorax, a little longer tlian the anterior parts, 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 375 

parallel and straight at the sides except near the apex ; border rather thick ; 
fifth segment longer. Legs short ; posterior tihise swollen toward apex, slender 
near the base, the tarsi scarcely three-fifths as long. Length 2.7-3.0 mm. ; 
width 0.55-0.6 mm. 

Texas (Austin). 

The male has a strongly elevated carina at the middle of the first 
dorsal, becoming gradually feebler and ending at the basal impres- 
sion ; at apex it projects slightly beyond the margin ; there is also 
a very small carina near the base of the fifth. 

In both of these species the fourth antennal joint is distinctly 
shorter than the fifth ; in obscura, however, these two joints are 
subequal. The present species, although closely allied to valens, 
differs greatly in the longer basal joint of the antennge, form of the 
prothorax, sparser elytral and much finer and sparser abdominal 
punctuation, and in its smaller size and more slender form. Three 
males, exhibiting no variation. 

G. o"bsClira n. sp. — Depressed, rather wide, blackish, the pronotum 
slightly, the elytra distinctly, pale ; abdomen scarcely paler toward base but 
with the tip flavescent ; legs pale ; antennae not distinctly paler toward base ; 
anterior parts extremely minutely, rather densely punctate, somewhat strongly 
shining, finely, densely pubescent ; abdomen more strongly, rather closely, 
evenly punctate, with longer and somewhat sparse but distinct pubescence. 
Head a little wider than long, distinctly shorter but only slightly narrower 
than the prothorax, the neck one-half as wide as the width across the eyes, 
the latter at fully their own length from the base ; antennae slender, fully as 
long as the prothorax and elytra, equal in width from the fourth joint, the 
first three greatly elongate, the first longer, second and third equal, fourth 
scarcely visibly shorter than the fifth, fourth to tenth obconical, longer than 
wide, the tenth fully as long as wide, eleventh slender, pointed, not quite as 
long as the two preceding. Prothorax very slightly wider than long, the sides 
rounded and convergent in apical third, the apex more feebly arcuate in the 
middle ; sides straight and just visibly convergent in basal two-thirds, the 
base broadly, distinctly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse and distinct ; disk even, 
not perceptibly impressed. Elytra quadrate, one-third longer and wider than 
the prothorax, parallel and straight at the sides, with the humeri exposed at 
base ; disk impressed on the suture behind the scutellum. Abdomen distinctly 
narrower than the elytra, as long as the anterior parts ; sides parallel and 
evenly, just visibly arcuate; border strong; first four segments equal and 
nearly flat ; fifth one-half longer. Length 2.9 mm. ; width 0.65 mm. 

California (Pomona). Mr. H. C. Fall. 

The truncate sixth ventral plate would seem to indicate the male, 
but there is no trace of the dorsal carinee so well developed in the 
two preceding species, and the present differs also in its more 



376 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

pubescent abdomen, with the basal impressions much shorter or 
finer, extending onl}^ very slightly upon the disk of the plates 
Two specimens. 

G-. fusciceps n. sp. — Slender, depressed, pale riifo-testaceous, the head 
darker, piceous ; elytra more flavate ; anteniise dusky, pale toward base ; legs 
very pale ; head shining, minutely, densely and distinctly punctate ; pro- 
notum feebly alutaceous, somewhat reticulate, very minutely and not dis- 
tinctly punctate ; elytra feebly alutaceous, minutely, very densely and rather 
more distinctly, the abdomen minutely feebly and sparsely, punctate ; pubes- 
cence fine, short, dense, especially on the elytra ; abdomen very sparsely but 
more coarsely pubescent. Head nearly as long as wide, distinctly shorter and 
slightly narrower than the prothorax, the neck two-thirds of the width across 
the eyes, the latter moderate, at one-half more than their length from the base ; 
vertex just visibly, longitudinally impressed in the middle; antennae long, 
very feebly incrassate, fully as long as the prothorax and elytra, the basal 
joint longer and slightly thicker than the second, the latter subcylindrical 
and perceptibly longer than the third, which is obconical and elongate, four 
to ten obconical, loosely connected, deeply concave at apex as usual, the fourth 
as long as wide, shorter than the fifth, tenth very slightly wider than long, 
eleventh rather large, fully as long as the two preceding. Prothorax nearly 
quadrate, rounded at the sides and narrowed in apical third, the apex broadly, 
feebly arcuate ; sides feebly convergent and straight in basal two-thirds ; base 
feebly arcuate, the angles nearly right and very pronounced ; disk feebly, 
transversely convex, scarcely at all impressed. Elijtra quadrate, parallel and 
straight at the sides, one-third wider and longer than the prothorax, the 
humeri exposed at base ; suture narrowly impressed behind the scutellum. 
Abdomen as long as the anterior parts, distinctly narrower than the elytra, the 
sides parallel and straight, the first three segments with large deep impres- 
sions, the fourth scarcely impressed and much shorter than the fifth ; basal 
segments with the raised basal part broadly emarginate posteriorly in nearly 
circular arc. Length 2.7 mm. ; width 0.55 mm. 

New York (Catskills) ; North Carolina (Ashevnlle). 

Readily distinguishable from those which precede by the less 
punctate abdomen, shorter third antennal joint and smaller eyes. 
I can see no sexual marks of prominence in my three specimens. 

G-. lilieata n. sp. — Narrow, linear and depressed, rufo-piceous, shining, 
the abdominal apex, legs and basal parts of the antennse pale ; head and 
pronotum feebly reticulate, minutely, closely but not very distinctly punctate, 
the elytra more asperately and distinctly but scarcely more densely so, the 
abdomen sparsely, extremely minutely and feebly ; pubescence anteriorly 
very short, dense, on the abdomen very sparse as usual, long and fimbriate at 
the apices of the basal segments. Head large, fully as wide as the prothorax, 
nearly as long as wide, the neck very broad, fully three-fourths as wide ; eyes 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 377 

rather small, at fully three-fourths more than their length from the base ; 
front with a feeble and posteriorly angulate flat depression, extending from 
the middle to the apex ; antennae long, distinctly incrassate, two-fifths as long 
as the body, the three basal joints gradually decreasing in length, four to ten 
obconical, the latter nearly one-half wider than long, eleventh well developed. 
Frothorux about as long as wide, the sides very feebly convergent and straight 
in basal three-fourths ; apex and base equally and distinctly arcuate, the 
former slightly the narrower ; basal angles obtuse but rather distinct ; disk 
just visibly impressed along the median line except near the base and apex. 
Elytra quadrate, parallel and straight at the sides, one-fourth wider and 
longer than the prothorax ; humeri narrowly exposed ; disk flat, rather 
widely impressed on the suture near the scutellum. Abdomen linear, parallel 
and straight at the sides, distinctly narrower than the elytra, the first two 
segments strongly and widely, the third and fourth very feebly, transversely, 
impressed at base, the raised basal part emarginate in circular arc ; fifth 
nearly one-half longer than the fourth. Length 2.4 mm. ; width 0.45 mm. 

Nevada (Reno). 

The two specimens serving as types appear to be females. This 
species is quite distinct from any of those described above by the 
larger head, smaller eyes, more incrassate — though not much 
shorter — antennaB, wider neck and relatively somewhat smaller 
elytra. 

G. attenuata Csy.— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1, 1885, p. 306 (Calodera). 

This species is nearly similar to Hneata, but has the antennae 
shorter and much stouter and the prothorax quite distinctly wider 
than long. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 0.45 mm. 

G. pertenilis n. sp. — Narrow, linear, depressed, piceous-black, the pro- 
notum and elytra slightly paler ; legs and basal parts and tip of the abdo- 
men pale flavate ; integuments highly polished, the punctuation excessively 
minute, sparse, the pubescence of the head and pronotum rather long, sparse, 
of the elytra a little shorter and closer, of the abdomen very sparse, the erect 
setse sparsely bristling along the sides. Head rather convex, unimpressed, 
fully as wide as the prothorax, nearly as long as wide, the neck distinctly less 
than one-half as wide as the width across the eyes, the latter small, at about 
twice their length from the base, the basal angles broadly rounded ; antennae 
short, scarcely longer than the head and prothorax, distinctly incrassate, the 
first joint a little longer and much thicker than the second, the latter as long 
as the next two, tenth nearly one-half wider than long, the eleventh large, 
rather wider than the tenth, pointed near the apex and much longer than the 
two preceding. Prothorax nearly as long as wide, broadly rounded and con- 
vergent at the sides in apical third, the sides thence feebly convergent and 
just visibly sinuate to the distinct basal angles ; base broadly arcuate, fully 
three-fourths wider than the apex ; disk broadly, feebly convex, even. Elytra 
Annals N. Y. Acad. 



318 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

rather longer than wide, one-fourth wider and one-third longer than the 
prothorax, parallel and straight at the sides, the humeri distinctly exposed ; 
suture deeply, narrowly impressed just behind the scutellum. Abdomen 
scarcely as long as the anterior parts, linear, distinctly narrower than the 
elytra, the sides parallel and straight ; first four segments narrowly deeply 
and equally impressed at base, the impressions more coarsely punctate ; fifth 
much longer than the fourth. Length 1.45 mm. ; width 0.25 mm. 

New Jersey. 

The single specimen seems to be a female. This species is by far 
the most minute of the genus, and is somewhat aberrant in its 
sparser punctuation. 

BA]!tfO:^A Sharp. 

A small Californian species is referred to this genus, but not 
without some doubt. It cannot be associated generically with 
Gyronycha, although the tarsi are four-jointed throughout and the 
tarsal claws similarly abruptly bent downward, for the reason that 
it differs in having a distinctly falagrioid habitus and in its short 
transverse abdominal segments; it also differs conspicuously in the 
structure of the sterna between the middle coxae. The mesosternum 
is only very slightly produced between the coxag and forms a very 
short broad and gradually depressed cusp; behind this cusp the 
narrow but perceptible space between the coxae is depressed, form- 
ing a low rounded ridge, gradually regaining the level of the meta- 
sternum behind but without trace of a metasternal process defined 
by an acute line or bead ; the coxal cavities are gradually less im- 
pressed and not well defined behind. At a very short distance 
behind the mesosternal cusp there appears, however, to be a fine 
transverse suture in the depressed ridge, and this may constitute 
the anterior limit of the metasternum proper. The posterior tarsi 
are rather long and slender, but the neck seems to be much broader 
and the antennae shorter than in the Central American forms. 

Although I am not sure, therefore, of the generic identity of the 
present species, its discovery is interesting in proving that these 
peculiar hygronomoid species form an important element in the 
Aleocharini of America, and include at least several distinct genera. 

B. falliana n. sp. — Narrow, slightly convex, polished throughout, 
piceous-black, the antennae black, paler at base ; legs pale, brownish-flavate 
throughout ; head finely, \ery sparsely punctulate ; pronotum equally minutely 
but much more closely, evenly punctulate, each puncture having a very minute 
stout decumbent hair quite different from those of any other part of the body, 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 379 

the punctures and peculiar vestiture abruptly and completely disappearing 
near all the edges ; elytra and abdomen minutely sparsely and indistinctly 
punctulate ; pubescence of the head and elytra stiff and rather long, distinct 
although not very dense, of the abdomen longer, the pronotum with a series 
of three or four long erect setse along the lateral edges. Head rather longer 
than wide, at the eyes almost imperceptibly wider than the prothorax ; sides 
subparallel; base transverse ; angles rounded ; neck two-fifths as wide as the 
perocular width, the eyes large, at their own length from the base ; antennae 
short, scarcely longer than the head and prothorax, the two basal joints equal 
in length, the first slightly thicker, second elongate, as long as the next 
two, third obconical, longer than wide, four to ten mutually almost perfectly 
similar, scarcely at all increasing in width, distinctly obtrapezoidal, one-half 
wider than long, eleventh conoidal, as long as the two preceding. Prothorax 
as long as wide, widest at apical third, where the sides are strongly rounded 
and somewhat prominent, thence rapidly oblique to the neck and distinctly 
convergent, broadly, feebly sinuate to the base ; apical angles strongly de- 
flexed, rounded ; basal also deflexed, slightly obtuse but not at all rounded ; 
base very feebly arcuate ; disk perfectly even, without trace of impression. 
Elytra quadrate, about as long as wide, not quite twice as wide as the protho- 
rax and about two-fifths longer ; sides subparallel and straight ; humeri very 
broadly exposed and transverse at base ; disk feebly convex. Abdomen short 
and broad, scarcely as long as the anterior parts, narrower than the elytra 
but much wider than the prothorax ; sides parallel, slightly convergent at 
the fifth segment, which is but slightly longer than the fourth ; first three 
impressed and polished at base. Legs slender, the posterior tarsi slender ; 
fully three-fourths as long as the tibise, with the basal joint rather longer 
than the next two. Length 1.75 mm. ; width 0.4 mm. 

California (Los Angeles Co.). Mr. H. C. Fall. 

This is one of the most interesting aleoeharinides which has 
been discovered on the Pacific slope, although quite insignificant in 
point of size. 

Oligotides. 

Antennae 10-jointed ; tarsi 4-4-4-jointed. 

SOLATIUM Woll. 

The following species diJBfers from the European J^ai;^corne in its 
more convex surface, much sparser pubescence and coarser, more 
uneven imbricate sculpture of the elytra. 

S. nilgator n. sp. — Oval, convex, polished, black, the legs dark brown- 
ish-rufous ; antennae still paler throughout ; head almost impunctate, remain- 
der of the upper surface very minutely, sparsely punctate, the elytra and 
abdomen very coarsely imbricate, the latter becoming smooth toward tip ; 



380 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

pubescence rather long, stiff and sparse, snbreciimbent but longer erect and 
bristling on the abdomen, especially beneath. Head small, evenly convex ; 
eyes large, not prominent ; antennae about one-half longer than the head, the 
second joint longer and narrower than the first and as long as the next two, 
the latter not wider, five to seven gradually wider, eight and nine subequal, 
abruptly strongly transverse, twice as wide as long ; tenth short, bluntly 
ogival. Prothorax twice as wide as long, the sides strongly divergent from 
apex to base, evenly arcuate and continuous in curvature with the sides of the 
elytra ; base broadly evenly and strongly arcuate throughout ; disk sparsely 
feebly, subasperately punctate. Elytra slightly wider than the base of the 
prothorax, one-half longer than the latter, two-thirds- wider than long, 
broadly, angularly emarginate at apex ; disk evenly convex. Abdomen short, 
as broad at base as the elytra ; sides convergent and feebly arcuate ; fifth 
segment longer than the fourth. Legs short. Length 0.9 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 

Pennsylvania. 

The club of the antennae is stouter than mflavicorne, and the 
eighth joint is much more transverse. The single type has the 
abdomen contracted. 

S. ClaTiger n. sp. — Stout, suboval, convex, strongly shining, black 
throughout, the legs piceous ; antennje pale toward base, the large club 
piceous-black ; head minutely, sparsely, the pronotum a little more strongly, 
asperately and rather closely punctate ; elytra strongly and closely imbricate ; 
abdomen more coarsely imbricate, the lines finer, the sculpture of the fifth 
tergite extending very nearly to the apex ; pubescence rather coarse, moderate 
in length and density. Head strongly deflexed, evenly convex, wider than 
long and fully three-fifths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes large, attaining the 
prothorax ; antennae one-half longer than the head, the second joint as wide 
as the first and a little longer, as long as the third and fourth, third slightly 
elongate, fourth scarcely longer than wide, fifth but little thicker, quadrate, 
sixth decidedly thicker, one-third wider than long, seventh still much wider, 
transverse, sixth to ninth rapidly and evenly increasing in width, the latter 
more than twice as wide as long, tenth as wide as long, very obtuse, as long as 
the two preceding, ninth joint more than twice as wide as the first. Prothorax 
fully twice as wide as long, the sides arcuate and strongly convergent from 
base to apex ; base very strongly, broadly arcuate, fully three-fourths wider 
than the apex ; disk strongly, evenly convex. Elytra as wide as the base 
of the prothorax, much longer than the latter ; sides feebly convergent and 
arcuate toward base ; disk slightly longitudinally prominent along the sides 
toward apex. Abdomen, when contracted, scarcely as long as wide, subquad- 
rate, shorter than the anterior parts, slightly narrower than the elytra, the 
sides feebly convergent toward apex ; border moderate ; fifth segment longer 
than the fourth. Tarsi slender. Length 1.0 mm. ; width 0.65 mm. 

Iowa (Keokuk). 

This species is larger and still broader than nugator, and diifers 



i 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 381 

in its more finely and closely imbricated elytra, and still larger and 
longer but more gradually formed antenna! club. Two specimens. 

S. OTifornie n. sp. — Broadly oval, convex, polislied, black, the legs 
piceo-testaceous ; antennae flavate ; punctures of the head and pronotum fine, 
moderately close, even ; elytra and abdomen with imbricate sculpture ; pubes- 
cence moderate in length, fuscous, rather conspicuous. Head vertical, not 
visible from above, the eyes large, attaining the base ; antennae short, one- 
half longer than the head, the second joint longer than the first and longer 
than the next two combined, third longer than the fourth and nearly twice 
as long as wide, three to seven subequal in width, the latter somewhat trans- 
verse, club abrupt, parallel, loose, the ninth joint one-half wider than long. 
Prothorax small, about twice as wide as long ; base strongly arcuate ; apical 
angles deflexed and right, narrowly rounded ; basal almost obliterated ; disk 
evenly convex. Elytra together broadly emarginate at base and equally 
broadly, triangularly emarginate at apex, at apical third much wider than the 
prothorax, one-third longer ; sides strongly arcuate toward base, continuous 
in curvature with the prothorax. Abdomen, when contracted, a little wider 
than long, about as long as the elytra, subcontinuous in outline with the 
latter, conical, the sides nearly straight ; fifth segment as long as the two 
preceding together. Legs slender, the posterior tarsi much shorter than the 
tibiae. Length 0.75 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 

California (Los Angeles Co.). 

Differs from the preceding two species in its more evenly elliptical 
outline, more abruptly formed antennal club and longer fifth ventral 



Note. 

The species described by Say as Aleockara simplicicolUs (Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc, VI, p. 155), is identical with Microglotta suturalis Sahib. 

OXYTELINI. 
OXYTELUS Grav. 

Considering the general homogeneity of facies in Oxytelus, there 
is an unusual amount of variation in the structure of important 
organs, such as the mentum, and especially a very great amount of 
diversity in the male sexual modifications ; these may manifest 
themselves at either end of the body, sometimes virtually at the 
head only, in other species at the abdominal apex, but occasionally 
also quite noticeably at both extremities. The females are often 
very similar among themselves, and it is frequently almost impos- 



382 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

sible to accurately identify an isolated example of that sex. I have 
consequently drawn all the characters of the following table and 
subsequent descriptions from the male alone, when that sex could 
be examined. 

In the Oxytelini true ocelli, such as characterize the Omalini, do 
not exist, but in Oxytelus their place is taken by two strongly 
setigerous punctures, occupying very nearly the same position at 
the base of the vertex. I have not noticed these punctures in 
Trogophloeiis, nor in Aploderus, and they may possibly be pecu- 
liar to Oxytelus. 

Most.of the species are subarctic, but those in which the front is 
spinose or spiculate in the male appear to be more partial to tropical 
conditions, and are abundant in Central America, Those known 
to me at present may be distinguished by the following char- 
acters : — 

Eyes large in botli sexes, the tempora subobsolete ; seventh ventral plate of 
the male with two deep remote and parallel-sided fissures, the median 
lobe truncate, not projecting beyond the lateral parts and with its edge 

slightly thickened in the middle SCIllptuS 

Eyes moderate, the tempora always large and well developed 2 

2 — Frontal margin armed in the male with a short stout acuminate or tri- 
angular process 3 

Frontal margin not armed in the male 4 

3 — Frontal process simple and finely acute at apex ; head large, subquadrate ; 
elytra longer than the prothorax. 
Eyes at their own length from the basal angles ; elytra closely punctate ; 

mandibles arcuate insignitus 

Eyes at much more than their own length from the basal angles ; elytra 
more coarsely and sparsely punctate ; mandibles almost straight, arcuate 

at apex niunitus 

Frontal process notched at apex ; head smaller, strongly transverse. 

lireTiceps 
4 — Male with the seventh ventral plate abruptly produced in the middle in 

the form of a flattened ligula. which is generally subtruncate at tip 5 

Male with the seventh ventral bisinuate or biemarginate at tip, the median 

lobe rounded or broadly angular, sometimes obsolete 10 

5 — Pronotum with three longitudinal impressed grooves 6 

Pronotum even, without longitudinal impressions 9 

6 — Vertex with two grooves convergent from the base converge liS 

Vertex with the grooves parallel 7 

Vertex without impressed grooves 8 

1' — Sides of the prothorax sinuate near the basal angles, the latter more or 
less prominent. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 383 

Antennae moderately incrassate ; joints seven to ten equal, eleventh small, 
not as long as the two preceding ; basal joint slender, strongly constricted 

near the apex ftiscipennis 

Antennae more incrassate ; joints seven to ten increasing in width, the 
eleventh large, as long as the two preceding ; basal joint stouter, cylin- 
drical, not constricted nimillS 

Sides of the prothorax without trace of sinuation before the basal angles, the 
latter obtuse but generally not rounded, not at all prominent. 
Terapora more prominent than the eyes ; posterior tarsi long, fully two- 
thirds as long as the tibiae montailllS 

Tempora not more prominent than the eyes ; posterior tarsi scarcely more 

than one-half as long as the tibiae inveniistlis 

8 — Pronotal sulci very feeble peiliisylvanicus 

9 — Vertex not at all impressed ; upper surface smooth and even. 

in colli in is 
lO — Sides of the prothorax more or less distinctly crenulate ; antennae rather 
long and slender. 
Front flattened and strongly, densely granulose and opaque between the 

antennal prominences; eyes moderate in size rilgOSllS 

Front finely, sparsely punctate and polished ; eyes very small niger 

Sides of the prothorax not crenulate ]1 

11 — Sculpture coarse and moderately dense ; rather small species 12 

Sculpture very finely, longitudinally strigose ; species still more minute ....15 
12 — Prothorax moderately transverse, with the sides parallel ; abdomen very 

strongly reticulate and dull toward base placusinus 

Prothorax strongly transverse, with the sides convergent behind 13 

13 — Sides of the prothorax distinctly emarginate just before the basal angles ; 

median sulcus of the pronotum alone distinct deilSlIS 

Sides of the prothorax not emarginate near the base ; pronotum with three 

more or less distinct longitudinal impressions 14 

14 — Sculpture very dense ; lustre dull, the abdomen reticulate and but 
feebly shining ; antennae rather more slender and less incrassate. 

alpicola 
Sculpture not so dense, except on the elytra of some species, the lustre some- 
what shining ; abdomen always polished ; antennae more incrassate. 
Elytra distinctlj'- impressed near the suture toward base ; elytral punctures 

distinct, not forming long rugae at least toward base nitidlllllS 

Elytra very narrowly impressed along the suture near the base, the punc- 
tures indistinct, forming long coarse parallel rugae, the elytra shorter and 

more transverse than in nitidulus SUSpectus 

Elytra not in the least impressed along the suture, perfectly flat, the punc- 
tures indistinct, forming long fine anastomosing rugae SObrinilS 

15 — Antennae longer, slender, the outer joints but slightly wider than long; 

surface more shining and less densely strigilate Tegrandis 

Antennae short, stouter, strongly incrassate, the outer joints strongly trans- 
verse ; lustre very dull. 



384 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Elytra but sliglitly longer than the prothorax ; abdomen polished, very 

remotely and obsoletely punctulate nanus 

exiguus 
Elytra much longer than the prothorax ; form broader, the abdomen strongly 
reticulate, finely, more densely and subgranularly punctulate. 

tetracarinatus 

It will be observed that the species are not quite as abundant 
as in the European fauna, but others will probably be discovered^ 
as these obscure little insects are seldom collected. Four of the 
twenty-three are common to the two continents. 

O. SCUlptuS Grav. — Mon., p. 191 ; mcerens Mels. : Proc. Ac. Phila., II, 
p. 42 ; antennatus Steph. ; longicomia Mann. ; testacei pennis Fairm. 

The head in both sexes is small, narrower than the prothorax, 
with a single median impressed channel toward base and large 
eyes. The prothorax is moderately transverse, with three distinct 
impressed channels, the elytra increasing in width from base to 
apex, a little wider and much longer than the prothorax, rather 
coarsely, subrugosely sculptured. The mentum has a fine arcuate 
discal groove extending from one basal angle to the other. Length 
3.4-4.0 mm.; v/idth 1.0-1.1 mm. 

This species is represented in my cabinet from Iowa, Wisconsin, 
California and Europe. The European and American forms do 
not differ at all. The male appears to be much less abundant than 
the female. 

O. insignitUS Grav. — Mon., p. 188 ; americanus Mann.: Brachel., p. 48. 

In the male of this species the head is large, slightly wider than 
long, with the eyes at their own length from the basal angles, the 
antennae about one-third longer than the head, exclusive of the man- 
dibles, the latter very long, decussate, almost evenly arcuate and 
acutely pointed, the frontal porrect process acute and simple. In 
the female the head is very much smaller, transverse, with the 
frontal margin not armed, the eyes about equally large but almost 
attaining the base, the antennsB fully one-half longer than the head 
and the mandibles much smaller, thicker and more strongly arcuate. 
The mandibular tooth is situated at nearly the same distance from 
the base in both sexes, but is very much nearer the apex in the 
female. In the male the head, prothorax and elytra are nearly 
equal in width and the elytra are distinctly longer than the pro- 
thorax, strongly and rather closely punctured. It occurs through- 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 385 

out the Atlantic States from New York to Texas and far into 
Mexico. Length 2.4-3.0 mm.; width 0.75-0.9 mm. 

O. mimitllS n. sp. — Parallel, stout, flavate, the pronotum darker, rufes- 
cent ; head and abdomen still darker, piceous ; antennse black, pale toward 
base ; mandibles and legs pale ; integuments polished throughout ; pubescence 
very sparse, the abdominal setae rather long ; head impunctate and polished, 
except near and at the sides, where there are some coarse elongated subrugi- 
form punctures, the under surface inipunctate ; pronotum coarsely, very 
sparsely, rugosely, the elytra also coarsely sparsely and unevenly punctate ; 
abdomen minutely, sparsely punctulate. Head yery large, as wide as the pro- 
thorax, slightly wider than long, with a very large uneven smooth impression 
at each side at about lateral third, the frontal margin abruptly prolonged in 
a short acute porrect spine; eyes moderately convex, at very much more 
than their own length from the basal angles ; tempora behind the eyes nearly 
straight and feebly divergent, then broadly rounded to the neck which is 
three-fifths as wide as the head ; mandibles very long, nearly straight, arcuate 
at apex, toothed near the base ; antennae only slightly longer than the head 
exclusive of the mandibles, the basal joint large, stout, constricted at base, 
nearly as long as the next four, second a little shorter and stouter than the 
third, which is longer than the fourth, the latter slightly elongate-oval, five to 
eight increasing rapidly in width, eight to ten equal, moderately transverse, 
eleventh small, conoidal, not as long or wide as the preceding two. Prothorax 
short and transverse, nearly twice as wide as long, the sides strongly conver- 
gent from apical fifth to the basal angles, which are very obtuse and nearly 
obsolete, the edges feebly crenulate and with a slight sinuation just before 
the basal angles ; apex broadly bisinuate ; apical angles well marked ; disk 
strongly trisulcate, broadly impressed toward the sides. Elytra two-fifths 
wider than long, equal in width to the prothorax and fully two-fifths longer ; 
sides subparallel, feebly arcuate ; humeri broadly, transversely exposed at 
base ; suture broadly, strongly margined ; disk of each broadly impressed 
along the middle. Abdomen short, nearly as wide as the elytra, parallel, the 
border thin and deep. Length 3.0 mm. ; width 0.8 mm. 

Pennsylvania. 

This species is allied to insignitus, and resembles it strongly in 
the general form of the head and simple acute apex of the frontal 
process, but differs in the straight mandibles, eyes more distant 
from the basal angles and in the much coarser and sparser sculp- 
ture of the pronotum and elytra; the oblique rugte near the base of 
the head toward the sides in insignitus are wanting in munitus. 
The description is taken from the male, which is the only sex that 
I have seen. 

O. "breviceps n. sp. — Moderately broad, parallel, dark brownish-testa- 
ceous ; mandibles and palpi concolorous ; elytra and legs flavate ; antennae 



386 Coleopferological Notices, V. 

black, flavate at base; head blackish; abdomen dark piceous-brown, the 
apices of the segments paler. Head, exclusive of the mandibles, oce-half 
wider than long, a little narrower than the prothorax, finely reticulate and alu- 
taceous, minutely, sparsely punctate, strongly, longitudinally rugose toward 
the sides, broadly biimpressed, the impression as usual very deep within the 
antennal tubercles; eyes moderate, at less than their own length from the 
basal angles, the tempora feebly divergent behind them ; basal angles broadly 
rounded ; mandibles moderate, strongly, evenly arcuate, decussate ; frontal 
porrect process notched at tip ; antennse fully one-half longer than the head, 
nearly as in insignitus and munitus. Prothorax fully three-fourths wider than 
long, the apical angles nearly right, distinct ; sides thence nearly straight, 
feebly divergent for a short distance, then rather strongly convergent to the 
broadly rounded basal angles ; edges finely crenulate ; disk strongly trisulr 
cate, broadly impressed laterally, rather closely, strongly punctate. Elytra 
very short, strongly transverse, at base as wide as the prothorax, at apex a 
little wider, the suture not longer than the prothorax ; humeri transverse 
at base ; disk scarcely impressed, strongly distinctly and closely punctate. 
Abdomen parallel, very slightly narrower than the elytra, minutely feebly and 
sparsely punctulate. Length (extended) 3.0-3.5 mm.; width 0.7-0.9 mm. 

New York (Catskill Mts.). 

The description is taken from three males, which are perfectly 
similar among themselves, except that the notch in the tip of the 
frontal process varies in size, in some specimens being very narrow. 
The female greatly resembles the female of insignitus, except that 
the eyes are somewhat less basal, the elytra' shorter and the neck a 
little wider. 

O. COnTergens Lee. — Trans. Am. Ent. Soc , VI, 1877, p. 236. 

Head in the male large, at base rather wider than the prothorax, 
coarsely, riigosely punctate, with a large apical concavity, the eyes 
convex, at their own length from the basal angles, the tempora 
strongly divergent behind the eyes, the frontal margin slightly pro- 
duced in a short broad truncate process ; antennae a little longer 
than the head, the tenth joint slightly wider than long. Prothorax 
nearly twice as wide as long, deeply trisulcate, broadly impressed 
laterally, strongly, rather closely punctate. Elytra a little longer 
and wider than the prothorax, strongly, moderately closely punctate. 
Length 3.8 mm.; width 1.1 mm. Georgia and Florida. 

The mentum is as usual composed of three parts, the basal lim- 
ited by a deep groove, trapezoidal in form, extending from one 
basal angle to the other and advancing anteriorly more than one- 
half the entire length, the apical consisting of a narrow transverse 



Coleopterological Notices, V, 387 

semi-membranous margin. In the male the sixth ventral plate has 
two small feeble teeth on the apical edge, separated by one-third of 
the total width ; the seventh is prolonged in the middle in a lignli- 
form process which is as long as wide, gradually narrowed toward 
the truncate apex, the surface of the segment perfectly flat and even 
throughout, except a very feeble swelling at the tip of the ligula. 

O. fuscipennis Mann.— Bull. Mosc, 1843, II, p. 233, 

Black, the elytra rufescent ; legs pale brown ; surface highly pol- 
ished, the punctures strong but rather sparse, closer and feebly sub- 
confluent on the elytra. The head in the male is large, about as 
wide as the prothorax, with a large deep apical concavity, the 
middle of the frontal edge broadly sinuate, the sinuation limited 
by rather prominent angular projections ; eyes rather small, at 
nearly twice their length from the neck, the tempora evenly, 
strongly arcuate from the eyes to the neck ; antennae a little longer 
than the head, the outer joints strongly transverse. Prothorax not 
twice as wide as long, deeply trisulcate, also longitudinally, ob- 
liquely impressed toward the sides. Elytra a little wider and dis- 
tinctly longer than the prothorax. Length 4.0 mm. ; width 1.2 mm. 
Alaska to California. 

The sixth ventral is not modified, the seventh abruptly produced 
in the middle in a gradually narrowed ligula, a little longer than 
wide, subtruncate at apex, the surface of the segment thrown up 
in the middle at the base of the ligula in a short transverse ridge 
which is steep behind, gradually declivous anteriorly, the summit 
of the ridge scarcely one-half wider than the apex of the ligula, 
with its lateral limits very acute, each bearing a stiff seta ; surface 
of the ligula perfectly flat throughout. The transverse groove of 
the mentum attains the middle of the length, is parabolic in form 
and interrupted in the middle. 

In connection with this species, I do not understand the reference 
by Mr. Fauvel to laqueatus Marsh., as the sexual characters in my 
representative of that species are altogether different, nor to lutei- 
pennis Erichs., by Dr. Sharp in the "Biologia," as that species is 
stated by Erichson to have the sixth ventral plate bituberculate at 
apex. I think there can be no doubt that I have correctly identi- 
fied Mannerheim's species, as there seems to be none other at all 
like it found in Alaska. There is a large series in my cabinet. 
Dr. LeConte confounded with this species one or more eastern 



388 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

forms, and the indicated sexual characters of the male (1. c, p. 285) 
must surely have been inadvertently taken from a specimen of 0. 

scidptus. 

O. iiilllius n. sp. — Stout, black, polished, the elytra dark rufous ; legs 
and basal parts of the antennae pale ; integuments glabrous, with a few erect 
stiff setae, the two occipital distinct. Head just visibly narrower than the 
prothorax, nearly as long as wide, strongly but rather sparsely punctate, 
broadly concave anteriorly, the frontal margin very broadly, feebly produced 
and slightly sinuate, with the lateral angles obtuse; eyes convex; tempora 
strongly arcuate from the eye to the neck, one-half longer than the former 
and equally prominent ; neck two-thirds as wide as the head ; antennae one- 
third longer than the head, the outer joints rapidly incrassate, basal joint 
long, stout and cylindrical. Prothorax not quite twice as wide as long, widest 
scarcely before the middle ; sides broadly rounded, convergent and sinuate 
posteriorly, the basal angles prominent ; base arcuate ; apex truncate, feebly 
sinuate laterally ; disk strongly trisulcate, strongly, longitudinally impressed 
sublaterally ; strongly but sparsely punctate. Elytra a little wider and dis- 
tinctly longer than the prothorax ; sides feebly divergent ; humeri exposed ; 
base broadly emarginate in circular arc ; disk flat, "coarsely, closely punctate, 
the punctures becoming slightly confluent along the middle of each. Abdomen 
slightly narrower than the elytra, almost impunctate, minutely, sparsely 
punctulate toward base. Length 5.0 mm. ; width 1.25 mm. 

Pennsylvania. 

The male from which the description is drawn, has two extremely 
obsolete dentiform subapical elevations on the sixth ventral plate, 
separated by one-fifth of the entire width, the seventh abruptly pro- 
duced in the middle in a short gradually narrowed lig-ula, much 
shorter than wide, with its apex slightly thickened, beveled and 
transversely truncate, the surface of the segment and ligula per- 
fectly even and flat throughout, the eighth narrowly, deeply im- 
pressed throughout the length along the median line. 

This species is allied to fuscipennis, but differs in the male sexual 
characters and antennal structure. 

O. montanus n. sp. — Stout, black, glabrous, highly polished through- 
out, the elytra scarcely visibly rufo-piceous ; legs piceous-black, the tarsi 
paler ; antennae scarcely paler at base. Head slightly narrower than the 
prothorax, distinctly shorter than wide, strongly, not densely punctate, the 
mandibles stout, arcuate, the apical concavity large, transverse ; frontal 
margin very broadly, feebly produced, distinctly sinuate, with rather promi- 
nent angles ; eyes moderate, prominent ; tempora strongly arcuate from the 
eyes to the neck, not twice as long as the eye and rather more prominent ; 
antennae one-half longer than the head, strongly incrassate, the eleventh 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 389 

joint barely as long or wide as the preceding two, basal joint slender, feebly 
constricted toward apex. Prothorax twice as wide as long, the sides broadly, 
evenly arcuate from apex to base, parallel nearly to the middle, then conver- 
gent to the basal angles which are obtuse and scarcely evident ; base broadly 
arcuate ; apex truncate, the sinuations distant and very feeble ; disk strongly 
trisulcate, broadly impressed toward the sides, strongly but not densely 
punctate throughout. Elytra as wide as the prothorax and distinctly longer ; 
sides almost parallel ; humeri feebly exposed ; disk strongly, evenly, not 
densely punctate throughout, the punctures tending to unite longitudinally. 
Abdomen a little narrower than the elytra ; sides parallel and slightly arcuate ; 
punctures minute, rather numerous toward base, very remote and obsolete 
toward apex. Length 3.6-4.0 mm.; width 1.1-1.2 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe). 

This species is allied to fuscipennis, differing in the more strongly 
and less sparsely punctured integuments, dark elytra and legs, 
rounded sides of the prothorax with nearly obsolete basal angles, 
and in the male sexual characters. The sixth ventral plate is not 
modified, the seventh abruptly produced in the middle in a very 
short gradually narrowed ligula, much wider than long, with the 
apex feebly sinuato-truncate, the angles rounded, its surface tumid 
and widely beveled toward apex, the surface of the segment with 
two approximate subconfluent setigerous tubercles at some distance 
anterior to the base of the ligula, and distant by less than the apical 
width of the latter. 

O. iiiTeiillstlls n. sp. — Stout, black, highly polished and glabrous, the 
elytra dark piceous ; legs and basal joint of the antennae pale ; sparse erect 
setae long and distinct. Head small, wider than long, distinctly narrower 
than the prothorax, deeply concave at apex, the median parts of the clypeus 
flat, with the apical margin broadly sinuate and biangulate ; punctures strong 
but sparse ; eyes moderate, convex ; tempora strongly, evenly arcuate to the 
neck, but slightly longer than the eye and not more prominent ; antennae one- 
half longer than the head, strongly incrassate, the first joint long, slightly 
contorted and broadly constricted near the apex ; tenth scarcely one-third 
wider than long, eleventh small, not as long as the two preceding. Prothorax 
not twice as wide as long, widest at the middle, the sides parallel, evenly, 
broadly arcuate throughout ; base and apex very nearly equal ; basal angles 
broadly obtuse but not blunt ; disk strongly trisulcate, broadly and strongly 
impressed sublaterally, strongly but rather sparsely punctate, the punctures 
tine on the median ridges. Elytra distinctly longer than the prothorax, at 
base equal in width, at apex a little wider ; disk strongly but rather sparsely, 
nearly evenly punctate. Abdomen distinctly narrower than the elytra ; sides 
parallel, feebly arcuate toward apex; surface subimpunctate ; border rather 
deep, moderately thin. Length 3.7 mm.; width 1.1 mm. 



390 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Maryland. 

The small head may be exceptional and an individual feature in 
the unique type, for it varies a good deal m fuscipennis ; I find, 
however, that the sexual characters at the ventral apex are very 
nearly constant, whatever may be the size of the head. The present 
species is allied closely to fuscipennis, but differs in having two 
small feeble tubercles at the apex of the sixth ventral plate, sepa- 
rated mutually by only one-eighth or one-tenth of the entire width, 
also in the parallel sides of the prothorax. The seventh ventral is 
abruptly produced in a narrow, gradually almost parallel, narrowly 
truncate ligula, longer than wide, with the surface at apex broadly 
and feebly beveled, the surface of the segment at the base of the 
ligula acutely and confluently bituberculate and bisetigerous. The 
transverse grove of the mentum is entire and in the form of a cir- 
cular arc. 

O. pemisylvaiiicus Erichs. — Gren. Staph., p. 792; Lee: Trans. Am. 
Ent. Soc, VI, p. 235. 

Dark rufo-piceous, the elytra, legs and basal parts of the antennae 
pale, brownish-flavate ; surface polished, glabrous. Head scarcely 
visibly narrow^er than the prothorax, transverse, the frontal margin 
not produced, broadly arcuate in the middle ; antennae not quite as 
long as the head and prothorax, moderately incrassate. Prothorax 
three-fourths wider than long, widest at the middle, the sides almost 
evenly arcuate ; base and apex subequal ; disk finely, sparsely punc- 
tate like the head. Elytra slightly wider and distinctly longer than 
the prothorax, rather sparsely, not coarsely punctate, a broad me- 
dian area of each feebly impressed and more closely punctured. 
Abdomen parallel, distinctly narrower than the elytra, subimpunc- 
tate. Length 3.4-4.4 mm.; width 0.15-0.95 mm. New York to 
the Gulf States. 

The sixth ventral plate of the male has at apex two small 
tubercles, distant by one-sixth of the entire width ; the seventh 
is feebly produced in a gradually narrowed, short flat ligula, much 
wider than long, with its apex emarginate, and the surface of the 
segment at the base of the ligula is obtusely elevated in the form of 
a short, transverse, anteriorly arcuate ridge, the highest point of 
Avhich is the middle and not the setigerous lateral extremities as in 
fuscipennis and its allies. The arcuate line of the mentum is very 
fine and is subinterrupted in the middle. The head in the female is 
much smaller than in the male, with the eyes relatively larger. 



Coleopterplogical Notices, V. 391 

O. incoluitlis Eriehs. — Gen. Staph., p. 791 ; Lee. : 1. c, p. 235. 

Head black; prothorax and abdomen dark brownish-rufous; 
-elytra and legs pale flavate ; antennae rufo-fuscous, slightly paler 
toward base ; integuments polished, glabrous, very finely, sparsely 
punctate, the elytra a little more coarsely and deeply, the abdomen 
finely punctate and sparsely clothed with short, stiff pubescence. 
Head and prothorax without longitudinal grooves, the antennae 
moderately incrassate, the tenth joint in the male strongly trans- 
verse, the eleventh unusually long, equalling the preceding three. 
Elytra equal in length and width to the prothorax. Abdomen 
parallel, a little narrower than the elytra, the border rather thin 
and deep. Length 3.5 mm.; width 1.0 mm. Southern States. 

One of the most distinct and isolated of our species, easily known 
by the characters given above and by the parallel and feebly arcuate 
sides of the prothorax. The sixth ventral of the male has at apex 
two feeble, broadly cuspiform tubercles, separated by between one- 
sixth and one-eighth of the width, the seventh produced in a flat 
ligula, a little wider than long, with the sides rapidly convergent 
to the feebly sinuato-truncate apex, the surface not beveled at its 
apex, and the surface of the segment perfectly flat and even 
throughout. 

O. mgOSUS Fabr. — Syst. Ent., p. 267 ; basalts Mels.: Proc. Ag. Nat. Sci., 
Philai^, II, p. 41 ; rugulosus Harris nee Say. 

This fine species is too w^ell known to need extended notice ; the 
American specimens do not differ at all from the European, except 
perhaps in the less finely substrigose sculpture of the head. The 
head is large in the male, with the antennae as long as the head 
and prothorax, the outer joints not at all transverse and the eleventh 
much shorter than the two preceding. Prothorax arcuately nar- 
rowed from near the apex, as wide as the elytra and fully three- 
fourths as long. Abdomen minutely granulato-reticulate and dull. 
Length 4.2-5.0 mm. ; width 1.0-1.1 mm. United States and 
Europe. I have not seen it, however, from the Pacific Coast. 

The mentum differs greatly from that of fuscipennis and the 
other allied species preceding, having no trace of the transverse 
groove ; it is rectangular, twice as wide as long, finely, densely 
granulato-reticulate and dull, with a wide membranous apical 
margin. The male sexual characters are also of a different type, 
the fifth ventral having a strong porrect median tooth, the sixth a 



392 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

feebly elevated bisinuate subapical elevation, and the seventh is 
deeply, almost equally and angularly biemarginate. 

O. niger Lee— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, VI, 1877, p. 235. 

Parallel, rather narrow, somewhat convex, polished, black 
throughout, the antennae not at all paler at base; legs dark red- 
dish-brown. Head slightly transverse, convex, a little narrower 
than the prothorax, impressed only at the inner side of the anten- 
nal prominences, the frontal margin finely beaded, transversely 
truncate; punctures fine but strong, not dense; eyes very small; 
tempora large, rounded, more prominent than the eye ; antennae as 
long as the head and prothorax, feebly incrassate, the basal joint 
long, cylindrical, narrowed gradually toward base, tenth very 
slightly transverse, eleventh nearly as long as the preceding two. 
Prothorax two-thirds wider than long, narrowed behind from near 
the apex, trlsulcate, the median sulcus deeper, scarcely impressed 
toward the sides, not very coarsely but strongly, sparsely punctate. 
Elytra equal in width to the prothorax but not quite as long, rather 
coarsely but sparsely punctate, somewhat uneven. Abdomen very 
remotely and obsoletely punctulate, rather coarsely so and distinctly 
pubescent beneath. Length 3.3 mm.; width 0.75 mm. California 
(San Francisco and Lake Tahoe) ; British Columbia — LeConte. 

The sixth ventral plate of the male is obtusely tuberculate at its 
centre, and also has, on the disk near the posterior edge, two small 
erect very approximate tubercles arranged transversely, the seventh 
broadly biemarginate, the median lobe broadly rounded, the eighth 
not longitudinally impressed. The mentum is transverse, shining 
though transversely rugulose, impressed along the basal margin, 
and with the usual pale semi-membranous apical piece. 

O. placusinilS Lee— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, VI, 1877, p. 237. 

Pale reddish-brown throughout, the head and abdomen more 
piceous but only slightly darker ; punctures rather coarse, very 
dense, forming long anastomosing rugae, the depressed flat front of 
the head between the antennal prominences shining, almost im- 
punctate; tergum subimpunctate but strongly reticulate and dull 
toward base ; integuments glabrous, the tempora, and especially 
the venter, distinctly pubescent. Head narrower than the protho- 
rax, as long as wide, subquadrate ; eyes small, convex, at the 
middle ; antennae feebly incrassate, one-half longer than the head. 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 393 

Prothorax rectangular, one-half wider than long, the sides parallel, 
very feebly arcuate; median groove feeble, the others almost com- 
pletely obsolete. Elytra distinctly wider and longer than the pro- 
thorax, flat. Length 2.5 mm.; width 0.^5 mm. District of 
Columbia. 

Of this distinct and myrmecophilous species I have only seen 
the female. The mentum is smooth and polished, with a trans- 
verse, feebly arcuate broad and irregularly eroded subbasal groove, 
and the usual membranous apical margin. 

O. densus n. sp. — Parallel, rather narrow, strongly shining, glabrous, 
the tergum with very minute sparse hairs, the venter minutely and extremely 
remotely pubescent ; pronotum rufous ; elytra darker, piceous ; head and 
abdomen black ; legs pale flavate ; antennae blackish, pale toward base ; 
punctures throughout the head, pronotum and elytra rather coarse, very 
dense, subcoalescent ; separated lougitudinally by anastomosing rugae, the 
front between the antennal prominences shining and subimpunctate ; abdo- 
men polished throughout, very minutely remotely and obsoletely punctulate. 
Head very slightly narrower than the prothorax, a little wider than long, the 
occiput feebly, remotely biimpressed at base only; eyes small, convex, at 
one-half more than their own length from the basal angles ; tempora nearly 
straight and parallel behind them to the rounded basal angles, thence sub- 
transverse to the neck ; antennae nearly as long as the head and prothorax, 
the basal joint cylindrical, as long as the next three, second much stouter 
than the third, outer joints moderately incrassate, tenth one-half wider than 
long, eleventh as wide and long as the two preceding, ogival. Prothorax nearly 
twice as wide as long, widest near apical third, the sides parallel, broadly, 
evenly arcuate from the apex to the antebasal notch, the latter distinct ; base 
narrower than the apex, arcuate, the latter truncate ; disk unusually convex 
toward the middle, the median groove deep, the others obsolete, not impressed 
toward the sides. Elytra slightly wider and much longer than the prothorax ; 
sides divergent, broadly arcuate behind ; humeri exposed ; disk flat. Abdomen 
a little narrower than the elytra ; sides parallel ; border moderately deep, 
rather thin toward base, gradually very tliin behind the middle. Length 
1.9-2.1 mm. ; width 0.5 mm. 

Maryland ; Texas. 

Possibly also myrmecophilous, somewhat Yesemhlingy. placusiims 
but much smaller, with the abdomen polished, much less pubescent 
beneath, and the prothorax short, narrowed and laterally emargi- 
nate near the base. The female has the head smaller and shorter 
and the eyes relatively larger, situated at not more than their own 
length from the base. In the male the seventh ventral plate is 
broadly bisinuate at apex, the median lobe feeble but obtusely an- 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Nov. 1893.— 26 



394 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

gulate, the eighth not distinctly impressed. The mentum is nearly 
as in placusinus, but with a deeper, more even, feebly arcuate and 
unusualy coarse subbasal groove. Numerous specimens. 

O. alpicola n. sp. (Fauvel MS.) — Broad, flat above, dull, very densely 
sculptured, black througliout, the antennse slightly paler toward base ; legs 
dark rnfo-testaceous ; integuments deeply, densely but not very coarsely 
punctate, the punctures separated by longitudinally anastomosing rugse 
throughout, the small depressed clypeus between the antennal prominences 
more feebly sculptured and somewhat shining ; abdomen coarsely, strongly 
reticulate and dull, feebly, sparsely punctate and sparsely clothed with short 
hairs, which are more distinct but not at all closer on the polished under sur- 
face. Head subquadrate, nearly as long as wide, quite distinctly narrower 
than the prothorax, longitudinally trisulcate, the median impression narrow 
and distinct, the lateral broad and feebler ; eyes small, at fully one-half more 
than their own length from the basal angles ; tempora divergent and nearly 
straight behind them, broadly rounded behind, becoming transverse near the 
neck, which is narrow, only three-fifths as wide as the head ; antennae gradu- 
ally, moderately incrassate, scarcely one-half longer than the head, the basal 
joint as long as the next three, second longer and thicker than the third, 
tenth one-half wider than long, eleventh fully as wide but not quite as long 
as the preceding two, obtusely ogival. Prothorax about twice as wide as long, 
the sides parallel and feebly arcuate, becoming strongly convergent in basal 
half, the basal angles very obtuse, almost obliterated ; disk trisulcate, the 
median sulcus distinct and entire, the lateral partial and broadly impressed, 
scarcely at all impressed toward the sides. Elytra equal in width to the 
prothorax and nearly one-half longer, one-third wider than long ; sides 
subparallel, feebly arcuate ; humeri slightly exposed ; disk flat, not at all 
impressed at the suture near the base. Abdomen subequal in width to the 
elytra. Length 2.1 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

Colorado. 

The male is the only sex examined ; it has very feeble abdominal 
characters, the seventh ventral plate being transversely truncate 
throughout its width, shorter than the dorsal plate, the infolded 
sides of which are visible laterally beyond its apex. The mentum 
has no groove, but a depressed basal area, extending beyond the 
middle and ^bounded anteriorly by an arcuate line from angle to 
angle, which is. evenly, transversely rugose; anterior part polished, 
devoid of sculpture; apical membranous margin fine. 

O. IlitiduillS Grrav, — Micr., p. 107; punctatus Lee: Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, 
VI, p. 236 ; rugulosus Gemm. et Har. nee Say. 

Elongate, slender, parallel and rather depressed, shining, strongly 
but not densely punctate, black, the legs pale; elytra rufo-testaceous, 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 395 

generally more or less infumate toward base. Head in the male 
nearly as wide as the prothorax, obsoletely trisnlcate, the eyes at 
their own length from the basal angles, the tempora slightly 
divergent behind them and a little more prominent. Prothorax 
trisulcate, the median sulcus deep and narrow, the lateral broad 
and very feeble, also broadly impressed toward the sides. Elytra 
a little wider and distinctly longer than the prothorax. Length 
2.1-2.9 mm.; width 0.6 mm. Pacific Coast and Siberia to Western 
Europe. 

The male seems to be much less abundant than the female and 
has rather feeble sexual modifications, the sixth ventral plate being 
broadly and just visibly sinuate toward the middle, and the seventh 
moderately bisinuate. The groove of the mentum is feebly arcuate, 
very deep and somewhat uneven. A male which I took in the Sta. 
Clara Valley, California, has longer elytra, at least one-half longer 
than the prothorax, but does not differ much otherwise. 

According to Mr. Fauvel the Mexican rugulosus of Say and car- 
bonellus Solksy, are identical. 

O. suspectlis n. sp.— 0. nitidulus Lee. nee Grav. : Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 
VI, p. 237. — Parallel, polished, blaik, the elytra and legs pale brownish- 
testaceous ; antennae piceous toward base ; integuments glabrous ; the venter 
remotely, coarsely pubescent. Head very nearly as wide as the prothorax, 
slightly wider than long, coarsely, closely punctate laterally, finely, feebly 
so toward the middle, the subquadrate clypeus convex and scarcely at all 
punctured, finely impressed along the middle posteriorly to the base and with 
two distant impressions at the base of the occiput ; eyes moderate, at their 
own length from the basal angles, the latter broadly rounded to the neck, a 
little more prominent than the eyes ; neck two-thirds as wide as the head ; 
antennae as long as the head and prothorax, rather strongly incrassate and 
perfoliate, the tenth joint not quite twice as wide as long, eleventh small, 
conoidal, not as wide as the tenth and shorter than the two preceding. Pro- 
thorax strongly, closely, somewhat longitudinally punctate, three-fourths wider 
than long, widest at apical third ; sides evenly rounded anteriorly, becoming 
gradually distinctly convergent and straight behind, the basal angles obtuse 
but distinct ; base feebly arcuate, narrower than the subtruncate apex ; disk 
trisulcate, the median sulcus deep and distinct, the lateral broad and feeble, 
also impressed toward the sides. Elytra a little wider and longer than the 
prothorax, transverse, flat, the sides feebly divergent ; humeri exposed ; disk 
of each very broadly, feebly impressed along the middle ; punctures strong 
but rather fine, longitudinally confluent, separated by fine close anastomosing 
rugae. Abdomen slightly narrower than the elytra, parallel, polished. Length 
1.6-2.0 mm. ; width 0.5-0.55 mm. 



896 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

New York ; North Carolina ; Nebraska. 

The female does not differ greatly, but has the head distinctly 
smaller. The sixth ventral plate of the male is not sinuate at apex, 
the seventh narrowly and feebly bisinuate in the middle at apex, 
the median lobe more advanced, small and broadly subangulate. 
The mental groove is coarse and deep. This species is readily dis- 
tinguishable from vitidulvs Grav., by its smaller size and much 
finer closer and aciculate sculpture of the elytra. It unquestion- 
ably does occur with ants, but I believfe only occasionally, as I 
have found it in localities which were apparently not connected ia 
any way with their nests. 

O. soliriiilis Lee— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, VI, 1877, p. 237. 

Rather broad, depressed, moderately shining, black, the elytra 
with a slight piceous tinge; legs paler, piceo-testaceous ; antennae 
scarcely at all paler at base. Head feebly trisulcate, strongly punc- 
tate, distinctly narrower than the prothorax, the eyes well devel- 
oped, at their own length from the basal angles, the tempora par- 
allel, not at all more prominent than the eyes; antennse strongly 
incrassate, the last joint not quite as long as the two preceding. 
Prothorax nearly as in mtidulus, but more densely sculptured. 
Elytra distinctly wider and nearly one-half longer than the pro- 
thorax ; sides rather strongly divergent ; disk between the slightly 
swollen upper limits of the flanks perfectly flat, finely, confluently 
punctate and closely, longitudinally rugose. Abdomen distinctly 
narrower than the elytra, parallel, finely reticulate, feebly aluta- 
ceous, finely, sparsely, subgranularly punctulate and minutely, 
sparsely pubescent, much more distinctly so beneath. Length 
1.9-2.6 mm.; width 0.6-0.75 mm. California (Humboldt to Los 
Angeles) ; Southwestern Utah. 

The head in the female is distinctly smaller. In the male the 
sixth ventral plate is unmodified, the seventh feebly bisinuate in 
the middle, the small median lobe slightly produced, rounded and 
extremely minutely fimbriate along its apex. The groove of the 
mentum is coarse, deep and entire. This species is allied to nitidu- 
lus and suspectus, but differs in its broader form and in the much 
finer, denser, substrigose sculpture of the elytra. 

O. Tegrandis n. sp. — Slender, parallel, depressed, feebly shining, 
minutely strigilate, black, the elytra piceous ; legs pale, the femora blackish ; 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 397 

antennEe pioeous at base. Head large, slightly transverse, as wide as the 
prothorax, feebly impressed along the middle ; depressed clypeus strigilate 
and dull ; eyes convex, at a little more than their own length from the basal 
angles, rather more prominent than the tempora, the latter straight and 
parallel behind them, abruptly rounded at base ; antennae rather slender, 
leebly iucrassate, fully as long as the head and prothorax, tenth joint slightly 
transverse, tlie eleventh pointed, fully as long as the two preceding. Prothorax 
two-thirds wider than long, the sides feebly convergent, evenly and distinctly 
arcuate from apex to base, the basal angles obtuse and almost obliterated ; 
disk with four polished feeble carinae, separated by concavities of the surface, 
the two median very approximate, but becoming more distant from base to 
apex, rather strongly impressed also toward the sides. Elytra distinctly wider 
and longer than the prothorax, the sides nearly parallel and straight; humeri 
exposed at base; disk flat, finely, densely strigilate, also obscurely punctate, 
the strigilations slightly confluent and shining toward base. Abdomen a little 
narrower than the elytra, parallel, shining, very coarsely but feebly reticu- 
late, minutely remotely and obsoletely punctulate, each terglte with two 
distant erect and stiff setae at apex ; under surface polished, very remotely 
pubescent. Legs slender, the posterior tarsi very short ; anterior tibias not 
augulate externally near the apex. Length 1.4 mm. ; width 0.35 mm. 

California (near San Francisco). 

While allied to nanus, this minute species differs in its coarser 
strigilation, longer, much more slender antennae, and in the male 
sexual characters. The sixth ventral is fimbriate at apex and sinu- 
ate in median fifth, the seventh cylindrically impressed and finely 
pubescent along the middle, the apex produced in the middle in a 
small broadly rounded simple lobe, the eighth broadly impressed. 
The mentum is coarsely, transversely grooved in the middle. 

O. nanus Erichs. — Gen. Staph., p. 797. 

O. exigUIIS Erichs.— Gen. Staph., p. 798 ; pygtnmus Melsh. : Proc. Ac. 
Phila., II, p. 41 ; parvulus Melsh. : 1. c , p. 41. 

I cannot resolve the ample material in my cabinet into distinctly 
characterized species. It is easy to select two or three specimens 
which apparently represent species, but in all cases others are found 
which seem to be intermediate; so it is impossible to give any dis- 
tinguishing characters at present. The species may be readily 
known by its opaque, minutely strigilate sculpture, less dense in 
the female, especially on the head, and its polished subimpunctate 
abdomen. Length 1.2-1.8 mm.; width 0.3-0.45 mm. New York 
to Florida; Lake Superior and Texas — probably extending through 
Mexico. 



398 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

O. tetracarinatus Block. — Verz. Ins. Plauen., p. 116; depressus Grav. , 
Micr., p. 103. 

This species is added on the authority of LeConte and Fauve], 
as I have seen no American specimens. It is very readily distin- 
guishable from nanus by its larger, longer elytra, stouter form and 
less polished, somewhat reticulate abdomen, which is finely, sub- 
granularly punctulate. Length 1.7 mm.; width 0.55 mm. Europe; 
Indiana — LeConte. 



Omalini. 

The genera allied to Lesteva form a much more important ele- 
ment in the omaline fauna of North America than of Europe, and 
may be distinguished among themselves as follows : — 

Third joint of the maxillary palpi very small, not longer than wide, the 
fourth extremely long as in Lesteva ; pronotum not impressed at the 
sides ; labrum as in Lesteva, composed of two nearly equal parts, the 
hasal corneous, transverse and broadly truncate, the apical abruptly 
thin, translucent and rounded. 
Elytra short, quadrate ; first four joints of the hind tarsi subeqnal in length, 
the first not quite as long as the second ; antennae not clavate. 

Pseudolesteva 

Elytra long, extending to the apex of the third ventral ; fiist four joints of 

the hind tarsi subequal, the first not appreciably longer than the second ; 

antennae with the last three joints longer and thicker than the eighth, 

forming an elongate and very slender club Tevales 

Third joint of the maxillary palpi longer than wide ; pronotum always im- 
pressed near the middle of the sides. 
Maxillary palpi filiform, nearly as in Lesteva, the second joini but slightly 
thicker than the third or fourth; third very slightly longer than wide 
and scarcely more than one-fourth as long as the fourth ; labrum semi- 
circular, the central parts tumid, uneven and dense, the edges through- 
out thinned and translucent ; antennae filiform, the joints elongate. 

Uiianiig 
Maxillary palpi smaller, the second joint thick, nearly three times as wide 
as the very slender fourth, third one-half longer than wide, a little thicker 
than the fourth and less than one-half as long ; labrum as long as wide, 
acutely parabolic, the edges throughout abruptly but very narrowly 
thinned and translucent ; antennae short, gradually incrassate, the outer 

joints not longer than wide Artocllia 

Maxillary palpi filiform, the second joint not much thicker than the third 
or fourth, the second two to nearly three times as long as wide and 
one-half as long as the fourth or somewhat less ; labrum short, broad, 



Coleopterological Notices, V, 399 

entirely corneous, broadly rounded at apex, the disk abruptly, strongly, 
transversely impressed and thinned in apical third ; antennae filiform. 

Head completely devoid of any trace of ocelli ; body small Tellica 

Head with two distinct and widely distant ocelli ; body large Tilea 

It is not possible to state at present whether the rather numerous 
European species of Lesteva display notable variation in tarsal 
structure, but certainly our pallipes and cribratulus are not at all 
conformable with pubescens and longelytrata which I have under 
observation, since both differ radically in tarsal structure, and cribra- 
tulus also in its much longer elytra, subclavate antennae and nar- 
rower, more convex form of the body. 

PSEUDOLESTETA n. gen. 

The three forms described by LeConte have been combined to 
form the single species pallipes. My material is not sufficiently 
extensive to enable me to pronounce any opinion of value, but, 
although extremely similar in form, it is possible that pallipes and 
higuttula {^ picesceyis) may really be distinct, at least the two 
oblique spots of the latter seem to be very constant and character- 
istic; the true pallipes is entirely black with the legs pale flavate. 
Pseudolesteva is limited to the Atlantic regions of the continent. 

TETALES n. gen. 

A single species, remarkably distinct from Ps. pallipes in general 
habitus, forms the type of this genus, which is also confined as far 
as known to the Atlantic faunal regions. These two genera of the 
Atlantic slope are much more closely allied to the true Lesteva than 
those of the Pacific fauna, and the latter are furthermore remarkable 
as a group in having the pronotum deeply impressed at the sides. 

T. cribratulus n. sp. — Pale and uniform brownish-testaceous through- 
out, the legs slightly paler ; surface rather shining ; pubescence uniform, 
moderate in length, not dense. Head much wider than long, distinctly nar- 
rower than the prothorax and about as wide as an elytron, finely densely and 
distinctly punctate, indefinitely biimpressed, transversely impressed between 
the antennae, the epistomal suture visible near the sides ; ocelli distinct, just 
behind the line of the posterior limit of the eyes, distant by one third of the 
total width ; eyes well developed, setose ; tempora less than one-half as long ; 
antennae very slender, one-half as long as the body, second joint rather longer 
than the third, fifth nearly three times as long as wide, eighth shorter than 
the seventh or ninth. Prothorax oue-fourlh wider than long, the sides evenly 



400 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

arcuate and convergent to the apex from just before the middle, convergent 
and strongly sinuate in basal half; base and apex equal; disk convex, even, 
finely densely evenly and very distinctly punctate. Elytra more than twice 
as long as the prothorax and three-fourths wider, longer than wide ; humeri 
rounded and exposed ; sides just visibly divergent throughout ; disk strongly 
densely punctate. Abdomen short behind the elytra, feebly, sparsely punctu- 
late. Legs short but slender ; hind tarsi short, scarcely one-half as long as 
the tibise. Length 2.7 mm. ; width 1.0 mm. 

Penosylvaiiia. 

The single speeinien is a male, having the sixth ventral feebly 
sinuato-truncate at apex. The maxillary palpi are as in Lesteva 
pubescens, the second joint stouter than the third and fourth, the 
third small, not quite as long as wide and scarcely more than one- 
sixth as long as the fourth. In Lesteva the head is constricted at 
a much greater distance behind the eyes, the ocelli being notably 
more basal, and the second antennal joint is rather shorter than the 
third. In Pseudolesteva the second antennal joint is much shorter 
than the third, and the fourth palpal joint is shorter and more gradu- 
ally pointed toward apex. 

IJiVAMIS n. gen. 

The species previously described as Lesteva truncata (Bull. Cal. 
Acad. Sci., I, p. 322) demands without any doubt a special genus 
for its reception. It is most closely allied to Artochia, resembling 
that genus in the basal position of the eyes and obsolete tempera, 
but differs in palpal structure and in the tarsi. In Unamis the 
hind tarsi are long and slender, with the basal joint equal to the 
next two together. 

ARTOCHIA n. gen. 

Body small, rather narrow, the head small, triangular, with the 
front somewhat prolonged ; eyes basal, densely setose, the head 
transversely constricted immediately behind them ; ocelli widely 
distant and on the edge of the transverse constriction. Antennae 
incrassate, much shorter than in any other genus of this group. 
Maxillae with the inner lobe elongate, arcuate aud feebly ungulate 
at apex, with an inner fringe of very minute setae ; outer lobe as 
long as the inner, very slender, gradually thicker near the base, 
arcuate at apex, the latter with a terminal tuft of minute setae; 
cardo very large, elongate, densely pubescent. Labial palpi with 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 401 

the last joint slender and greatly elongate as usual. Coxae all con- 
tiguous. Mesosternum feebly carinate; metasternum long. Elytra 
extending to the middle of the second ventral, Le^s short and 
stout ; tibiae sparsely spinulose, the anterior thick but abruptly 
narrowed at base in the male ; tarsi short, the first four joints of 
the posterior equal in length. 

A. prodUCtifrons n. sp. — Black, finely, densely punctate throughout, 
the antennae dusky ; legs pale flavo-testaceous ; integuments feebly shining, 
the pubescence fine, short and abundant. Head with labrum acutely tri- 
angular, longer than wide, evenly convex, just visibly and obliquely bi- 
impressed beyond the eyes, the latter large, moderately convex ; epistomal 
suture feebly indicated ; antennae scarcely as long as the head and prothorax, 
gradually incrassate, outer joints barely as long as wide, eleventh conoidal, 
about as long as the two preceding, second much longer and thicker than the 
third, fourth shorter than the third. Prothorax transversely subquadrate, 
two-fifths wider than long, nearly one-half wider than the head, sides sub- 
parallel, very obtusely rounded at the middle, straight thence to the base and 
apex ; base truncate, rather wider than the apex ; disk transversely, evenly 
convex, impressed at each side, the margins thence to the base narrowly ex- 
planate. Elytra as long as wide, three-fourths longer and scarcely two-fifths 
wider than the prothorax ; humeri very narrowly exposed, rounded ; sides 
just perceptibly divergent, nearly straight ; apex truncate ; disk very broadly 
and feebly impressed along the suture except at base. Abdomen less punctate, 
much shorter than the elytra, rapidly acute at apex ; border strongly in- 
clined. Length 2.1 mm. ; width 0.9 mm. 

California (Gilroy Springs, Sta. Clara Co.). 
The unique type appears to be a male, but the sixth ventral is 
rather longer than the fifth, and is feebly subtruncate at apex. 

VELLICA Casey. 

This genus, with Tilea, forms a group immediately distinguish- 
able from the two preceding by the less basal eyes and absence of 
the transverse dorsal constriction behind them. The complete 
absence of any trace of ocelli is such an exceptional character, that 
I have taken care to verify it in a number of specimens and under 
the most favorable optical conditions. Otherwise Yellica is closely 
allied to Tilea, differing in the small size of the body, narrower and 
more convex form and non-explanate sides of the pronotum. 



402 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

TILEA Fauvel. 
Phlceopterus Mots. i. litt. ; Phlceopterus Csy., olim. 

This is the most conspicuous of the endemic North American 
genera of Omalini, although probably occurring also in Siberia ; I 
believe there is no record of its having been taken there, however. 
The two species previously assigned by me to Phlceopterus — an 
erroneous quotation of Phlaeopterus Mots. i. 1. — belong in reality 
to Tilea, which has the fourth joint of the maxillary palpi, not one- 
half longer than the third as stated in the original description, but 
about twice as long as the third in the female, and often distinctly 
longer, especially in the male. 

The sexes differ but very little in general appearance, the female 
is however usually a little larger, relatively broader, and often with 
the elytra distinctly longer, and the male has the anterior tarsi 
slightly stouter toward base. The sixth ventral segment in the 
male is more or less sinuately or arcuately truncate, but is longer 
and parabolically rounded in the female. 

There are a number of distinct species of Tilea in North America, 
all confined to the true Pacific fauna, which descends to some extent 
also from the north along the crests of the Rocky Mountains indefi- 
nitely to the southward. Of T. camcollis Fvl. I have examined 
two specimens, one forming part apparently of the original lot from 
Vancouver, and the other taken in the high sierras of California ; 
it differs distinctly from longipalpus in its narrower form and in 
thoracic structure. 

The seven species thus far discovered may be readily distin- 
guished as follows: — 

Elytra long, always distinctly more than twice as long as the prothorax ; body 
black or piceous-black. 

Femora paler toward base, 6.75 mm. Unalaska Island fuSCOnigra. 

Femora not paler toward base. California to Vancouver. 
Prothorax strongly transverse. 

Sides of the pronotum broadly, feebly reflexed behind the fovea but 
only very narrowly and feebly declivo-subexplanate from the lateral 
angles to the apex ; prothorax smaller when compared with the 

elytra — 9 cavicollis 

Sides of the pronotum deeply concave and strongly reflexed continu- 
ously from the apical angles to the base, more broadly behind the 
fovea ; form distinctly broader, the prothorax nearly as wide as the 
elytra — J longipalpUS 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 403 

Prothorax much smaller and only slightly wider than long, perfectly 
similar in the two sexes. 
Larger species, the elytra each strongly rounded at apex ; hypomera 
narrow, much less than one-half as wide as the distance thence to the 

coxae ; tempora not one-third as long as the eye — % rilfitarsis 

Smaller, the elytra narrower, each subtruncate at apex, the lateral 
angles much less broadly rounded and oblique ; hypomera fully one- 
half as wide as the distance thence to the coxae ; tempora nearly one- 
half as long as the eye and more prominent than in rujitarsis — % . 

filicornis 
Elytra short, always distinctly less than twice as long as the prothorax ; color 
of body paler, castaneous throughout. Rocky Mts. 
Head strongly and densely punctate throughout ; antennae with the inter- 
mediate joints more than three times as long as wide, more finely and 
densely pubescent ; sides of the prothorax oblique and very feebly, 
broadly sinuate from the lateral angles to the base ; large species, the 
male with the sixth segment sinuato-truncate at apex — % . 

lirevipennis 
Head minutely and remotely punctate especially toward the middle ; 
antennae with the joints rather shorter and more coarsely pubescent ; 
sides of the prothorax very strongly constricted behind, deeply sinuate, 
becoming subparallel toward base; male with the sixth segment some- 
what lobed in the middle, the anterior tarsi more noticeably dilated ; size 
much smaller — % castanea 

It is possible ihsii fusconigr a Makl. may be the same as cavicollis 
or longipalpus, but considering the remote locality and the undoubted 
plurality of species in the genus, the chances are decidedly against 
such identity. 

T. rilfitarsis n. sp. — Rather shining, black throughout, the trochanters 
and tips of the coxae feebly rufescent ; pubescence dense, suberect, consisting 
of longer stiffer and more erect, and shorter and finer hairs, confusedly inter- 
mingled especially on the elytra. Head finely, densely punctate, distantly 
biimpressed between the eyes, transversely impressed between the antennae, 
the latter slender, filiform, black, not at all incrassate, more than one-half 
as long as the body, the joints fully three times as long as wide and feebly 
obconical ; eyes well developed, prominent ; tempora very short ; ocelli small, 
separated by two-fifths the entire width ; fourth palpal joint one-half longer 
than the second and much more than twice as long as the third in both sexes. 
Prothorax small, one-third wider than long, widest and laterally subangulate 
at two-fifths from the apex : sides thence to the base convergent and evenly 
sinuate throughout, to the apex more feebly convergent and broadly arcaate ; 
basal angles nearly right bat slightly blunt; disk finely, densely punctate, 
even though feebly distantly and obliquely biimpressed at basal third, and 
with a large deep impression at each side at the middle; surface anteriorly 
broadly, evenly convex from one lateral edge to the other, the side margins 



404 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

not at all explanate even near the basal angles. Elytra in the male two and 
one-half times as long as the prothorax, in the female nearly three times as 
long, longer than wide, near the apex almost twice as wide as the prothorax ; 
sides nearly straight, feebly divergent, external apical angles very broadly 
rounded and oblique ; punctures fine but strong, dense. Scutellum more 
finely and extremely densely punctate. Abdomen very short behind the elytra, 
extremely minutely, densely punctulate. Legs slender. Length 6.0-6.3 mm. ; 
width 2.3-2.6 mm. 

California (Siskiyou Co.). 

The male has the intermediate tibiae very feebly swollen, slightly 
constricted in apical fourth, the constricted part glabrous; in the 
female the same tibiae are more slender and have the glabrous ter- 
minal part scarcely at all constricted but occupying almost one-third 
of the total length. Three specimens. 

T. brevipeilllis n. sp. — Strongly shining, castaneous, the legs and 
coxae paler, rufous ; pubescence fine, moderate in length, abundant and uni- 
form. Head finely, densely punctate, nearly as in rujitarsis, the fourth palpal 
joint fully twice as long as the third and one-half longer than the second ; 
antennae very slender, filiform, rufous, three-fifths as long as the body, the 
joints very elongate, scarcely perceptibly obconical, the tenth very nearly 
three times as long as wide. Prothorax one-half wider than long and one-half 
"wider than the head, widest and obtusely subangulate at the sides just before 
the middle ; sides thence to the base convergent and feebly sinuate, becoming 
more sinuate only extremely near the basal angles which are right and not 
blunt, to the apex feebly convergent and slightly arcuate ; apex feebly bisinu- 
ate ; disk finely, closely punctate, not at all impressed on the disk near the 
base, the lateral impression large but only moderately deep ; sides broadly, 
feebly reflexed from the hind angles past the fovea to apical fourth. Elytra 
not quite as long as wide, four fifths longer than the prothorax, and, near the 
apex, two-fifths wider than the latter ; sides nearly straight and divergent 
from the exposed but rounded humeri nearly to the apex; disk strongly, 
moderately densely punctate. Abdomen short, very minutely, densely punc- 
tulate. Legs very long and slender. Length 6.5 mm. ; width 2.6 mm. 

Wyoming. 

The single male before me has th'e intermediate tibiae slender and 
almost evenly cylindrical, with the glabrous apical part extremely 
short and not in the least constricted, differing greatly in this re- 
spect from rujitarsis. 

T. castanea n. sp. — Less broad, strongly shining ; castaneous ; legs and 
antennae rufo-testaceous ; pubescence fine, dense, uniform and inclined. Head 
finely punctate, sparsely so toward the middle, otherwise as in rvjitarsis but 
with rather longer and more angulate tempora ; antennae filiform, three-fifths 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 405 

as long as the body, stouter than in hrevipermis, the outer joints more strongly 
obconical, the tenth scarcely more than twice as long as wide. Prothorax 
minutely but closely, strongly and evenly punctate, evenly convex, nearly 
as in brevipennis but with the sides broadly constricted toward base, becoming 
nearly parallel for some distance before the basal angles, which are right and 
not blunt ; base broadly, feebly sinuate, narrower than the apex, the latter 
feebly bisinuate ; disk simply feebly subexplanate from the fovea to the basal 
angles, not in the least reflexed, declivous to the edge from the lateral obtuse 
angulations to the apex ; lateral fovese large and very deep, the bottom punc- 
tiform. Scutellum large, very densely and more finely punctate. EUjtra as 
long as wide, not quite twice as long as the prothorax, and, near the apex, 
about one-fourth wider ; humeri broadly rounded to the base of the prothorax, 
but slightly exposed at base ; sides straight, divergent ; disk strongly, evenly, 
moderately closely punctate. Abdomen subobsoletely punctulate. Legs moder- 
ate in length, stouter and shorter than in brevipennis. Length 4.7-5.0 mm. ; 
width 1.9-2.0 mm. 

Colorado. 

The two specimens represent a species allied to brevipennis but 
differing- in the much smaller size, relatively longer elytra, stouter 
antennae and legs, deeper pronotal impressions and unreflexed lateral 
edges of the pronotum, as well as in the sparser, finer punctures of 
the head and the male sexual characters at the ventral apex. The 
anterior tarsi of the male are more strongly dilated toward base 
than in brevipennis, and both the anterior and intermediate are 
papillose beneath. As in rvfitarsis the elytra are distinctly longer 
in the female than in the male. 



OROBAlVrS LeConte. 

In view of the radical difference in palpal structure, the approxima- 
tion of this genus to Lesteva is very remarkable. It resembles Les- 
teva in the very slender cylindrical posterior tarsi, with the basal joint 
subequal to the next two, in the filiform antenna, duplex labrum, 
and in general appearance, but the spinules of the tibiae are replaced 
by a few long slender flexible setse, and the maxillary palpi are short 
stout and densely pubescent, with the fourth joint small slender and 
subulate. The pronotum is feebly impressed at the sides, thus con- 
forming partially to the general law affecting all the Californian 
allies of Lesteva. The three species may be separated as follows: — 

Eyes smaller, subequal in size to the tempora and not more prominent ; out- 
line and humeri as in rnjipes. Rocky Mts simulator Lee. 



406 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Eyes larger, much longer and more prominent than the tempora. 

Elytra with the sides strongly divergent from the humeri, which are 

obliquely rounded to the prothorax. Pacific fauna rtlfipes Csy. 

Elytra with the sides feebly divergent, the humeri much more broadly ex- 
posed, becoming transverse at base near the prothorax. Sonoran fauna. 

densus Csy. 

All of these species are minutely, very densely punctate and 
pubescent. 

GEODROmiCUS Redt. 

The members of this genus include some of the larger of the 
Omalini and are abundant in the western parts of North America. 
As remarked by Mr. Fauvel, the form of the body recalls Lesteva, 
or, it might be added, Orobanus, rather than Anthophagus with 
which the species were united by Gemminger and Harold; in the 
structure of the palpi they are somewhat intermediate between 
Orobanus and Anthophagus and differ greatly from Lesteva. The 
posterior tarsi, however, with the first four joints short and stout, 
together scarcely longer than the fifth, will at once distinguish the 
genus from Anthophagus. At the same time, integer, although 
perfectly normal in tarsal and palpal structure, seems to diverge in 
the direction of Anthophagus in the form of the prothorax, and a 
divergence in the same direction is alao observable in the tarsus of 
debilis. 

The American species known to me may be distinguished by^the 
following characters : — 

Prothorax never transversely quadrangular, the disk not at all explanate 

near the hind angles. 

Pronotum with a more or less distinct impression along the median line, the 

prothorax often much larger and ot a different form in the male ; last 

joint of the maxillary palpi longer, subulate and much narrower than 

the apex of the third, although frequently nearly as long as the latter. 

Larger species, pale castaneous, clouded with blackish toward the apices 

of the elytra, the abdomen paler and with a large blackish subapical 

cloud. Atlantic regions 1)riinneilS 

Smaller, the abdomen black or slightly piceous and uniform in coloration. 
Sides of the prothorax deeply sinuate posteriorly, becoming subparallel 
near the base. 
Pronotum strongly and closely punctate, the prothorax much larger 
in the male than in the female. 
Elytra more finely, moderately densely punctate ; anterior tibise 
of the male slender, nearly equal in diameter throughout, fully 
twice as long a,^ the tarsi, the latter moderately dilated. 

strictus 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 407 

Elytra more coarsely deeply and sparsely punctate ; antennae 
stouter ; anterior tibiae of the male shorter, thick, narrowed, 
near the base and less than twice as long as the tarsi, the latter 

more dilated faiiveli 

Pronotum more finely feebly and much more sparsely punctured ; 
discal parts of the elytra more or less indefinitely clouded with 
a paler rufescent tinge. 
Elytra shorter, with the sides very strongly divergent, coarsely, 
very sparsely punctate; abdomen with five exposed segments; 
border very wide ; size larger, the form broader — 9* 

OTipennis 

Elytra longer, the sides less divergent ; punctures finer and more 

abundant ; abdomen with scarcely more than four exposed. 

segments; border narrower — 9 nillt>ilatlis 

Sides of the prothorax oblique and feebly sinuate behind, the base 
relatively wider ; small species, pale flavescent in color, the punctua- 
tion fine and sparse ; elytra small, much shorter than wide ; tarsi 

longer and more slender debilis 

Pronotum without trace of an impressed median line, almost similar in the 

male and female ; body intense polished black throughout. California. 

Tempora rounded but rather prominent and subrectangular ; prothorax 

wider than long ; punctures smaller and closer ; last joint of the 

antennae much longer than the tenth temporalis 

Tempora very convergent and broadly rounded, not at all prominent ; 
prothorax not distinctly wider than long, nearly as in Orobanus but 
more convex ; punctures strong and sparse ; last joint of the antennae 
only just visibly longer than the tenth ; last joint of the maxillary 

palpi smaller llUIllboldtiailllS 

Prothorax transverse, nearly as in Anthophagus, the sides but feebly conver- 
gent behind and very feebly, broadly sinuate ; surface explanate toward the 
hind angles ; last joint of the maxillary palpi short, subulate ; posterior 
tarsi short, stout and normal integer 

G. 'briinneilS Say. — Journ. Ac. Phila., Ill, p. 158 ; verticalis Say : Trans. 
Am. Phil. Soc, IV, p. 463 ; cmsus Er. : Gen. Staph., p. 853. 

It is somewhat remarkable that Eriehson should have failed to 
recognize in his cdesvs the species described by Say as brunneus, 
for the cloud of black near the apex of the tergum, in connection 
with the size of the body — slightly under a quarter of an inch or 
6 mm. — is very characteristic of the species. Verticalis is prob- 
ably a smaller female specimen, the great difference in form of the 
male and female prothorax possibly not having been noticed by 
Say. 



408 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

O. stricttlS FvL— Rev. d'Ent., 1889, p. 126 ; nigrita Fvl. nee Mull. : Not. 
Ent., 7, 1878, p. 90. 

Abundant from New York and Massachusetts to Michigan. 
Easily known by its black polished integuments and smaller size 
from hrunneus, the only other species inhabiting the same districts. 

G. faiiveli n. sp. — Stout, feebly convex, polished, dark and uniform 
piceo-castaneous throughout ; pubescence short and very sparse. Head finely 
and sparsely punctate, three-fourths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes large and 
prominent, the tempora not one-half as long, rapidly convergent and feebly 
arcuate ; vertex deeply impressed in the middle and with two short deep 
divergent grooves ; epistoma impunctate, deeply, arcuately impressed, the de- 
pression connected with the vertical impression by a feeble channel ; antennae 
filiform but rather stout, nearly three-fifths as long as the body, the basal 
joint stout, twice as long as wide, second shorter than the fourth, third very 
much longer, obconical, three times as long as wide, eleventh one-half longer 
than the tenth. Prothorax one-half wider than long, the sides strongly, evenly 
rounded, rapidly constricted toward base, becoming parallel in basal fifth or 
sixth ; base truncate, one-third wider than the apex ; disk Avidest before the 
middle, deeply, rather coarsely and closely punctate, deeply impressed along 
the median line except near the apex, with a deep transverse pit before the 
scutellum. Elytra scarcely as long as wide, as long as the head and prothorax, 
near the apex two-fifths wider than the latter ; sides straight, strongly diver- 
gent ; humeri widely exposed ; humeral width scarcely four-fifths of the sub- 
apical ; punctures coarse, deep and not dense. Abdomen finely but not very 
densely punctate ; border moderate. Legs and coxse pale rufo- ferruginous ; 
under surface blackish-piceous. Length 5.8 mm. ; width 2.0 mm. 

Oregon (The Dalles). 

Allied to strictus but amply distinct in its broader form, much 
more divergent sides of the -elytra, longer and stouter antennae, 
and the sexual differences in the anterior legs, which are very 
marked. A single male. 

G. OTipeiinis Lec.—Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1878, IV, ii, p. 452 ; Frl. : 
Not. Ent., 7, p. 89 ; plagiatus Fvl. nee Fab.: Rev. d'Ent., 1889, p. 125. 

The specimens of ovipennis which I have examined can be distin- 
guished very readily 1 think from plagiatus or nigrita by their 
broader form, much sparser punctures which are coarser on the 
elytra, the latter being much more abbreviated, and by the broader 
abdominal border. I have seen no North American examples 
which could be referred very satisfactorily to plagiatus. 

G. nuljilatus n. sp. — Polished black with a feeble piceous tinge, the 
apex and lateral margins of the abdomen slightly paler ; legs, mouth parts 



Coleopferological Notices, V. 409 

and antennge ferruginous ; elytra each with a rufescent cloud from near the 
humerus to the middle; pubescence fine, subrecumhent, sparse but rather 
long. Head fully four-fifths as wide as the prothorax, deeply impressed and 
bistriate in the middle between the eyes, the epistomal depression scarcely 
connected by a groove; eyes large, very convex, the tempora scarcely more 
than one-half as long, very convergent, broadly arcuate ; antennae three-fifths 
as long as the body, moderately stout, the outer joints not quite three times 
as long as wide, equal, eleventh one-half longer than the tenth. Prothorax 
not quite one-third wider than long, widest at apical third ; sides strongly 
constricted behind, becoming abruptly parallel in basal fifth or sixth ; base 
truncate, much wider than the apex ; disk finely, very sparsely punctate, 
feebly but distinctly impressed along the median line from the apical margin 
to the deep transverse antebasal fovea. Elytra not quite as long as wide, dis- 
tinctly longer than the head and prothorax ; humeri broadly exposed ; sides 
moderately divergent ; outer apical angles rather broadly rounded ; disk not 
coarsely, somewhat sparsely punctate, broadly impressed along the suture 
toward base. Abdomen barely as wide as the elytra and much shorter, 
polished, finely, sparsely punctulate ; border moderate. Length 4.4 mm. ; 
width 1.55 mm. 

New Mexico (Las Yegas). 

Distinguishable from ovipennis by its smaller size, longer elytra 
with much less divergent sides and many other characters. The 
fourth joint of the maxillary palpi in the single female before me 
is very nearly as long as the third, fusiform and gradually pointed, 
and by this character, as well as the stouter antennge and much 
finer, sparser punctures of the head and pronotum, it can be readily 
separated from plagiatus or any of its varieties. 

In the female of ovipennis the humeral width of the elytra is not 
more than three-fourths of the subapical, while in nubilatus the 
ratio is fully four-fifths. 

G. debilis n. sp. — Highly polished, very sparsely and rather coarsely 
pubescent, pale flavo-testaceous, the head a little less pale and the abdomen 
picescent. Head scarcely visibly narrower than the prothorax, the eyes 
small, strongly convex, scarcely longer but very much more prominent than 
the tempora ; surface very finely, remotely punctate, the median impression 
and diverging lines distinct, not connected with the strong epistomal depres- 
sion ; ocelli extremely feeble ; fourth joint of the maxillary palpi almost as 
long as, but much narrower than, the obconical third ; antennae rather stout, 
filiform, three-fifths as long as the body, the tenth joint twice as long as wide, 
three-fifths as long as the eleventh. Prothorax scarcely visibly wider than 
long, rounded at the sides anteriorly, feebly, gradually narrowed behind, 
feebly constricted at basal fourth ; disk finely, very remotely punctate, with 
a median impression attaining neither the apex nor the subbasal transverse 
fovea. Elytra small, three-fourths longer than the prothorax, and, near the 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, Nov. 1893.— 27 



410 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

apex, twice as wide ; sides nearly straight, very strongly divergent ; humerar 
width scarcely more than two-thirds of tlie subapical ; punctures rather 
strong but sparse. Abdomen well exposed, as wide as the elytra and rather 
longer, finely but not densely punctulate, the border moderate. Length 4.0 
mm. ; width 1.5 mm. 

Colorado. 

The type appears to be a female, but the ventral apex is concealed 
so that I cannot be entirely certain. The tarsi are aberrant, the 
first three joints of the posterior more elongate than usual and de- 
creasing uniformly, the third and fourth subequal, fifth distinctly 
shorter than the first four together — a variation in the direction of 
Anthophagus. This species is altogether distinct from any other 
in its small size, small eyes, almost obsolete ocelli; small elytra 
and many other characters. 

G. temporalis n. sp. — Moderately broad and depressed, polished, black 
throughout; legs, palpi and antennae black ; pubescence rather fine, sparse, 
of the usual length, shorter and much more abundant on the abdomen. Head 
distinctly narrower than the prothorax, the eyes large and strongly convex ; 
tempora unubually strongly rounded but much less prominent than the eyes ; 
vertexai impression distinct, the oblique grooves rather distant ; epistomal 
depression large and strong; last joint of the maxillary palpi very much 
s'horter and narrower than the third ; antennae filiform, rather more than one- 
half as long as the body, the outer joints strongly obconical, three times as 
-long as wide, eleventh two-fifths longer than the tenth. Prothorax very 
•slightly wider than long, widest at apical third where the sides are very 
evenly, strongly rounded to the apex, moderately convergent and feebly 
sinaate in basal three-fifths; base truncate, a little wider than the apex; 
disk strongly, rather closely, evenly punctate, with the usual median ante- 
hasal impression. Elytra about as long as wide, twice as long as the prothorax 
and four-fifths wider; sides feebly divergent from the transversely exposed 
humeri, the humeral width fully four-fifths of the subapical ; disk very feebly, 
! broadly impressed on the suture toward base as usual, strongly and somewhat 
closely punctate. Abdomen with about four and one-half exposed segments, a 
little shorter than the elytra and equally wide ; border wide ; stomata distinct. 
Legs rather short and somewhat stout ; tibiae gradually enlarged and more 
densely pubescent from base to apex ; tarsi short, normal. Length 5.7-5.9 
mm. ; width 1.75 mm. 

California (Sonoma Co.). 

The description is drawn from the male, which has the sixth ven- 
tral feebly sinuato-truncate at apex and the anterior tarsi strongly 
dilated. The female differs extremely little in general appearance, 
having the prothorax relatively smaller but identical in shape. 
Three specimens. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 411 

On the disk of the pronotum two very broad feeble parallel im- 
pressions can be discerned behind the middle, which unite with the 
transverse subbasal fovea ; these impressions are analogous to those 
of Anthophagus alpestris Heer, and perliaps some other species ; 
here, however, the disk is very convex and resembles Orobanus in 
outline, being not at all suggestive of Anthophagus in these re- 
spects. ♦ 

G. llllltl'boldtianilS n. sp. — Depressed, highly polished, deep black ; 
coxae and tarsi rufescent ; antennae black ; integuments strongly and sparsely 
punctate, the abdomen minutely and densely so ; pubescence sparse, suberect, 
uniform and coarse, moderately long, short subrecumbent and dense on the 
abdomen. Head as wide as the prothorax, as wide as long, strongly constricted 
at base, the constriction as usual extending sharply across the dorsal surface, 
where it is broadly, anteriorly angulate ; surface with a deep depression in 
mediau third between the eyes, limited laterally by oblique excavated lines, 
arcuately impressed between the antennae, the epistoma impunctate ; ocelli 
on a line with the posterior limits of the eyes distant by less than one-third of 
the total width ; eyes well developed, convex and very prominent ; tempora 
shorter, not at all prominent, convergent and arcuate ; antennae slender, fili- 
form, nearly three-fifths as long as the body, the joints fully three times as 
long as wide. Prothorax nearly as long as wide, the sides evenly rounded, 
becoming convergent and sinuate posteriorly, subparallel in basal fourth ; base 
truncate, rather wider than the apex ; disk widest at apical third, strongly, 
evenly convex, impressed in the middle near the base. Elytra twice as long 
as the prothorax, and, near the apex, twice as wide ; humeri rather broadly 
exposed, rounded; sides straight and strongly divergent; humeral width 
three-fourths of the subapical ; disk broadly, feebly impressed in the middle 
toward base. Abdomen with nearly four exposed segments, shorter than the 
elytra ; border wide, moderately inclined. Legs long and rather slender, 
finely, densely pubescent ; posterior tarsi less than two-fifths as long as the 
tibiae; claws long, slender, arcuate. Length 4.4 mm. ; width 1.65 mm. 

California (Humboldt Co.). 

The type is a male, having the sixth ventral short and broadly 
emarginate throughout at apex, the median segment of the seventh 
with a thin laminate carina in the middle toward base ; anterior 
tarsi moderately dilated. I obtained the unique representative on 
the under side of a small loose stone in the dry bed of a rivulet 
near Fort Gaston, 

This species differs from temporalis in its smaller size, still sparser 
and stronger punctuation, less prominent and more convergent tem- 
pora, and in the very strong median lamina of the seventh ventral, 
which is completely wanting in temporalis. 



412 Coleopferological Notices, V. 

^» integer n. sp. — Broad, more parallel, feebly convex, polished, black 
tliroughont ; tarsi, tibiae toward tip and femora toward base feebly rufescent ; 
pubescence moderate in length, inclined, rather abundant and distinct. Head 
scarcely more than two-thirds as wide as the prothorax, the eyes prominent ; 
tempora short, strongly convergent and arcuate ; median impression wide, the 
oblique grooves distant ; a median impressed channel connects the large deep 
epistomal depression ; last joint of the maxillary palpi subulate, very much 
narrower than the third and only one-half as long ; antennae filiform, three- 
fifths as long as the body, the joints very long, just visibly obconical, rather 
more than three times as long as wide, the eleventh but slightly longer than 
the tenth. Prothorax one-fourth wider than long, the sides evenly rounded 
anteriorly, feebly convergent and broadly, just visibly sinuate in basal half; 
base truncate, very wide, nearly one-half wider than the apex ; disk evenly, 
broadly convex, rather strongly, closely punctate, feebly explanate at the 
hind angles, without distinct median impressed line and devoid of ante-basal 
fovea. Elytra nearly as long as wide, two-thirds longer than the prothorax, 
and, near the apex, two-fifths wider ; humeri very slightly exposed at base, 
the humeral width but slightly exceeding that of the prothorax and about 
five-sixths of the subapical ; sides noticeably divergent ; outer apical angles 
rather broadly rounded ; disk finely, rather sparsely but distinctly punctate. 
Abdomen scarcely as wide as the elytra and much shorter, with five exposed 
segments, minutely, sparsely punctate, the border moderate. Legs moderate 
in length and thickness ; tarsi normal. Length 6.0-6.3 mm. ; width 2.3 mm. 

Washington State. 

The male, which serves as the type, differs from the female only 
in its larger prothorax, the latter being however identical in shape ; 
in the female the elytra are nearly twice as long as the prothorax 
and three-fourths wider. The male has the sixth ventral rather 
deeply sinuate at apex throughout the width, and the anterior tarsi 
strongly dilated. 

PELECOMALirM Casey. 

This genus will include nearly all the North American species 
hitherto assigned to Amphichroum, and differs radically and con- 
stantly from the latter in the structure of the tarsi. The tarsi 
throughout have the penultimate joint deeply bilobed and clothed 
beneath with long papillose pubescence ; in Amphichroum they are 
slender, compressed, with the penultimate joint not at all wider 
and devoid of all trace of lobes, the fifth joint being inserted at its 
obliquely truncate apex. In the present genus the intermediate 
coxae are contiguous, while in Amphichroum they are narrowly 
but perceptibly separated. 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 413 

Pelecomalium also differs from Amphichroum in a singular palpal 
character, the sexual nature of which I did not notice until shortly 
after my original description appeared, and which lead to the assign- 
ment of the two sexes of modestum to different genera. In the male 
the fourth palpal joint is strongly securiform, while in the female it 
is slender, slightly compressed and gradually somewhat obliquely 
narrowed to the apex, where it is very narrowly but obliquely 
truncate. In Amphichroum there are no discoverable sexual differ- 
ences in the palpi, the last joint of which is stouter toward base 
and prolonged slender and cylindrical toward apex, differing no- 
ticeably from the form characterizing either sex of Pelecomalium. 

To Amphichroum there are but two described North American 
species assignable at present, viz. : niaculatum Lee. (Stachy- 
graphis) which is quite homologous with canaliculatum, and 
Jlor'ibundum Lee. {=fiavicorne Csy. $ ), which is slightly aber- 
rant in sculpture and in its much longer and more slender maxil- 
lary palpi, agreeing however otherwise. I have in my cabinet a 
female taken at Lake Tahoe in June, which differs from the male 
of maculatum, as figured by Dr. Horn, in its broader form, much 
shorter and wider prothorax and uniformly flavate elytra ; there 
is no way of proving its identity, but in view of the limited 
number of specific forms assignable to Amphichroum in both con- 
tinents, and of the fact that in fiorihundum and some species of 
Pelecomalium the female is notably paler as well as broader than 
the male, I think there can be little doubt that it is the female of 
maculatum. 

The species are rather closely allied among themselves but may 
possibly be identified by the following tabular statement : — 

Paiictures of the elytra more or less sparse, never extremely dense. 
Species of the Pacific coast fauna. 

Larger, not less than 4 mm. in length ; pronotum more or less alutaceous 

and subimpunctate. 

Prothorax transverse, fully one-half wider than long in the male ; body 

llavate, immaculate, the head and abdomen blackish. ..testaceillll 

Prothorax subquadrate, scarcely one-third wider than long in the male, 

testaceous, the head and abdomen black ; elytra each with a large 

elongate discal spot of black beyond the middle 'binotatllltl 

Smaller, always much less than 4 mm. in length. 

Elytra extremely sparsely and obsoletely punctulate, the punctures 
scarcely distinguishable ; surface throughout highly polished. 

sparsum 



414 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

Elytral punctures distinct and mucli less sparse. 
Abdomen black. 

Elytra piceo-fuscons pilosellum 

Elytra flavate, with a triangular scutellar spot of blackish. 

sciitatum 
Elytra clear and uniform pale flavate throughout. 

piibcruliim 

Abdomen flavate, more or less clouded with piceous toward the middle 

and apex ; elytral punctures very strong flavescens 

Species of the Atlantic region. Polished ; prothorax transverse, subimpunc- 
tate ; elytra piceous in the male, with paler side margins, frequently 
wholly flavate in the female, the punctures sparse, feeble and ill-defined. 

laevicolle 
Punctures of the elytra exceedingly dense. 

Elytra normal, large, one-half or more longer than the prothorax. 

Dark in color, the sides of the elytra sometimes feebly and indefinitely 
paler and the lateral and basal edges of the pronotum testaceous. 
Ocelli small, clearly defined, more prominent and less distant. 

Prothorax in the female less transverse, two-fifths wider than long, 
more strongly narrowed toward apex, the sides more narrowly flat 
and explanate near the basal angles ; elytra in that sex one-half 

longer than the prothorax Opacillum 

Prothorax in the female nearly three-fifths wider than long, less 
narrowed toward apex and with the sides of the disk near the 
basal angles more broadly concave and reflexed ; elytra in that sex 
nearly three-fourths longer than the prothorax (veterator Csy. 9 )• 

modes til in 
Ocelli large, sufl'used and distinctly more distant ; pronotum more 
strongly punctate ; antennae noticeably more incrassate. 

crassicorne 
Pale in color and more rufous ; elytra often feebly infumate along the 
apex ; abdomen blackish ; pronotum very densely and distinctly punc- 
tate nearly like the elytra pallidlllU 

Elytra small, quadrate, distinctly less than one-half longer than the pro- 
thorax ; body dark, piceous-black in color, the sides of the elytra and 
base and side margin of the pronotum in basal two-thirds paler. 

alutaceiim 

The Australian species assigned to Amphichroum, with their 
transverse antennal joints, will in all probability also have to be 
separated generically. 

P. flavescens n. sp. — Rather broad, depressed, polished throughout, 
flavate, the a))domen black ; posterior portions of the head piceous ; antennae 
feebly infumate toward apex ; pubescence very minute, sparse and incon- 
spicuous. Head one-half as wide as the elytra, slightly wider than long ; eyes 
convex, well developed ; vertex and front flattened, the two divergent grooves 



Coleopferological Notices, V. 415 

of the former distinct ; antennse slender, cylindrical, very feebly incrassate, 
one-half as long as the body, all the joints elongate, the eleventh cylindrical 
in basal half, thence conical to the pointed apex. Prothorax transverse, one- 
half wider than long, the sides broadly, almost evenly arcuate; apex four- 
fifths as wide as the base ; disk impunctate but with small scattered punctures 
near the basal margin, broadly, feebly convex, even, just visibly flattened 
before the scutellum, narrowly explanate along the sides. Scutellum trian- 
gular, polished, impunctate. Elytra ample, quadrate, at base as wide as the 
prothorax, three-fourths longer ; sides nearly straight, feebly divergent from 
base to apex ; disk with sparse, evenly distributed and very distinct punc- 
tures. Abdomen fully as wide as the elytra but scarcely as long, sparsely and 
extremely feebly punctulate, the border wide, feebly delimited and more 
densely punctate. Legs moderate. Length 2.2-3.3 mm. ; width 0.85-1.3 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe). 

The male characters, other than palpal, are very feeble, the gene- 
ral form of the body and length and structure of the antennae being 
nearly identical in the two sexes; the fourth palpal joint is very 
strongly securiform, and the intermediate tibise are broadly and 
just visibly sinuate within. The tibiae are very feebly and sparsely 
spinulose. Ten specimens. 

P. pallidailtl n. sp. — Somewhat broad, feebly convex, shining though 
feebly alutaceous, flavate ; abdomen black ; elytra feebly clouded with piceous 
especially toward apex; head testaceous; antennse blackish in apical half; 
pubescence short but abundant throughout. Head coarsely reticulate bvit 
with only a few very fine and remote punctures, flattened above ; vertex 
feebly, obliquely bistriate ; eyes well developed ; antennse very feebly incras- 
sate, cylindrical, rather more than one-half as long as the body, all the joints 
longer than wide, eleventh cylindrical in basal, and conical in apical, half. 
Prothorax transverse, almost two-thirds wider than long ; sides rather strongly, 
nearly evenly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse and rounded ; apex truncate, 
three-fourths as wide as the base ; disk feebly convex, narrowly explanate at 
the sides, much more obliquely and broadly so toward base, almost perfectly 
even, finely, densely punctate and rather coarsely reticulate, shining. Elytra 
ample, scarcely as long as wide, at base subequal in width to the prothorax, 
two-thirds ( '^ ) to three-fourths (J) longer than the latter; sides nearly 
straight, feebly divergent from base to apex ; disk flat, abruptly convex and 
declivous at the sides, finely, very densely punctate but shining. Abdomen 
shining, ve.rj feebly punctulate ; border wide, the dividing line very fine. 
L%gs moderate ; femora broad ; tibise slender, finely and extremely sparsely 
spinulose. Length 2.3-2.6 mm. ; width 0.8-1.0 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe) ; Nevada (Reno). 

Easily distinguishable from the others of Fauvel's " Section B," 
by the pale coloration. The sexual differences in general form are 



416 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

very slight, but as usual the head is a little larger and the protho- 
rax a trifle less transverse in the male than in the female ; in the 
former sex the fourth palpal joint is strongly and normally securi- 
form, and the intermediate tibiae broadly and distinctly sinuate 
within just beyond the middle. Fifteen specimens, almost uniform 
in size and coloration. 



LATHRIMiEUME Ericlis. 

The species of Lathrimaeum are rather abundant in the western 
parts of North America, but only one has been thus far recorded 
from the Atlantic regions. The seven representatives in my cabinet 
may be very readily distinguished as follows : — 

Pronotum distinctly impressed along the median line except toward base. 
Elytra flavate, eacli strongly, obliqaely bimaculate with piceous-black, not 
modified at apex in the female ; size larger. 
Prothorax shorter and broader, more strongly arcuate at the sides ; strial 

intervals of the elytra convex SUlt)COStatUlll 

Prothorax smaller, feebly rounded on the sides ; elytra smoother, the 

strial intervals not distinctly convex pictum 

Elytra nearly uniform in coloration. 

Larger species, never much less than 3 mm. in length, with the oblique 
discal impressions near the base of the pronotum nearly obsolete ; 
apices of the elytra obliquely produced in the female. 
Narrower, castaneous ; prothorax three-fourths wider than long, feebly 
rounded at the sides ; elytra much longer than wide. 

fimetariiim 

Broad, piceous-black ; prothorax twice as wide as long, strongly rounded 

at the sides ; elytra but slightly longer than wide, the apices less 

produced in the female uigropiceillll 

Small species, never much more than 2 mm. in length, the two approxi- 
mate oblique impressions near the base of the pronotum very deep 
and distinct, coalescent. 
Prothorax very transverse, strongly and extremely widely reflexed at 
the sides ; antennae more slender, one-half as long as the body : color 

pale brownish-flavate reflexicolle 

Prothorax narrower, less broadly retlexed at the sides ; antennae shorter, 

more incrassate toward tip; color piceous-black spretlllll 

Pronotum not impressed along the median line ; surface even ; elytra short, 
not more than twice as long as the prothorax SOrdidlllll 

Of sordidum I have before me a single mutilated specimen from 
Fredericksburg, Virginia; it is remarkably distinct; the oblique 
impressions of the pronotum are obsolete in this example, and the 



Coleopterological Notices, V. 417 

scutellnm has a few coarse punctures. The species previously de- 
scribed by me as humerale (Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., II. p. 243) is 
the same as suhcostatum. 

L.. ni^ropiceiim n. sp. — Oblong, broad, rather convex, polislied, gla- 
brous and dark blackish-piceous throughout, the lateral edges of the pronotum 
and elytra slightly paler from diaphaneity ; legs but slightly paler ; antennae 
black, with one or two basal joints paler. Head short, transverse, scarcely 
more than one-half as wide as the prothorax, broadly, feebly, longitudinally 
biimpressed, the ocelli at the feeble nuchal constriction separated by two-fifths 
of the entire width ; eyes well developed ; antennae as long as the head and 
prothorax, gradually rather strongly incrassate, outer joints wider than long. 
Prothorax very short, fully twice as wide as long, the sides strongly, evenly 
arcuate ; base transverse, wider than the apex ; disk coarsely, strongly, 
rather densely and unevenly punctate, very broadly explanate at the sides 
and with the usual sublateral impression just before the middle ; oblique 
subbasal impressions feeble but distinct. Elytra very slightly longer than 
wide, a little wider than the prothorax and more than three times as long ; 
sides parallel and broadly, feebly arcuate. Abdomen entirely covered by the 
elytra. Legs rather short, moderately slender. Length 2.7-3.3 mm. ; width 
1.5-1.8 mm. 

California (Sta. Cruz Co.). 

The three specimens in my cabinet are females, and may be dis- 
tinguished at once from the corresponding sex of Jimetarium by 
the dark color, shorter, broader form, and by the sculpture of the 
elytra which, though similar in general to that of fimetariv/ni, is 
more closely and unevenly punctate, the difference in size between 
the minute punctures of the intervals and the coarser sculpture of 
the series being much more marked than in that species. 

Li. reflexicolle n. sp. — Oblong, convex, very broad, polished, pale 
brownish-llavate, the head and elytra feebly picescent, the latter paler at the 
humeri and along the lateral margins. Head wider than long, rather large, 
fully three-fifths as wide as the prothorax, strongly, rugosely punctate toward 
base but finely and sparsely so anteriorly ; ocelli distant by two-fifths the 
width ; eyes well developed ; nuchal constriction subobsolete ; antennae slen- 
der, feebly incrassate, the sixth joint nearly twice as long as wide, eighth 
distinctly longer than wide, tenth scarcely wider than long. Prothorax rather 
more than twice as wide as long, the sides broadly, somewhat unevenly arcu- 
ate ; base a little wider than the apex ; disk coarsely densely and rugosely 
punctate, more sparsely and evenly so near the sides, broadly, strongly re- 
flexed laterally, with a punctiform fovea in the middle rather distant from the 
lateral margin ; median subbasal impressions coalescent, forming a transversely 
arcuate channel. Elytra two and one-half times as long as the pi-othorax, and, 
toward apex, fully one-third wider ; sides distinctly divergent from the feebly 



418 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

oblique and unexposed humeri and nearly straight ; outer angles broadly 
rounded ; apex truncate ; disk coarsely, not very densely and deeply punc- 
tate, the punctures forming uneven series with feebly convex punctate inter- 
vals. Abdomen very short and rapidly pointed behind the elytra, pale, shining 
and subimpuuctate. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 1.2 mm. 

British Columbia (Stickeen River Canon). Mr. H. F. Wickhain. 

The single specimen from which the description is taken is a male, 
and may possibly be immature. It is distinguishable at once by its 
small size and very broadly concave and reflexed side margins of the 
prothorax. 

L.. spretum n. sp. — Short, broad, polished, convex, piceous-black, the 
side margins slightly paler from diaphaneity ; legs paler ; antennae black, 
paler at base. Head two-thirds as wide as the prothorax, wider than long, 
strongly, densely punctate toward base, the clypeus subimpuuctate ; ocelli 
separated by one-third of the total width, the nuchal constriction almost 
obsolete ; surface impressed near each ocellus and also obliquely at the sides 
of the clypeus ; antennae but slightly longer than the head and prothorax, 
slender, rather rapidly strongly incrassate near the tip, sixth joint one-half 
longer than wide, the tenth transverse. Prothorax scarcely twice as wide as 
long, the sides rather strongly rounded, convergent and nearly straight 
toward base, widest before the middle ; basal angles obtuse but not rounded ; 
base not distinctly wider than the apex ; disk strongly and closely but 
scarcely rugosely punctate, explanate at the sides, the sublateral fovea before 
the middle and near the edge ; median subbasal impressions strong, coales- 
cent, forming a posteriorly angulate transverse channel. Elytra quadrate, 
almost three times as long as the prothorax and nearly two-fifths wider ; sides 
subparallel, nearly straight ; humeri distinctly exposed at base ; apex trun- 
cate, the sutural angles not at all produced ; disk strongly punctate, the 
punctures forming dense close and rather well-marked series with the inter- 
vals feebly convex and finely remotely and subserially punctate. Abdomen 
extremely short and broadly obtuse behind the elytra, black, subimpuuctate. 
Length 2.2 mm. ; width 1.2 mm. 

California (Siskiyou Co.). 

The unique type is a female but cannot be confounded with re- 
flexicoUe, as the numerous differences are not at all suggested in 
the large series of males and females of subcostatum. which I have 
before me. The present species differs from reflexicolle in the 
very much more narrowly explanate sides of the pronotum, in the 
less coarse and closer sculpture of the elytra, straight and not arcu- 
ate sides of the prothorax tow^ard base, in the shorter antennae, and 
in the distinctly exposed humeri ; in color, rugosity of the pronotum 
and several other features there is also notable divergence. 



Coleoplerological Notices, V, 419 

DELIPHRVm Erichs. 

The two following species are referred to Deliphrum, although 
in some characters they appear to be intermediate between that 
genus and Lathrimaeum. In sequicolle the intermediate tibiae only 
are sparsely spinulose, the others coarsely setose, or with spines 
only very slightly thicker than the ordinary setae ; in occiduum the 
spinules of the hind tibige are but slightly more visible. A few very 
short spines are also visible along the intermediate tibiae of Lathri- 
mseum spretum. In the general facies and fine even punctures of 
the pronotum both of these species agree very satisfactorily with 
Deliphrum tectum Payk. ; they are very much smaller than D. ex- 
pansum Lee. from Colorado. 

The antennal differences given by LeConte and Horn (Class. Col. 
N. A.) to distinguish Lathrimaeum and Deliphrum do not exist, 
these organs being equally incrassate in both ; they are however 
longer and much more nearly filiform in Olophrum. In Lath, sub- 
costatum the tibiae are not spinose, but evenly covered with short 
stift* inclined setae. 

D. aBqilicolle n. sp. — Broad, polisbed, glabrous, dark piceous-browii, 
the head and abdomen blackish ; antennae black, slightly pale at base ; legs, 
sterna and epipleurse paler, flavescent. Head transverse, three-fifths as wide 
as the prothorax, very finely, remotely punctate, smooth ; ocelli large, promi- 
nent, distant by two-fifths the width ; dorsal constriction of the neck obso- 
lete ; surface feebly impressed before each ocellus and at the sides of the 
clypeus ; lateral margins of the latter deeply interrupted as usual before the 
eyes for the reflexion of the antennse ; eyes moderate ; antennae two-fifths as 
long as the body, slender toward base but rapidly though gradually, strongly 
incrassate near the apex, sixth joint one-third longer than wide, eighth and 
tenth similar in form, slightly wider than long, the tenth very much the 
larger. Prothorax not quite twice as wide as long, the sides parallel, evenly, 
moderately rounded ; basal angles obtuse and blunt ; disk minutely, not very 
densely, evenly punctate, the punctures rather closer and stronger near the 
base, the surface narrowly explanate along the sides, not at all impressed in 
the middle, the sublateral fovese before the middle very feeble. Elytra sub- 
quadrate, nearly parallel, truncate at apex, not as long as wide, not more than 
twice as long as the prothorax ; sides nearly straight ; humeri not exposed at 
base ; disk coarsely deeply confusedly and not very densely punctate, the 
punctures having only the most indistinct lineate arrangement, altogether 
confused and denser near the suture. Abdomen with more than three exposed 
segments, subimpunctate, polished. Length 2.0 mm. ; width 1.1 mm. 



420 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

California (Lake Tahoe). 

I took a single male only of this species, which is very distinct 
by reason of its short and coarsely, subserially sculptured elytra. 

I>. occidliuni n. sp. — Oblong, convex, polislied, glabrous, black, the 
elytra with the feeblest piceo-metallic tinge ; legs piceous-black, the tibiae 
and tarsi rufescent ; antennae black throughout. Head two-thirds as wide as 
the protliorax, nearly as in ceguicoUe, minutely, sparsely punctate ; antennae 
slender, slightly longer than the head and prothorax, very evenly, feebly 
incrassate throughout from near the base, joints one to seven more or less 
longer than wide, eight to ten shorter, similar in form, scarcely as long as 
wide, increasing in size. Prothorax about twice as wide as long, the sides 
parallel, feebly and evenly arcuate ; base and apex subequal ; basal angles 
obtuse and narrowly rounded ; disk evenly, transversely convex, not im- 
pressed, very narrowly explanate along the side margins, finely, rather 
strongly and somewhat closely punctate ; sublateral foveae before the middle 
very feeble. Elytra toward apex nearly one-third wider than the prothorax, 
two and one-half times as long as the latter, fully as long as wide, truncate 
at apex, the sides feebly divergent, nearly straight ; humeri not exposed at 
base, obliquely rounded to the prothorax, rather coarsely strongly and closely 
punctured, with a broad deep impression along each side of the elevated 
suture, the punctures almost evenly distributed, with very feeble subserial 
arrangement. Abdomen with nearly three exposed segments, polished, sub- 
impunctate. Length 2.2 mm. ; width 1.2 mm. 

California (Siskiyou Co.). 

Allied to sequicolle but differing altogether in the form of the 
antennas, which are here much more slender and very feebly gradu- 
ally and evenly incrassate throughout, also in its rather more trans- 
verse prothorax and in the larger, more densely punctate elytra. It 
is represented in my cabinet by a single female. 



OMALIUM Grav. 

In this difficult genus the European species have been divided 
into several subgenera w^hich appear to be amply valid, at least as 
such, there being notable differences in the structure of the maxil- 
lary palpi. The following species are to be added to those already 
known from North America : — 

O. ater n. sp. — Narrow, convex, highly polished, intense black, the legs 
toward tip and antennae toward base rufescent; very narrow side margins of 
the pronotum also feebly rufescent from diaphaneity ; pubescence excessively 
short, remote and scarcely visible. Head barely more than two-thirds as wide 
as the prothorax, wider than long, flat throughout above, finely, very remotely 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 421 

and unevenly punctate : front broadly, strongly rounded ; eyes large, at the 
base ; tempora nearly obsolete ; nuchal constriction immediately behind the 
eyes, extending transversely across the head ; ocelli large, separated by two- 
fifths the total width, on the edge of the nuchal depression ; third joint of the 
maxillary palpi small, not longer than wide, fourth fusiform, pointed toward 
apex, in the middle wider than the third, about three times as long ; antennae 
stout, not quite as long as the head and prothorax, basal joint cylindrical, 
twice as long as wide and as long as the next two, the latter equal in length, 
third narrow, obconical, nearly twice as long as wide, six to eleven gradually 
strongly incrassate and more densely pubescent, forming a six-jointed club, 
seven to ten strongly transverse ; minute impressions before the ocelli scarcely 
distinct. Prothorax nearly one-half wider than long ; sides parallel and broadly, 
evenly arcuate ; base truncate, scarcely wider than the feebly arcuate apex ; 
disk transversely convex, nearly even but with two obsoletely flattened median 
areas ; punctures fine, deep, very- sparse and rather unevenly distributed. 
Elytra but very slightly wider than the prothorax and twice as long, about as 
long as wide ; sides straight, scarcely divergent ; punctures somewhat coarse, 
deep, not very dense, forming indistinct longitudinal rugulations. Abdomen 
shining, minutely, sparsely punctate, as long and wide as the elytra ; border 
moderate. Legs short and rather stout ; tibiae strongly spinulose externally 
and with an internal row of slender bristles which are very short on the 
anterior ; hind tarsi nearly four-fifths as long as the tibise, the last joint barely 
as long as the four preceding together, the fourth distinctly shorter than the 
third ; anterior feebly dilated in the male. Length 2.9 mm. ; width 1.0 mm. 

California (Sta. Cruz Co.). 

Related to florale (= rufipes Fourc.) but much smaller, with the 
elytral punctures much coarser and not joined by anastomosing im- 
pressed lines as they are in that species. 

O. pacificilin n. sp. — Narrow, moderately convex, feebly harrowed ante- 
riorly, intense black throughout ; legs and base of the antennae rufescent ; pubes- 
cence in the form of minute but distinct erect stiff setae. Head three-fourths 
as wide as the prothorax, in form as well as structure of the palpi and antennae 
nearly as in ater, the basal joint of the latter however not as long as the next 
two and the second longer as well as thicker than the third, outer joints 
strongly incrassate and transverse. Prothorax three-fifths wider than long ; 
sides nearly parallel, broadly, evenly arcuate ; base transversely truncate, 
very slightly wider than the apex ; disk evenly, transversely convex, with 
scarcely any trace whatever of central flattening, finely strongly and densely 
punctate. Elytra toward apex slightly wider than the prothorax, nearly two 
and one-half times as long as the latter ; sides straight, just visibly divergent ; 
disk finely, deeply, extremely densely punctate, the sculpture feebly rugulose, 
longitudinally substriate near the middle. Abdomen fully as wide as the elytra 
and rather shorter. Legs short and stout, the tibiae spinulose externally. 
Length 2.3 mm. ; width 0.75 mm. 



422 Coleopterological Notices, V. 

California (Siskiyou Co.). 

This species is allied to ater and megarthroides, differing greatly 
from the former in its still smaller size, narrower form, more dis- 
tinct setae and much finer, denser sculpture, and from the latter in 
coloration and in its more parallel and less anteriorly attenuate 
form. In pacificuin, ater and probably generally throughout the 
genus, there is a transverse row of longer erect setae near the 
middle of each abdominal segment and the minute erect setae of 
the elytral punctures are replaced at wide intervals by longer setae ; 
the small and ordinary elytral setae in ater are very much more 
minute than m pacificum and can scarcely be discerned under com- 
paratively high power. The type appears to be a female. 

Of megarthroides I have many examples of all degrees of color 
and immaturity. The measurements given by Fauvel seem to be 
a little too great, my series of thirty-one specimens, taken in nume- 
rous localities from Los Angeles to Yictoria, give as extremes of 
length 1.75-2.6 mm. ; megarthroides appears to be extremely 
closely allied to humile Makl. 

O. laciistre n. sp. — Narrow, elongate, subparallel, feebly convex, pol- 
ished, rufo-testaceous throughout, the head and abdomen, especially toward 
apex, rather darker and more piceous ; pubescence consisting of extremely 
minute suberect scarcely visible setge, denser and much longer on the aluta- 
ceous under surface of the abdomen. Head distinctly but not greatly nar- 
rower than the prothorax, wider than long, triangular, with the epistoma 
truncate and one-half as wide as the base ; eyes moderate, at one-half their 
length from the base ; the tempora parallel, nearly sti-aight and almost as 
prominent as the eye; base truncate, the constriction extending transversely 
and deeply across the dorsal surface ; ocelli separated by two-fifths the entire 
width, on the edge of the constriction; occiput not impressed before them; 
surface finely, rather closely but unevenly punctate, very feebly biimpressed 
between the antennae, the latter pale, very short, one-third longer than the 
width of the head, subcylindrical, scarcely visibly incrassate, outer joints 
transverse ; last joint of the maxillary palpi subbulbose toward base, gradu- 
ally finely attenuate and feebly arcuate thence to the apex, nearly three times 
as long as the third but scarcely as thick. Prothorax one-half wider than 
long, widest before the middle ; sides broadly rounded, becoming rather more 
convergent and straighter toward base ; disk finely, rather closely punctate, 
without anastomosing impressed lines, with two elongate subobsolete median 
impressions and another scarcely visible between them near the apex. Elytra 
but just visibly wider than the prothorax, quadrate, as long as the head 
and prothorax, scarcely as long as wide, finely, very densely punctate and 
obsoletely, longitudinally substriolate. Abdomen a little narrower and rather 
longer than the elyti'a, subparallel ; border rather wide. Legs short ; poste- 



Goleopterological Notices, V. 42 c^ 

rior tarsi slender, very nearly as long as the tibiae ; fourth joint shorter than 
the third, first three somewhat elongate, first four together much longer than 
the fifth. Length 2.75 mm. ; width 0.75 mm. 

Michigan. 

The single specimen is a male and has the anterior tarsi very 
feebly dilated ; the sixth ventral is broadly, feebly arcuate at apex. 
This species closely resembles longulum., but differs in its much 
shorter and more densely punctate elytra, smaller and less incras- 
sate antennas, in the absence of anastomosing fine lines on the 
shorter pronotum, and, radically, in the structure of the posterior 
tarsi, which in longulum have the first four joints short, thick, 
oblique, equal and together rather shorter than the fifth. 

O. capito n. sp. — Elongate, parallel, feebly convex, polished, black ; 
antennse, legs and elytra paler, castaneous ; pronotum piceous-black ; setse 
extremely minute, sparse and scarcely discoverable, on the abdomen longer 
and distinct but sparse above and beneath, the venter shining. Head large, 
not as long as wide, much longer and only slightly narrower than the protlio- 
rax, finely, sparsely punctate, scarcely perceptibly biimpressed between the 
antennse; eyes feebly convex; tempora subparallel, straight, nearly as long 
and prominent as the eye ; base transverse and strongly constricted, the ocelli 
on the edge of the constriction, very feeble, separated by barely one-third of 
the width ; antennse stout, feebly incrassate, as long as the head and protho- 
rax, third joint rather longer than wide, constricted and strongly compressed 
toward base. Prothorax two-thirds wider than long, widest before the middle ; 
Sides feebly convergent and just perceptibly sinuate toward base ; disk scarcely 
visibly flattened in the position of the usual impressions, evenly convex, finely, 
sparsely punctate. Ehjtra about as long as wide, a little longer than the head 
and prothorax, very slightly wider than the latter, strongly, broadly impressed 
along the elevated suture, finely, very sparsely punctate, the punctures feebly 
lineate in arrangement toward the middle of each. Abdomen a little narrower 
and rather shorter than the elytra, minutely sparsely and indistinctly punc- 
tate, shining, just visibly alutaceous. Legs short ; posterior tarsi very long 
and slender, as long as the tibise, the first three joints elongate, oblique at 
apex, second nearly twice as long as the first, two to four decreasing rapidly 
in length, first four together much longer than the fifth. Length 3.0 mm. ; 
width 0.9 mm. 

Wisconsin. 

Allied to lacustre, having nearly the same peculiar structure of 
the tarsi and also similar in the form of the body and oral organs. 
It differs notably in the larger head, longer, stouter antennge with 
compressed third joint, more approximate ocelli, longer tempora, 
longer elytra and much sparser punctuation throughout. The 
single specimen is a male, having the sixth ventral feebly arcuate 



424 Goleopterological Notices, V. 

at apex and the anterior tarsi feebly dilated and densely pubescent 
beneath. If the usual definition of the genus is to hold, these two 
species will have to be separated because of the marked tarsal dif- 
ferences. 

The following species have the body slender, parallel, subimpunc- 
tate and opaque or alutaceous, with the fourth joint of the maxil- 
lary palpi slender, cylindrical, much narrower than the third and 
somewhat more or less than twice as long; they constitute the 
subgenus Phlceonomus of Heer : — 

Fourth palpal joint shorter, oue-half longer than the third. Arctic. 

lappoiiiciim 
Fourth palpal joint twice as long as the third or very slightly longer. 
Posterior tarsi distinctly more than one-half .as long as the tibiae. 

Surface opaque, strongly granulato-reticulate ; prothorax very nearly as 

wide as the elytra. European subarctic pusillum 

Surface much more shining, alutaceous, more coarsely and feebly reticu- 
late ; prothorax much narrower than the elytra ; setae of the latter 

longer and more visible. American subarctic laesicolle 

Posterior tarsi not more than one-half as long as the tibiae ; legs longer ; 
body much broader, feebly shining, alutaceous. American subarctic. 

SllffUSUItl 

Pusillum is simply included for comparison ; it is closely allied 
to laesicolle but is distinct and does not appear to inhabit North 
America. 

O. SUffllSllIIl n. sp. — Suboblong, depressed, feebly shining, black, the 
legs and elytra rufous, the latter suffused w^ith black near the scutellum and 
each external apical angle ; antennae fuscous, pale in ba-^al half; integuments 
subglabrous ; elytral setae minute, erect, distinct under a power of 80. Head 
small, wider than long, three-fourths as wide as the prothorax ; eyes large, 
convex ; tempora feebly arcuate, short, strongly convergent to the nuchal 
constriction ; ocelli distinct, on the edge of the constriction, separated by 
scarcely more than one-fourth of the total width ; surface impressed before 
each, also broadly, strongly impressed at each side of the large rounded 
clypeus ; antennae a little longer than the head and prothorax, outer six joints 
abruptly stouter, six to ten strongly transverse. Prothorax four-fitths wider 
than long ; sides subparallel, feebly arcuate, slightly convergent and scarcely 
sinuate toward base ; disk subimpunctate, explanate at the sides, more broadly 
toward base, also with two broad strong median impressions extending but 
slightly beyond the middle and a very feeble median impression at the apex. 
Elytra quadrate, one-fourth wider than the prothorax and twice as long, nearly 
as long as wide, much longer than the head and prothorax ; humeri extremely 
narrowly exposed; sides parallel; disk very sparsely and obsoletely punc- 
tate. Abdomen as wide as the elytra and rather shorter, somewhat strongly 



Coleopterological Notices, V, 425 

shining, feebly pubescent; border moderate. Legs slender, rather short; 
four basal joints of the hind tarsi together barely three-fourths as long as the 
last. Length 2 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

Alaska (Hunter's Bay, Prince of Wales Island). Mr. Wickham. 

Much broader and rather more convex than laesicolle, to which it 
is allied. In laesicolle the fifth abdominal tergite is nearly two and 
one-half times as wide as long, while in the present it is scarcely 
more than twice. 

O. quadripeiiiie n. sp. — Oblong, feebly convex, black with a feeble 
piceous tinge except on the abdomen ; legs rufous ; antennae fuscous, paler 
toward base ; integuments polished, subglabrous, the abdomen finely, strongly 
reticulate and alutaceous. Bead strongly, closely punctate, wider than long, 
fully two-thirds as wide as the prothorax ; neck narrow, one-half the total 
width ; eyes moderate, near the base ; ocelli separated by scarcely more than 
one-fourth the total width ; surface with a deep puncture before and exterior 
to each ocellus, also broadly impressed at each side of the large and broadly 
rounded clypeus ; antennae as long as the head and prothorax, gradually and 
moderately incrassate ; fourth palpal joint as wide as the third and about 
three times as long, very feebly narrowed, the tip obtuse. Prothorax strongly 
transverse, four-fifths wider than long ; sides broadly, evenly rounded, feebly 
convergent and nearly straight toward base, the basal angles obtuse ; disk 
transversely convex, feebly explanate near the hind angles, with three dis- 
tinct median impressions, the intermediate near the apex. Elytra parallel, 
quadrate, slightly wider than the prothorax and barely twice as long, very 
little longer than the head and prothorax, not quite as long as wide, strongly, 
very densel}^ punctate and obsoletely, longitudinally rugulose. Abdomen as 
wide as the elytra and a little shorter ; segments very short ; border ample. 
Legs short, slender ; four basal joints of the hind tarsi together scarcely more 
than two-thirds as long as the fifth. Length 1.8 mm. ; width 0.7 mm. 

Virginia (Fredericksburg). 

Allied rather closely to for a minosum, but abundantly distinct ini 
its broader form, larger protborax, shorter elytra, much denser 
punctuation, shorter, broader abdominal segments and many other 
characters; from cribrura it may be know^n at once by the roundedi 
sides of the prothorax. 

In this and many other species there is a deep wide and oblique 
antennal groove on the upper surface of the head near the eye, the 
inner margin of which is frequently cariniform. It seemed at first 
as though this might serve to define th